Compare and contrast the following social controls: internalization of group norms and social reaction

Compare and contrast the following social controls: internalization of group norms and social reaction.

social controls

  • Based on Chapter 3 of the textbook, compare and contrast the following social controls: internalization of group norms and social reaction. Next, justify which social control you believe is more compelling or if you believe both social controls are equally compelling in regards to the sanctioning of behaviors associated with individuals in a social group. Justify your response.
  • Chapter 4 of the textbook identifies major theories that focus on discovering the underlying causes of deviance. Review the underlying cause of biology and inherited behavior then determine whether either of these underlying causes can be treated and corrected to allow an individual to align his or her thinking with the majority. Provide support for your response.

Be sure to include a minimum of two outside sources for your post using APA format, in-text citations, and a reference list.

  • MUST use APA format which requires in-text citations and a reference list (examples of APA links are available under Student Center).
  • Use sources from within the last 5 to 7 years.
  • Refrain from personal pronouns (“I”, “me”, “we”, etc.) in your initial posts.
  • Be sure to answer what is asked of you thoroughly.For a custom paper on the above topic or related questions. Place an order with us.

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Compare and contrast the following social controls: internalization of group norms and social reaction

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Create a 4–6 page executive summary suitable for presentation to senior leadership on employee motivation that includes the following:

As an HR manager in a large health care organization, you have developed a new reward and recognition program designed to help increase employee motivation and job satisfaction in a specific hospital department of your choice. You may choose either a clinical or non-clinical department.


Based on the course readings and a minimum of four appropriate sources of research, create a 4–6 page executive summary suitable for presentation to senior leadership on employee motivation that includes the following:

  1. Determine which department is suitable for the reward and recognition program.
  2. Identify a specific goal the employees must work on to be eligible for recognition or to receive the award.
    • Examples include reducing errors, increasing customer or patient satisfaction, reducing costs.
  3. Research a specific motivation theory and determine why this method would be the most practical and effective for this program.
    • Theories such as the expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, Management by Objectives (MBO), or the four-prong model of intrinsic motivation.
  4. Explain why the selected theory would be the most practical and effective for the rewards and recognition program.
  5. Recommend 2–3 types of rewards and (or) recognition that would be the most effective in motivating the employees to achieve the goals.
  6. Create a communication tool for eligible employees announcing the program, rules, and awards.
    • For example, email, newsletter, internal Facebook post.

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Write an editorial in support of DuBois OR Washington from your persona to one of the following newspapers


Purpose: Understand the views and goals of the two best-known black leaders of the turn-of-the-twentieth-century U.S.: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. You will write an editorial supporting one of the men from a specific historical perspective. This assignment will help you practice comparing and analyzing evidence and argumentation and become more familiar with black history and progressivism in the early twentieth century.

Documents for analysis:

Booker T. Washington, “Atlanta Compromise” (1895), .

W.E.B. DuBois, “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” (1903), (also, see the excerpts that are available in this submodule).


· First, read both documents carefully, along with pp. 617-619 in the textbook.

· Second, create a persona and perspective from which to write. Some suggestions are:

· a black southern sharecropper.

· a white Atlanta businessman.

· a black, female domestic worker in Atlanta.

· a black 17-year-old living in Harlem.

· Write an editorial (300 word minimum) in support of DuBois OR Washington from your persona to one of the following newspapers:

· Chicago Defender – the leading black newspaper of the day.

· Atlanta Journal – Atlanta daily newspaper; championed the “New South”; very conservative on race.

· Atlanta Independent – black weekly newspaper published in Atlanta.

In your editorial, include

· a brief introduction (2-3 sentences) of your character

· state at least two (2) reasons why you (as your character) support your chosen leader

· and at least one (1) reason you believe the other leader’s ideas are flawed.

· Bring in at least one direct quote from each primary source.

In other words, you are comparing the two men, but ultimately supporting one over the other as having the best vision for black Americans, ca. 1903.

File submissions: Please submit your file as a DOC.X or PDF file.

Criteria on which you will be graded:

You will be successful in this assignment if you:

· create a plausible persona who is writing the editorial;

· draw on the primary sources to successfully identify two reasons to support one man and one reason not to support the other;

· include a quote from each primary source; and

· convey to the reader a clear understanding of some of the men’s ideological differences.

This activity may use a different grading rubric than what was used in past activities. Be sure to check the grading rubric before starting.

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The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States.


The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States. To sustain the relevance of the information, the research points out the main points and uses statistics from reliable sources. The research will focus on primary sections that include the negative and positive effects marijuana has on individuals. Moreover, the research will discuss the symptoms associated with the withdrawal from the use of marijuana, for example, loss of memory. Addiction is also discussed in the research and the probable means of treating it. It is also clear that marijuana abuse has adverse effects on the brain and it is discussed by capturing the chemical aspect of the harmful process. Finally, the research paper has personal contributions that can be applied in dealing with marijuana abuse. These methods include the use of professionals to prescribe the drug in the states that have legalized its consumption. This avoids cases of addiction and helps curb the adverse effects caused by marijuana.

The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States.


Marijuana is currently the most consumed illicit drug in the United States, with users ranging from the age of 12 years. The prevalence of the drug in the United States can be blamed on different reasons that continuously make it accessible to its users. Peer pressure is one of the reasons behind the drug’s prevalence among teenagers. Taking the drug is portrayed as an acceptable and prestigious gesture among peers. As such, many teenagers end up consuming it because they want to relate to what their peers are doing. Statistical studies present marijuana as the most abused illicit drug in the United States with 11.5% of all the citizens in the country abusing it. Since 2002, the drug’s abuse rate has been escalating annually, and the trend has been consistent (Budney, Roffman, Stephens & Walker, 2007). The statistics also reveal that the spread of marijuana abuse is highly occurring in high schools and colleges. Clearly, the schools stand out as the most probable places that the abuse of marijuana prevails because of the gullibility of the students. They are young and curious to try out different substances, including marijuana.

Once people begin abusing marijuana, there are high probabilities that their bodies become addicted to the substance. The chemicals contained in marijuana spread from the lungs to the bloodstream. Sequentially, the chemicals pass through the bloodstreams to the brain where they alter the functionality of the cells. This is why people get used to the drug to the extent of addiction because the chemicals alter the brain’s functionality. An addict is bound to experience severe symptoms, which include a craving for the drug upon withdrawal from the substance. It is also common for a marijuana addict to experience uncontrollable mood swings that affect their thinking and can end up acting in abnormal ways (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011). Sleep disruption is also an effect that addicts face upon withdrawing from marijuana. Loss of memory is also an effect commonly experienced by marijuana abusers, and this is attributed to the damaged brain cells upon supplying it with harmful chemicals (Onaivi, 2002).  

Several effects of the abuse of marijuana have been witnessed among the addicts, which is one of the reasons it is viewed as an illegal substance. Addiction is one of the leading effects of abusing marijuana, where the users find it difficult to stop using the drug. Loss of control of someone’s action is a probable effect seen among marijuana abusers. Once a person abuses the substance, they are most likely to consume it in large quantities. In turn, their thinking capacity is impaired and can act uncontrollably. Hangovers are common among marijuana users with many experiencing lazy moments and migraines once the substance subsidizes from the body (Onaivi, 2002). Marijuana abusers are at times associated with immoral acts such as stealing and violence because of the impairment subjected to the brain.

Statistics show that marijuana addicts that seek medical help to quit the drug must have been using it daily. Others have tried to quit, but without any success because the pressure is too much or the environment lacks the proper support for them to stop abusing the drug. Checking into a rehabilitation center is a common treatment that marijuana addicts seek to help them overcome the addiction. At the centers, the addicts are subjected to behavioral therapies and medications aimed at reducing craving for the drug. Contingency management and family-based treatments are also solutions that marijuana addicts are subjected to with an aim of dealing with their addictions for the drug.

Currently, some of the states in the United States have legalized the consumption of marijuana because it has some beneficial aspects that medical professionals have discovered. It is a common drug used among cancerous patients undergoing chemotherapy. The chemotherapy process is intense, and the patients smoke marijuana to calm their nerves after exposure to radiation. Marijuana has also been discovered to relieve muscle pain, which is helpful to various ill people. For example, people suffering from multiple sclerosis can take marijuana to relieve their pain. However, it is a requirement that the patient consumes marijuana meticulously to avoid negative effects such as addiction.

Marijuana is composed of chemicals readily absorbed into the bloodstream upon consumption. Some of the components channeled to the brain induce negative effects to its cells. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, abbreviated as THC, is a chemical contained in marijuana and highly affects the drug consumer negatively. Once it gets into the brain cells, the chemical creates a euphoric sensation that is transmitted all over the body. The THC also inhibits the brain from forming memories because it affects hippocampus. Upon the release of the THC into the brain cell, the chemical disrupts the function of the cannabinoid receptors. Consequently, the addict’s continuous supply of the THC to the brain cells disrupts the formation of memories (Earleywine, 2002). The addict ends up with blurry images and inconclusive memories about recent activities, especially those moments that unfolded while consuming the drugs.

Marijuana’s prevalence in the United States can be curtailed if the government takes stringent measures to stop its supply. The government is strict about the abuse of marijuana, and for the states that have legalized it, the law is clear that the use has to be monitored by a physician. Indeed, marijuana has advantages that relate to health and has no harm if consumed according to the doctor’s prescription. On the contrary, some people abuse marijuana for entertainment despite the harmful effects of exposure to their brains.


Budney, J. A., Roffman, R., Stephens, S. R., & Walker, D. (2007). Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addict Science Clinic Practice, 4(1), 4-16.

Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Marijuana. Retrieved on 18 March 2014 from

Onaivi, E. S. (2002). The biology of marijuana: From gene to behavior. New York, NY: Taylor & F

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The following discussion compares Judaism, Christianity, and the Muslim religions.

The following discussion compares Judaism, Christianity, and the Muslim religions.


Religion is one of the most important social institutions that serve the purpose of maintaining the social order. It lays down the norms that guide the way people behave and interact with one another. It has the function of maintaining social stability and harmony through its preaching of love for one another. However, the world has experienced unending religious conflicts questioning the authenticity of what religion is supposed to be doing. The following discussion focuses on comparing Judaism, Christianity, and Muslim religions.

The three religious groups share a similar point of origin and history. They all believe in the existence of God who is referred as the creator of heaven and earth and all the things therein. they trace their roots from Abraham who is said to have been the father of the nation that exist today. Judaism, however, is one of the oldest monotheistic religions that existed and the one that has been so consistent to date.

Islam on the other hand believes in the teachings of the Old Testament but disputes the fact that Jesus was the son of God. They view him as a prophet just like Muhammad and many others. However, much weight is put on the latter, who is referred as the main prophet with a direct link to God.

The Christians on the other hand believe that Jesus was the son of God who was sent to die for the sins of mankind so that those who believed in him would not perish but have everlasting life. The main difference between the Christians and the Jews is that while the former believe that the messiah (Jesus) came, as was the prophesy, the latter are still waiting for him to appear. They, therefore, still keep the old traditions taught to them by Moses and other Old Testament prophets. On the other hand, while the Christians and the Jews have the lineage of Isaac, the Muslims trace their roots from Ishmael, who, according to the former two, did not have the right of inheritance from Abraham’s family. The bottom line, however, is that all three believe in one true God and all the prophets that existed, with the only difference being on the perception of Jesus Christ.

The only thing that makes the Islamic religion to be incompatible with American democracy is a matter of culture. Some of the Islamic faithful still believe in the teachings of the Old Testament, where punishment for any sin committed was very severe. For instance, if a woman committed adultery, she was supposed to be stoned to death. If a person stole, he was supposed to have their hands amputated. Therefore, the Islamic religion follows exactly what is planned to be practiced long before the changes. However, many critics argue that such practices infringe on the rights of the people and therefore should be avoided at all cost.

In conclusion, such acts cause friction with American democracy, which insists on freedom of anything so long as it does not infringe on the rule of law. It insists on observing human rights and disputes any punishments to eliminate a person’s life or inflict pain to protect religious beliefs.

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The following discussion will focus on the role of travel medicine in the prevention of any uncalled for infections

Table of contents

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………                   3       

Discussion……………………………………………………………………                   3          

Statistics ………………………………………………………………………                 4         

International travel health issues …………………………………………                4           

Growth of Travel Medicine Institutions……………………………………                6

Nature of travel advice ………………………………………………………                6

Pre-travel Assessment ………………………………………………………                7

Common Ailments……………………………………………………………                 10

            Malaria …………………………………………………………………                 10

            Travelers’ Diarrhoea…………………………………………………                 11

            Sexually transmitted Infections……………………………………                 11

Working Abroad………………………………………………………………                 12

Safety and Security …………………………………………………………                  12

Post-Travel Check-up ………………………………………………………                  13

Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………                 13

List of references ……………………………………………………………                  14


The current statistics indicates that the number of people traveling to different parts of the world is increasing. These people come from different geographical backgrounds that may be potential for complex ailments. Travel medicine is one of the disciplines which is gaining its momentum to conduct several important pre and post-travel health assessments to ensure that those travelling are free of any infections. To prevent any chances of infecting others, there has been a call to ensure that the risk assessment is carried out. Apart from pre-travel health assessment, a post-travel assessment is also conducted to ensure that the travelers are well and have acclimatized to the new environments.

The information compiled has been obtained through primary methods such as surveys and case studies. Other secondary sources of information such as the journals, newsletters and health records were also consulted for the purpose of obtaining valid and accurate data. The results obtained indicate that there has been an increase in the number of new infectious ailments from different parts of the world. This has prompted several countries to ensure elaborate, qualified and experienced experts to deal with such issues before and after the departure. The following discussion will focus on the role of travel medicine in the prevention of any uncalled for infections.  


It is estimated that about 1 billion people make an annual travel to different parts of the world. This annual travels comes with a lot of advantages such as the growth of economies and the expansion of technologies and infrastructures among others. However, the health experts warn that this could be used as an avenue through which dangerous ailments could be passed. There is therefore a worldwide call for the need of travel medicine which aims at ensuring that those travelling are examined before travelling for the purpose of establishing their health history. The following statistics reinforce the need for such an undertaking

According to World Trade Highlights (2009), it is estimated that there are about twelve million departures in Australia alone. These are people coming from both the remote rural areas where there could be difficulties in accessing health facilities and vaccinations meaning that some of the travelers will need thorough scrutiny before departure.

International travel health issues

According to Steffen (2000), illness amongst the travelers currently ranges between 15% to around 55%. The discrepancy between the two percentages could be attributed to different countries’ development in the health sectors. In the developed countries, it is expected that the number of infections will be minimal due to availability and affordable comprehensive care services. Those countries also boast of having qualified and experienced medical practitioners who assist in combating deadly ailments.

On the other hand, it has been observed that the number of illnesses among those travelling from the developing countries especially in some parts of Africa is on the increase. A good example is those traveling from Sub-Saharan Africa and who are located in the tropical kind of climatic conditions. Those areas are prone to Malaria infections due to presence of mosquitoes and decreased health facilities and medicine. For that reason, it is important to administer treatment for those travelling out of such areas while at the same time offering information to those wishing to visit such locations.

It has also been observed that there is a tendency for frequent change in the status of a given ailment, the vaccine and the availability of the drugs (Steffen 2000). This is what has prompted the travel medical experts to call for up-to-date travel advice. This means that the nature of the ailment may change to the extent that one may confuse it for another ailment. One kind of disease may exhibit different signs and symptoms depending on the season, people and geographical locations. This therefore calls for the need to get the latest updates concerning ailments.

Finally, Steffen (2000) argues that travel has the greatest impact on the distribution of diseases worldwide. Though this could raise controversy, the bottom line is that there is tendency to increase infections through the travel. This is the main reason why the World Health Organizations brought to a halt the travelling of people in countries which were affected by the N1H1 infections. This was to prevent those unaffected from contracting the same ailments from the already affected. The travelers’ medical experts in different countries had great task of ensuring that they bring the pandemic to a controllable situation. The above statistics provided by the international health organizations therefore reinforces the need to promote the travel medicine initiatives for the purpose of ensuring that everyone is safe.

Growth of Travel Medicine Institutions

For the purpose of dealing with the issues of health in the travel sites, there has been a call to train experts who will undertake such responsibilities. Many countries in the world have responded by opening various institutions which are aimed at disseminating information which include and not limited to common ailments in different countries and the different climatic conditions. This is in line with the policies and the ethical code of conduct of the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) which was apparently established in 1991. That body calls for the need to provide the clients with the information they need concerning their health status and also what they expect to find in their destination. On the other hand, the medical practitioners have been accorded the right to conduct medical examinations from the clients to extract information about their health status.

Nature of Travel Advice

It is the duty of the travel medicine practitioners and experts to provide adequate information to the travelling clients. The information must be up-to-date for it to apply to the current situation. It is important that the clients be explained to why such information is important to them as many may ignore. As we said above, the main reason why up-to-date information is important is because certain natures of ailments may change bringing a lot of confusion on the clients. In addition, certain types of vaccines previously administered may not work in the current situation to resistance by certain bacteria and viruses. This is because with time, such agents of diseases become immune. 

The next kind of advice provided has to do with health issues. At this point, the client is let to know the kind of ailments that they will be expecting to find in their destination. Using the information collected about their health status and history, it is important that the travel medicine experts advice them accordingly. For instance, a person suffering from asthma needs to know the climatic conditions of the place of their destinations. This is for the purpose of enabling them to make wise and informed decisions concerning the kinds of clothes to carry with them. They will also be provided with the information concerning the availability of the drugs in their destinations, so that if they are not provided, they carry enough to last them for the time they will be out.

The kind of advice offered should also be individualized. This means that it should be between the person travelling and the medical expert. This is owing to the ethical issues and the right of the patients concerning the issue of confidentiality of their health status. The reason why this needs to be observed is because certain kinds of ailments may predispose the client to discrimination and victimization in the event that other people get to know their health status. For instance, people who suffer from HIV/AIDs fear to share their status with anyone due to high chances of social alienation. Some people have distorted information concerning many ailments and they use it to look down on those affected. It is therefore imperative to ensure that the information obtained from the travelers remains confidential unless in the situation where it may endanger the lives of other people.

Apart from the above, it is said that the pre-visit travel medicine consultation should take a period of time before the traveler can depart. This is because certain vaccination they are exposed to require more time to become effective. It is also important to note that certain illnesses such as HIV/AIDs may not be diagnosed if the disease is in the window period. However the information on sexuality will enable the medical practitioners to postpone the examination to a later date so that they can determine beyond doubt the status of the traveler. In addition, it is imperative to note that some people respond negatively to certain medical procedures. They might develop side effects which may deteriorate their health further. In such as case, the medical experts should consider alternative means of dealing with such complications.

Pre-travel Assessment

Apart from the heath issues we have focused on above, it is important for the travel medicine experts to determine the risk of destination. In doing so, they need to know whether the traveler has the information about the geographical nature, climatic conditions and prevalence of the common ailments in the countries of their destination. Certain diseases are associated with certain areas and countries and thus such information will be imperative. For instance, ‘Delhi-Belly’ and Malaria are associated with the Asian and African continents respectively. People travelling for the first time in such countries will be required to come up with better logistics on how they will manage to keep their health status safe.

Apart from that, the team needs to have trusted sources of information concerning the current health issues in different regions of the world. This will ensure that the information provided to the travelers in valid and free of any biasness. There several sources of validation which have been identified and they include Worldcare organizations, Center for Disease Control (CDC) among others.

The other pre-travel assessment factor has to do with the age of the traveler. A minor for instance will pose a lot of challenge since they can not cater for themselves. On the other hand, the elderly may have frequent health complications meaning that they need to be accompanied. For that reason, it is important for the airline to stick to their policies concerning the age-limit for those wishing to travel to avoid experiencing uncalled for challenges. On matters of health, the elderly and the minor might not express themselves as expected and this may hamper the proper medical procedure. Therefore, matters of age should be an important factor in the assessment.

Medical history should not be ignored at this point. This will provide the information concerning illnesses such as Malaria, Diphtheria, asthma, diabetes, pregnancy, cholera and many others. Such history is important to ease the medical procedures taken especially if the previous diagnosis was carried out in recognized health institutions. On the same issue, it is important that the

It is also imperative to know whether the person intending to travel can actually do so. Due to some health issues the person’s wish to travel may be hampered. Some countries have very tough health regulation and rules which those wishing to visit them must meet. It is until recent that many countries have lifted the ban which denied those with HIV/AIDs and other sexually transmitted infections from travelling. However, this has been observed as a violation of people’s rights and has therefore been scrapped. However, there are genuine cases where one may be denied such a chance until further date. This is for instance in a case of pregnant woman who is about to deliver. It is important to let such a person finish that process first and then travel later. This will save the agency certain challenges that may ensue in the event that such people are allowed to travel.

Common ailment

There are ailments that need not be ignored where taking both the pre and post-visit assessments. Certain complications are known to pose little threat to the general public because they have been contained. However, there are those which are still prevailing even in the midst of the developments in the medical researches. For that reason, it is important to consider the malaria, travelers’ diarrhea and sexually transmitted ailments.

Malaria Prophylaxis

It is said to be one of the most common forms of diseases associated with the tropical kind of climate (Graham, 2000). It is said to affect over three million people in the world annually and consequently resulting in the death of more than two million annually. This is therefore a dangerous disease that can not be ignored. Apart from that, it is said that Australia alone records more than 600,000 malaria patients per year not forgetting 600-800 cases that are reported annually (Cossar, 2000). The information provided in the research indicates that there has not been a successful form of medication which will eradicate malaria completely. The palliative measures will therefore help those countries where the incidence of malaria is high to cope.

Endemic malaria is said to occur in about 100 countries including those in Asia, Africa, south and Central America. However, the most prone areas in the world are those that are found in the south of Sahara where thousands of children and pregnant mothers die annually. There are several issues that have been pointed out as the main reasons why malaria is on the rise. For instance, the economic strains have hampered the African countries’ efforts of fighting it (Gallus 1999). Most of the developing countries can not afford the high cost of medication and vaccinations which are associated with the control of malaria. Apart from that, they lack better housing and mosquito nets which could prevent the prevalence of the disease.

It is therefore imperative to prepare the travelers wishing to visit these areas so that they can arm themselves with the required medications and equipments. They should also be warned against visiting certain areas which are so prone to such endemic.

Travelers’ diarrhea 

It has also been said to be one of the most common ailments that troubles the travelers. Millions of travelers in the world experience such embarrassing moments because of contaminations with food and water. However, it is said that the disease is mild apart from the dysentery which is characterized by fever and bloody diarrhea. Travelers moving from Australia, Canada and the United States have higher tendencies of getting the disease if they travel to some parts of Asia and Africa(DuPont, 2006). This is because the former have low risks of such ailments as compared to the later countries.

The most important thing to do is to pass information concerning the health issues on how people will avoid getting infected. For instance, people should ensure that the water they is of the required quality and avoid eating contaminated food.

Sexually transmitted infections

The research indicates that in Thailand, over 70% of the sexual workers are HIV positive. Such information is crucial to the travelers because they will be required to protect themselves if they have to engage in sexual activities (Kozarsky 2000).The information which they should be given includes the use of condom every time they have sex with strangers and avoid drinking before such an activity. It is important to note that the disease has no cure yet and therefore it is important that the travelers take care of themselves.

Working Abroad

Apart from the information provided above, it is important that the travelers be prepared on the policies and the working conditions of various nations and especially the one they wish to visit. This is because some people will not survive in the harsh working conditions due to their state of health. The climatic conditions of certain countries may affect the life of some travelers especially those suffering from asthma. It is therefore important that the travelers learn about such information for the sake of maintaining their good health.

                                                Safety and security          

The world is experiencing deterioration in matters concerning the safety due to criminal activities which is on the rise (Tood, 2003). Certain countries are hostile to people who are considered out-groups. Such people may be discriminated on the basis of race or religious affiliations. Such prejudices may put one in a dangerous situation if they are to visit such countries. It is therefore important to avoid visiting such countries at all costs.

Post-travel check-up

It is not enough to just carry out the pre-visit assessment, but it is also important to administer post-travel check-up to ensure that the people travelling are still in their normal health stratus. It is known that some people develop some complications during the freight because of the sudden change of the environment. Such people need to be given a chance after arrival to acclimatize to the new environment while still under supervision.

Travel insurance

This is one of the new developments which were proposed in the early 80’s but have not been embraced until recently. People are encouraged to insure their health to ensure they are catered for any time they have complications. Travelling in areas prone to ailments for instance will put one at higher risk of contracting such diseases. They will therefore be assisted better if they insure their health.


The travel medicine focuses on the health of the people before and after they have reached their destinations. They conduct both pre and post-travel assessments for the purpose of establishing the health status of the travelers. Dissemination of the information is also one of the most important parts of the travel medicine agencies. Such information includes the prevalence of some ailments, the working conditions in various countries, the security measures and climatic conditions.

Not every one qualifies to travel due to given health issues and it is the work of the travel medicine bodies to ensure that such people are made to understand such a position. Therefore, such an agency should be looked at as an integral part of the travelling agencies as it serves to maintain the health status of the travelers. It should be embraced by all the countries to prevent nay chances of unwanted infections.


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DeGorord et al (2003) “Diving emergencies” in the Book of Readings for this module.

DuPont (2006) “Travellers’ diarrhea” and Thielman et al (2004) “Acute Infectious

Diarrhoea” in the Book of Readings for this module.

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the Book of Readings for this module.

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Gallus AS, Goghlan DC (2002).. Travel and venous thrombosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med

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Gamble et al (2002) “Aid workers, expatriates and travel” in the Book of Readings for

this module.

Gendreau et al (2002) “Responding to medical events during commercial flights” in the

Book of Readings for this module

Graham H, Putland J, Leggat P (2005). Ch. 8: Air travel for people with special needs.


Graham H, Putland J, Leggat P (2000). Ch. 8: Air travel for people with special needs.


Hargarten SW. (1994) Injury Prevention:  A crucial aspect of travel medicine. Journal of

Travel Medicine.  1(1):48-50

Hill DR, Behrens RH.  A survey of travel clinics throughout the world.  J Travel Med

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Kozarsky PE, Freedman(2004)., eds, Travel Medicine, Mosby-Elsevier Science, 2004,

pages 5-12.

Leggat PA, Goldsmid JM (2002). eds. Primer of travel medicine. 3rd ed. Brisbane:

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ACTM Publications, 100-112.

Leggat et al (2004) “Travellers’ diarrhoea: Health advice for travellers” in the Book of

Readings for this module.

Mendis et al (2002) “Air travel and venous thromboembolism” in the Book of Readings

for this module.

Murdoch (2003) “High Altitude Illness” in the Book of Readings for this module.

Nicholson et al (2003) “The airline passenger: current medical issues” AND Cheng

“Screening Passenger fitness to fly and medical kits onboard commercial aircraft” in the Book of Readings for this module and Chapter 6 of the textbook

Richens (2006) “STIs and HIV among travellers”, Rogstad (2004) “STIs acquired on

holiday”, and Schuhwerk et al (2006) “HIV and travel” in the Book of Readings for

this module.

Somer Kniestedt RA, Steffen R.(2003). Travel health insurance: indicator of serious

travel health risks. J Travel Med 10:185-189,

Steffen R (2004). Epidemiology: morbidity and mortality in travelers. in Keystone JS,

Tood (2003) Health and safety in hostile environments and Venkatesh et al

(2003) Bioterrorism-a new challenge for public health in your Book of Readings

for this module.

Teichmann et al (2007) “International Aeromedical Evacuation” in the Book of Readings

for this module.

Usherwood V, Usherwood TP (1989). Survey of general practitioners’ advice for

travellers to Turkey. J R  Coll Gen Pract 39: 148-150,

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The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from Each of the Following Perspectives: Management, Technology, and Organizational Web Analytics

The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from Each of the Following Perspectives: Management, Technology, and Organizational

Web Analytics

Web analytics is a general term that entails the study of the effects of Web site on the users (Hasan and Polya 2009, p814). Harinath et al. (2011, p118) defines web analytics as the web data analysis. In other words, the business intelligence permits analyst to have an insight of web-based businesses such as customer support and e-commerce. Web analytics permits an individual to recognize consumer behaviour and identify general trends on sales so that the business can personalize its services for the consumers and increase their satisfaction levels. With web analytics, the business can understand how well its online, content, and products processes are functioning (Harinath et al. 2011, p118). 

The process of getting web data and creating a data warehouse entails collection of data, which is, getting data from commerce data, third-party sources, campaign advertising, and web logs, and transformation of data, that is, making the existing log data useful and relating it to the company’s campaign advertising, third party, and commerce data sources. It also entails reporting of data, which is, publishing and storing the data in a meaningful way such that the directors and analysts can comprehend what they are reading (Harinath et al. 2011, p119).  

The main aim of web analytics is to transform data collected from various sources to get a meaningful intelligence concerning the company’s website. It entails the process of storing, analyzing, filtering, and collecting commerce, click-stream, and third-party data. The click-stream BI situations range from designing the web site better, understanding the navigation patterns, and comprehending what the users search to personalize the recommendations (Harinath et al. 2011, p118).  

Currently, e-commerce companies or organizations make use of web analytics software to evaluate actual details. These details include the number of people visiting their site, the number of visitors who are unique, “how they came to the site, what keywords they searched with on the site’s search engine, how long they stayed on a given page or on the entire site, what links they clicked on, and when they left the site” (Hasan and Poyla 2009, p814). Web analytic software is also utilized in monitoring if the pages on the site are working appropriately. With such information, the administrators are capable of determining the popular site areas and areas within the site that are not getting traffic. The administrators then use the data collected to streamline the site in a manner, which creates the best experience (Hasan and Poyla 2009, p814).

E-commerce is done through the email and the World Wide Web. Television, radio, print media, web banners, and emails are among the common means used by the companies to attract consumers to their websites. The websites generally function with company’s consumer relationship management system, which assists in the customization of the consumer experience every time the consumer goes online. Presently, e-commerce covers various business processes such as manufacturing and logistics. To become effective in e-commerce is not an easy task because investments required are not small. The main success elements in a business include a competent management team, a well-organized business framework and infrastructure, a secured and well-designed website, good post-sales services, and a good product (Hasan and Poyla 2009, p814).             


The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from the Management Perspective

Measuring usage is essential to the website manager due to a number of reasons. First, the general measure of the numbers of resources, visits, and users accessed can offer a rough estimation of whether the web site is seen as beneficial by the users. It is evident that if the web site is not being used by anyone, it is not doing very good. Second, data usage can be utilized to enhance the web site’s usefulness and usability. Analysis of the key process such as searching or downloading dynamic or static content, purchasing or downloading an item, raising a query with the site operators, and breaking “down these processes into the steps needed to complete them, can show whether the process was completed, or, if not, at what step it was abandoned” (Haight 2007, p17). 

In operational terms, the applications or the pages that require to be accessed throughout the process describe the process. Thus, experimental transformations can be done at the point where majority of the users abandon the process. Data usage will indicate whether the completed rate increased or not after the transformations were done. The process of constant improvement can be frequent until the real improvements occur. Data usage can evaluate the effectiveness of the attempts made to enhance and market the website. For instance, transformation of the web site or certain pages data usage can be linked with the attempts to increase their usage. For example, the number of individuals accessing a Web page can be evaluated for time before and after the email was sent supporting the page content (Haight 2007, p17).           

Today’s e-commerce data is important in the determination of the management decisions made in the competitive environment. The difficulty of making managerial decisions within the information age continually reduces due to the availability of relevant information on the internet to solve managerial challenges. From human resource management to production management the information age allows the manager to obtain important insights for intervening when needed. In terms of e-commerce management, the application of web analytics offers important information regarding consumers and other market forces. From web analytics details such as the consumer distribution around the globe and their actual numbers, it is easy for the manager to employ such information to come up with solutions to production and marketing approaches. In today’s e-commerce, managerial decisions depend highly on market information since the nature of the organization falls under the knowledge organization (Sveiby 1996, para.1).    

According to Sydänmaanlakka (2002, p65), the modern day approach to management cannot be successful without technology and knowledge of the market. In the context of the need to know the business environment with clarity and accuracy, web solutions must be involved. Web analytics facilitates in the analysis of the web clues that the organization needs to operate at the top of its capacity. It is possible to coordinate every departmental need from the internal information systems, just as it is possible to understand the external environment by studying competitor moves as well as consumer behavior. Managerial decisions in e-commerce must therefore follow all clues obtained from technological assistance in understanding the operational space offered by a competitive environment. 

Management decisions at the globalization platform are some of the most difficult tasks to carry out without web analytics assistance. Using various managerial theories from which different approaches originate, web analytics findings can be modified to fit in the needs of the organization. It is possible to design managerial approach that responds to challenges in the market by the use of data from web analytics. As an illustration, using web analytics, managers can opt to employ strategic approaches to reorganize operations and achieve productivity.  

The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from the Technology Perspective

The human society is fast changing, thanks to the increase in computer usage. Computer use as a sociocultural characteristic and civilization in the 21st century involves all human activities embracing computer technology. Business involvement of computer technologies defines e-commerce, which includes the use of the internet to complete business tasks. The consumers in this computer rely heavily on information from the internet to make their consumption decisions. In order for business to continue to offer solutions to specific needs of the market, understanding consumer behaviour from their interaction with the internet is very important (Brown and Burby 2007, para.3). Web analytics is the effort dedicated towards understanding consumer needs by mere study of their interaction with websites, which leave clues about what they might be looking for. Web analytics would not be possible if the technology environment took longer to allow the computer reliance achieved today. 

In terms of the level of website involvement that web analytics follow to study consumer behaviour, it is easy to arrive at several e-commerce conclusions. As an illustration, it is easy to find out which product the consumers look for most on the internet in a minute. For producers and suppliers in need of investment information, web-analytics enables finding out the exact product that would find a ready market. In addition, the e-commerce platform also makes it easy for businesses to study the technology dependent consumers to find out the distribution of the market not only locally but also across the globe. With the arrival of the high technological solutions to both producers and the consumers, it is possible for marketers also to determine what the market needs and accordingly offer advice on production. The society continues to embrace high technology in all spheres of life due to improved innovation for products and processes. Production is mechanized and to obtain accurate market projections for demand and supply, businesses apply technological solutions to also remain competitive. 

The most important characteristic of modern day business is mainly the reliance on technology and innovativeness to offer solutions to the way business occurs. To illustrate this aspect, it is important to generate the comparison in technology use in the old days with today. Before the computer age had established itself in commerce, manual operations for various tasks dominated business activities. However, within the computer age, nearly all business processes comprise of technological innovation and modification. In terms of technology application in e-commerce, it is now easy to facilitate business activities across the globe with the ease of a click of a button. Web analytics enables e-commerce design according to the expectations of the market. According to Kaushik (2007, p15), several areas of improvement in business have originated from the ease with which technology allows business to continue. 

One of the most celebrated areas of technology in business is the e-commerce platform. Innovations in information and communication technology (ICT) allow communication and relaying of business information across long distances at the most convenient speeds ever. The online platform for carrying out business transactions, negotiations and research is perhaps one of the main determinants of global business success in the recent history. The level of involvement of technology in business is ever increasing on daily basis, due to the evolution of business in order to fit in the technology and information age.     

Web analytics contribution to e-commerce has enabled the technological products designed to track business interests to penetrate the market. As mentioned above, the most important feature of the information age is the reliance of information and communication technology for various solutions. This reliance becoming part of the sociocultural aspect of the global society influences the products designed, particularly electronics, in order to follow consumer needs in their respective locations. As an illustration, the smartphone technology enables consumers to use their cell phones to communicate with service providers and producers for various products. Applications added on the iPhone for instance enable the consumer to communicate with a number of markers for their services as easily as possible. The social media continues to offer a channel through which consumer response can be followed to facilitate better e-commerce in this age than before.   

The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from the Organizational Perspective

In the organizational context, Public Relations practitioners have just began using web analytics. Web analytics will assist the organizations in optimizing their strategies and demonstrating their public relations value. There are many reasons why organizations should the technology of web analytics. Firstly, web analytics permit public relations effort to be compared with other types of marketing. Conversion rates, traffic, and other forms of web analytics metrics are gathered from all referral sources including paid search, earned media, unpaid search, and advertisements. This indicates that it is easy to monitor exactly the outputs from advertising and public relations, and how they affect the business outcome when the same metrics are used (Duncan 2010, p4). 

Web analytics can notify strategies based on the empirical evidence. This is because web analytics can indicate which forms of coverage (both in the social media and in traditional media) assists the organization in reaching its business objectives or goals. The data can be used to answer questions such as if the organization can shift more of its attention and resources from the traditional to social media or which types of online audiences respond to the media through making purchases and which are not. Public relations practitioners can get answers to these questions using web analytics. Instead of viewing online media and in particular social media as a baffling cutting edge, web analytics can assist public relations practitioners to focus on the media that is likely to be successful in driving the business objectives (Duncan 2010, p5).

Web analytics offer an affordable alternative to the marketing mix model. Before the inception of web analytics, tracking media coverage for long period of time was the only method used for measuring the impact of public relations activity on the business outcomes. The method employed the use of advanced statistical modelling to link media reporting to the metrics linked with organizational goals (for instance, sales). Marketing mix models are time-consuming and costly for majority of the organizations that have to adopt them with any regularity. This is due to the fact that there is huge involvement of statistical expertise and historical data (Duncan 2010, p5).

Using web analytics, the organization is able to directly measure the consumer behaviour who have been exposed to various media (such as the traditional and social media) for a particular length of time with minimal need for Bayesian, time series-based, or regression statistics. It is important to note that web analytics do not replace the marketing mix model, which also takes into consideration offline marketing and customer behaviour. However, web analytics offer a cost-effective and accessible ways of measuring the relative contribution of public relations to business objectives in a manner that was unavailable for majority of the organizations (Duncan 2010, p6).

Though web analytics hold the promise of offering beneficial insights into public relations practitioners, the practice has not been extensively adopted in the public relations measurement. The largest obstacle for the public relations professionals is to incorporate web analytics with other types of social and traditional media measurement. For organizations that evaluate their social and traditional media coverage and public relations efforts, knowing how to link web analytics reports and regular media reports looks like a difficult task. Knowing whether similar media was covered in each report, “data quality control, and correlating the metrics from media reports (e.g., sentiment, message penetration, etc.) with web analytics metrics (e.g, unique visitors, sales conversions) requires time and quantitative or statistical expertise that many communications teams do not currently have” (Duncan 2010, p20).           

As mentioned above, the modern organization is built on the information concept where all decision-making contributions are defined by the awareness of alternative outcomes. In terms of the contribution of web analytics on e-commerce today, the nature of the organization is defined by the position of the customer. Consumer responsiveness is a characteristic that defines the modern knowledge organization (Sveiby 1996, para.1). Consumer data from web analytics includes successful transactions from web visitors as well as incomplete web visitations. Both the successful buyer and mere visitors to a website offer a significant detail for organizational decision. Today’s organization does not attach value to completion but the opportunity available upon any move by the customer. 

Alternatively, the modern day organization is based on an environment sensitive setting, which demands that corporate social responsibility is assured. In terms of the contribution of the customer visitation, the public image and opinion held about the organization is very important to success. Presenting the organization as a likeable brand is an intangible asset that is built from many perspectives that the web analytics concept easily identifies. E-commerce is therefore an important tool that can assist in the development of approaches to create the desired consumer preference ranging from welcome and display characteristics. Giving a humanitarian face of the company through e-commerce could be achieved through the website, and the impact generated can be assessed through web-analytics (Bolman and Deal 2003, p113).      

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2003) Reframing organizations: artistry, choice, and leadership, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 

Brown, A. & Burby, J. (2007) Web Analytics Definitions. [Online] Available from <> [Accessed 20 February 2012]

Duncan, S. (2010) Using web analytics to measure the impact of earned online media on business outcomes: A methodological approach, San Francisco: Institute for Public Relations.

Haight, T., Buonaiuto, M., Kane-Potaka, J. & Ruppert, S. (2007) Evaluating the impact of your website: A guide for CGIAR Centers to evaluate the usage, usability and usefulness of their websites, Rome: The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

Harinath, S., Zare, R., Meenakshisundaram, S., Carroll. & Lee, D. G. (2011) Professional Microsoft SQL server analysis services 2008 with MDX, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Hasan, J. & Polya, A. (2009) Improving e-commerce performance using web analytics software, 4th Aspects and Visions of Applied Economics and Informatics, 26-27 March 2009 Debrecen, Hungary, pp814-823.

Kaushik, A. (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day, Danvers, MA: Wiley Publishing Inc. 

Sveiby, K. (1996) The Knowledge Organization. [Online] Retrieved from <> [Accessed 20 February 2012]

Sydänmaanlakka, P. (2002) An intelligent organization. Oxford, UK: Capstone Publishing Limited





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learn more about qualitative designs, please visit the following website: Qualitative Research Designs

o learn more about qualitative designs, please visit the following website: Qualitative Research Designs

For quantitative designs, please visit the following website: Research Designs

To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use resources from the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format. You may use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources.


Post your initial response to one of the two topics below.

Topic 1

Based on the following titles of research studies, identify what you believe to be the design of the study and the rationale for your selection. Refer to the links above for descriptions of research designs.

  1. Determining the effect of position on heel pressure in older adults. 
  2. Factors that influenced the development of democracy in America.
  3. The relationship between  physical activity and GPA in nursing students. 
  4. Determining the effect of a new drug to treat brain tumors 
  5. Coping strategies of chronically ill men and women. 
  6. Determining the incidence of drug abuse in RNs in community hospitals.
  7. The meaning of living with  COPD. 
  8. Exploring the Aborigine culture.

Topic 2

Select one of the suggested references listed below. Based on your selection, complete the following tasks:

  • Identify and describe the research problem, purpose, objectives, and hypothesis identified in the article.
  • Describe how you would evaluate the credibility and validity of the study.


Fitzwater, J., Johnstone, C., Schippers, M., Cordoza, M., & Norman, B.  (2019). A comparison of oral, axillary, and temporal artery temperature  measuring devices in adult acute care. MEDSURG Nursing 28 (1), 35-41.

Gibbon, G. & Crane, J. (2018). The impact of ‘missed care’ on the professional socialisation of nursing students: A qualitative research study. Nurse Education Today 66(2018), 19-24.

Purtzer, M.A., Hermansen-Kobulnicky, C.J. (2016). Optimizing the benefits of self-monitoring among patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 43(6), E218-225.         doi: 10.1188/16.ONF.E218-E225

Tongvichean, T., Aungsuroch, Y., & Preechawong, S. (2019). Effect of self-management exercise program on physical fitness among people with prehypertension and obesity: A quasi experiment study. Pacific Rim International Journal of Research, 23(1), 6-17.

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please answer two of the following questions in a 2 3 page essay for each of the two history 1

Use MLA formatting with 12 pt Times New Roman Font, 1 inch margins, and only 1 space after periods. Please include a works cited page for each question. (please make sure it is a plagiarism-free work)
1. How did the New Deal change the role of the national government in Americans’ lives? How did it transform the relationship between the national government and citizens? Cite specific New Deal reforms and past conceptions of government in your answer.
2. Beginning after World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became increasingly hostile towards one another eventually leading to the Cold War. In class we read three articles in which three prominent diplomatic figures – George Kenan, Henry Wallace, and Nikolai Novikov – all gave their diagnosis of the hostility and how best to handle diplomatic relations between the two superpowers. Which one do you think makes the most convincing argument. Why? Who uses the most concrete data to support his claims? Do you think the Cold War could have been avoided or was it inevitable?
3. 1950s America is normally remembered as a golden decade in American history, where the people enjoyed a new level of prosperity and were able to live in happiness and security with their job and their neighborhoods as shown in popular tv shows like Happy Days. Were the 1950s truly “happy days” for Americans? Why or why not? Consider things happening in the country in the 1950s regarding the economy, race, sex, gender, and the larger anxieties about communism.
4. Lyndon B. Johnson was a one term president did not run for a second term and is now held in contempt for America’s involvement Vietnam. Ronald Reagan was a two-term president who is now considered by the public as one of the best American presidents ever. Why is one so venerated and the other so overlooked? Is this perception fair. Compare and contrast their presidencies, their accomplishments, and their fallacies. Do you think both deserve the praise and contempt each has garnered or are their legacies inappropriate? How would you reshape their legacies if you wrote the history?
5. The 1960s were a time of massive protests and reconceptualization the United States domestically and internationally with civil rights, the Vietnam War, and later issues like women’s rights and homosexual rights. What were some of the biggest social movements of the 1960s and whom participated in them? Did these movements feed into one another, or were they separate from each other? What were their goals, who were some of the key figures, what were their accomplishments and failures?
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Select an issue from the following list: nursing shortage and nurse turn-over, nurse staffing ratios, unit closures and restructuring, use of contract employees (i.e., registry and travel nurses), continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction, and magnet designation.

In this assignment,  WRITE A 1,000-1,250-WORD essay describing the differing approaches of nursing leaders and managers to issues in practice. To complete this assignment, do the following:

Select an issue from the following list: nursing shortage and nurse turn-over, nurse staffing ratios, unit closures and restructuring, use of contract employees (i.e., registry and travel nurses), continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction, and magnet designation.

Compare and contrast how you would expect nursing leaders and managers to approach your selected issue. Support your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills, and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings.

Identify the approach that best fits your personal and professional philosophy of nursing and explain why the approach is suited to your personal leadership style.

Identify a possible funding source that addresses your issue. Consider looking at federal, state, and local organizations. For example: There are many grants available through the CDC, HRSA, etc.


Prepare this assignment according to the APA STYLE, an abstract is not required.

The post Select an issue from the following list: nursing shortage and nurse turn-over, nurse staffing ratios, unit closures and restructuring, use of contract employees (i.e., registry and travel nurses), continuous quality improvement and patient satisfaction, and magnet designation. appeared first on Infinite Essays.


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