Practices Of Human Resource Management Diversity Of NPCC

Practices Of Human Resource Management Diversity Of NPCC

Diversity management entails recognizing and valorizing personal differences. Respect and acceptance are the main perceptions of diversity which basically translates to comprehending that every human being is unique, and accepting our individual distinction. Individual differences can be evaluated along various dimensions which include: race, sexual orientation, age, ethnicity, gender, political beliefs, religious beliefs, socio-economic status, or physical abilities, among other philosophies (Arredondo, 1996). Examining the aforementioned individual discrepancies in a constructive, safe and fostering milieu is what constitutes diversity. Furthermore, diversity management can be simplified to being indulgent to one another and surpassing the basic tolerance to acknowledging the numerous dimensions of miscellany in every human being rather than conforming to the affirmative action laws approach (Arredondo, 1996). From a United States of America perspective, management diversity is meant to halt or bring to an end to the egalitarianism perceptions such as affirmative action and equal prospects. Nevertheless, individual differences and inherent sequencing amid management of diversity and purportedly prior affirmative and equality action laws may not be efficiently applicable in all the countries in the world (Certo, 2000). For example, the concept of diversity management and equality tend to grow in parallel in the European Union. Moreover, diversity management is often perceived as a tool for enacting institutionalization of equality and/or constructive action legislation in some countries constituting the European Union. For instance, deliberations on management diversity and prejudice intensified concurrently rather than one after another in France (Certo, 2000).


Recognizing human capital as the core resource in ensuring organizational achievement is the main focus of human resource goals and objectives. Specifically, incorporating human resource leaders in the entire business decision making and the prerogative to exhibit the constructive impacts of investing in human resource constitute the goals and objectives of human resource diversity (Arredondo, 1996). Below is a discussion of human resource management diversity’s various goals and objectives.

Executive Membership

The opportunity to join the top most level of management in an organization is the most subtle and at the same time most sought after human resource objective. The highest levels of administration in an organization include the chief executive, chief information, chief financial and chief operating. Attaining these positions in a diverse work force is the most coveted objective as it places an individual in a position to manage strategies and come up with departmental decision that market an organization’s ability to make profits (Certo, 2000).

Employee Engagement

The other objective of the practices of human resource management diversity is consistent employee engagement. Maintaining a work milieu where the diverse work force is contended irrespective of their individual differences is a top priority objective. To realize this objective, an organization’s management ought to employ strategic planning where an employee gets paid to do what he or she enjoys. This is achieved by recognizing the abilities, beliefs and preferences of individual employees and making sure that they are not violated. This can also be achieved by coordinating promotional opportunities when they arise.


Ensuring that an organization’s policies do not clash with the federal or state employment laws is extremely vital in ensuring that employees work in a safe and conducive environment. Putting into consideration the rules governing employment of people in the region of an organization’s operation and bearing in mind the diverse individuality of employees aids greatly in the promoting their delivery. Constant audits also promote diversity in the entire workforce as it proves that an organization has the client and market base at heart (Certo, 2000).

Turnover and Retention

Keeping employees happy, is the most challenging objective of human resource management. This is often quantified by retention and turnover. Viable factors for realizing objectives with regard to turnover and retention include attracting qualified and competent workers, stirring long term dedication and commitment, and encouraging the already recruited work force constantly (Daft, 1994).

Employer of Choice

The last objective of human resource management diversity is coming up with an employer whom most if not every employee is comfortable and happy to work with. The diverse work force posses a challenge in ensuring that each and every employee; irrespective of their individual differences, is comfortable with their immediate employer. To achieve this objective, the organization is required to promote conducive employer-employee relationships, avail benefits packages, provide innovating reimbursement and most important invest in employees (Daft, 1994).


This research paper entails a comprehensive assessment of the degree in which employees’ perceived management receptivity to diversity management (PRMRD) differ by age, gender, ethnicity and organizational term. The paper also seeks to study the influence of different dimensions of organizational climate for diversity (OCFD) on PRMRD. This paper advances to extensively evaluate the various practices of human resource management diversity in the National Petroleum Construction Company (NPCC) in the United Arab Emirates. The core aspects of diversity discussed include the cultural, cognitive and behavioral diversities in the multi national corporation. The paper goes ahead and outlines the various benefits and challenges associated with management diversity in NPCC. The paper also ventured into a comprehensive discussion on the goals and objectives of management diversity in the contemporary world. Finally this research paper indulged in evaluating the various human resource strategies incorporated by the National Petroleum Construction Company with regard to management diversity.


NPCC was established in 1973 as a Public Joint Stock company at Sadiyat Island which is three kilometers to the East of Abu Dhabi city. The company was established to endow onshore and offshore Oil and Gas production industry with a facility for the manufacture of steel structures. The multi national corporation expanded progressively and in 1978 it managed to set up a custom built pipe coating facility (Drucker, 1974). One year later, NPCC was in a position to supply marine spreads for Pipe lay Installation and Hook-up works which was made possible by the company’s initiative to embark on offshore endeavors for the Oil and Gas industry (Drucker, 1974).

The company embraced the human resource management diversity practices in its management to exploit its employees’ potential and abilities. The diverse work force in the region guaranteed diverse ideas, expertise and experience which availed the company with ample expansion opportunities and maximization of profits. Presently NPCC posses a devoted marine fleet which has thirteen construction barges proficient enough to transport as much as twelve thousand tones, lay submarine pipelines as big as sixty inches in diameter, lift solitary structures as heavy as two thousands six hundred tones, together with hook-up and preservation works (Drucker, 1974).

Numerous consultations among the diverse management team lead to the inception and implementation of another facility within the vicinity of the parent company to manufacture tanks and spheres for storing different petroleum products such as crude oil, liquid sulphur, diesel oil, liquefied natural gas (LNG), water, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and many more, to serve the onshore projects. Embracing management diversity has seen to NPCC’s dynamic growth to the extent of being in league with the major international EPC contractors engaged in the expansion of the Gas and Oil Industry (Drucker, 1974). Currently, the multinational corporation boasts of over three hundred committed engineering oriented staff from across the globe. The work force is equipped with state of the art computer software made available by the company’s employees who trace their roots to Europe and the American continent. This ‘imported’ expertise has greatly aided the company in dealing with engineering challenges.


The multinational corporation is dedicated to identifying the needs for its services in its areas of operation either as an individual entity or in liaison with venture partners. This is meant to fully accomplish and satisfy the requirements of its shareholders, partners and most important the clients. NPCC also targets to diversify its onshore and offshore potential and broaden its region of onshore operation to beyond the United Arab Emirate and to the Gulf region in particular. The other mission of NPCC is to uphold the obligation to its HSE strategy at every level of the company, which requires uniform standards from its entrepreneurial partners, vendors and sub contractors. The company has another mission to endeavor for operational superiority in both the management and implementation of novel initiatives by meticulously introducing the most ideal practices, retaining international values in the quality of work and enhancing productivity. Another mission of the National Petroleum Construction Company is to continue executing the current on work trainings, seminars and workshops to ensure the employees are at par with the ever changing technological innovations. Finally the NPCC has a laid down mission to sustain a gracious attitude and avail the necessary services to the population within its areas or regions of operation (Drucker, 1974).


In the recent past, the government of the United Arab Emirates has put considerable focus on diversity issues. This is because its work force is becoming progressively diverse in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and nationality. Most of the companies operating in UAE,  NPCC included, claim that that they have embraced diversity in terms of age, ethnicity, nationality, gender and religion, prompting prioritization of talent management. While the public services in UAE are investing significant resources in establishing and implementing policies that enhance understanding, accord and tolerance, statistics show that altering diversity is greatly dependent on the senior administration’s commitment to, and support for this noble initiative. Nevertheless, little has been done to evaluate how management acts to efficiently manage diversity as perceived by employees (Certo, 2000). This is attributed to lack of valid and reliable measure. Being in a position to discern employee insight of management events is extremely vital since statistics suggest that behaviors are heavily depended on perception irrespective of their accuracy.

It is also evidently clear that perceived management receptivity to management diversity (PMRMD) reasonably differ amid gender and ethnic groups. Nonetheless, the above mentioned deductions have been based on studies conducted in North America and may therefore not be applicable to other nations especially the United Arab Emirates due to discrepancies in management diversity policies among different countries (Certo, 2000). Furthermore, little efforts have been enforced to highlight the factors that influence these differences and also conception of organization climate for diversity (OCFD) have been duly been neglected despite OCFD perception being the major explanatory variable (Certo, 2000). To address the aforementioned limitations of management diversity, this research paper is going to evaluate the level in which PMRMD differ amongst the United Arab Emirates public sector employee. The paper is also going to asses the effects of the newly initiated dimensions of OCFD on PMRMD.

PMRMD refers to employees’ views on the extent in which a particular management support the diversity initiatives. For instance a study of three hundred and twenty eight employees conducted in a United States of America Navy Medical Treatment facility (NMTF) suggests that the minority groups which included the Blacks, Hispanics and the Asian employees complained of the hospital’s management acting contrary to what it purports than did the white workers. Similarly, in another study of five hundred and ten; both supervisory and non supervisory workers, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the minorities and women complained vehemently of the agency not doing enough in promoting and addressing the diversity issues than did the men and the whites (Arredondo, 1996). Statistics have also proved beyond reasonable doubt that the old have time and again been discriminated in accessing on job training and development opportunities, denied employment opportunities the qualify for, been the first to be selected for redundancy, and have been denied promotions at their places of work than their young counterparts. The above conclusions results to the following theory: The perceived management receptivity to diversity management (PMRMD) differs immensely amid, age, gender, ethnic group and organizational term (Arredondo, 1996).

Organizational climate for diversity (OCFD) refers to the personal, group or organizational conceptions that alter the workers’ conception of management’s accessibility to diversity programmes. Organizational associates are understood to undergo or envisage environment the same way since they work under the same milieu. Nonetheless, an organization has more than one reality and therefore different employees undergo or identify OCFD differently. OCFD is resolute by a number of socio-psychological circumstances and observable facts. For instance, a precise value for diversity amongst an organizational crew is one of the most important constituent of organizational environment. Findings from already conducted studies conclude that conceptions of OFCD vary with the degree in which members of an organization assess diversity (Arredondo, 1996). The other constituent of an organizational setting is the degree of comfort, with candidness, to diversity amongst members of the organization. Studies on social classification and the similarity-attraction hypothesis reveal that people interact freely with members of their own group than they do with members from a different group. This is because groups enhance communication, develop predictability of an individual’s actions and most important cultivates trust and reciprocity (Arredondo, 1996). For instance studies suggest that people from different gender, age or race are not always at ease with one another. It has also been suggested that the majority group members often avoid the members of the minority group to eliminate chances of being termed as prejudiced when the two groups are involved together in a venture (Arredondo, 1996). Apparent evenhandedness of human resource management strategies and practices forms another vital constituent in organizational environment. Despite the numerous efforts made to do away with discrimination in the work force, most organizations do not implement equal opportunity legislation (Klarsfeld, 2010). It is unfortunate that there has been discrimination in almost all levels of an organization. This is evidenced in the recruitment, career enhancement and promotions processes (Klarsfeld, 2010). For instance an analysis of over seventy studies by Kraiger and Ford (1985) demonstrated that black workers are down rated on job performance in comparison to their white counterparts especially when a white is doing the rating (Klarsfeld, 2010). Consequent research also concluded that blacks are often awarded least evaluations and scores on both subjective and objective procedures compared to the whites. Recent studies confirmed the existence of racial bias in supervisory ratings (Klarsfeld, 2010). Novel studies demonstrate that women and the ethnic minority have on various occasions been shielded against attaining the highest levels of management. Their career advancement rates have also been comparatively slower than men and white counterparts (Klarsfeld, 2010). Studies also indicate that promotion rates for the whites in NPCC have been much more elevated than the minority groups as their recommendations for promotion are higher and they are perceived to be better leaders which are not always true. A closer look at the gender discrepancies also reveal that women are rarely promoted compared to their male colleagues in spite of them having been employed at the same time. In academics, studies established that a substantial percentage of men get appointed to higher levels of academia positions compared to women are mostly appointed to lower levels or on casual or short term contracts despite their academic achievements (Klarsfeld, 2010). Similarly, studies indicate that minorities in NPCC are accorded less on work trainings, seminars and workshop to enhance their opportunities for more responsibilities and consequent promotions at their work place. Research also indicates that in the United Arab Emirates both public and private sector manager trainings are done basing on gender. In particular, women in the NPCC are accorded less motivation and trainings despite their rich work experience (Klarsfeld, 2010). The less frequent trainings they get are insignificant in enhancing their career. View point of management events that influence the inclusion or exclusion of the disadvantaged groups is the final element organizational milieu this paper is going to discuss. It is unfortunate that very many chronological underprivileged groups are still being excluded or marginalized in various social backgrounds because of their demographic characteristics. For example researches on structural affiliation patterns reveal that individuals struggle to attain similarity in identity or organizational relationships with the people they interrelate within their career associations or social networks. Consequently, men have time and again employed or sustained their “old boys’ associations” to bar women from unofficial associations in order to retain dominance in their organizations. Therefore, women’s advancement into leadership within an organization is greatly hindered by the upholding the “old boys’ affiliations” (Wrench, 2007). Although various studies indicate that the minorities view themselves as being partly or fully separated from either official or unofficial features of the corporate life, others confirmed that women are on many occasions barred from the unofficial affiliations hindering their acquisition of vital information or decision making associations in the organization (Wrench, 2007). This is aimed at ensuring that they do not get the much needed know how on managerial issues and that they do not actively participate in organizational endeavors. Studies also indicate that in a culturally diverse environment, organizational crew often undergoes diversity oriented interrelation intricacy. This is because people with sundry locale differ in perception, judgment or viewpoints. In most cases, minorities or women’s ideas are disregarded and are only enacted when revisited by a member of the majority group. This makes members of the minority group unenthusiastic to voice their novel views or they become reluctant to indulge themselves in initiatives that demand deliberations of ideas from diverse ethnic or gender stance (Wrench, 2007). Diverse stance, values, linguistic cues or beliefs have the potential to result in misapprehensions and consequently communication breakdown. Moreover, ethnic minorities and women may deduce that they are treated unfairly as opposed to their colleagues. Such perceptions, if not corrected have the capability of upsetting the cohesiveness of workgroups. As a result, probable interrelation difficulties such as understanding; elucidation that either confirms or alters the content or purpose of communication, treatment; disparity compassion aimed at an individual via judgment or communication, cohesiveness; the extent to which group associates are attracted to one another, and ideation; expression of various perspectives and ideas within a group, are also extremely vital constituents of organizational environment (Wrench, 2007) . Consequently, the contemporary study views the aforementioned constituents as being extremely vital elements of organizational climate for diversity (OCFD). Presently, there is no research that relates the elements of OCFD and PMRMD. Nevertheless, results of numerous studies together with the notion that OCFD could provide the major expounding variable, necessitated the conception of the following theory: Views of organizational climate for diversity which includes: value, fairness, treatment, comfort, cohesiveness, understanding, inclusion and ideation, will envisage perceived management receptivity to diversity management (Wrench, 2007). REASERCH METHODOLOGY This study is perceived to have been conducted in one of the most prominent multinational corporation in the United Arab Emirates called the National Petroleum Construction Company (NPCC). Before execution, the original questionnaire was pilot tested with fifty NPCC employees with its response collected and combined by the multinational corporation (Klarsfeld, 2010). The following is the final copy of the questionnaire employed to collect information regarding the study. Scale Items (Tick where applicable) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Moderately Agree Strongly Agree             I have a say in the decisions taken by my work group concerning our tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6  My colleagues in the group share work-related information with me freely. 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am usually involved and invited to actively take part in work-related events of my work group 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am always in a position to influence decisions that affect my organization 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am typically among the last to know about vital alterations in the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am normally invited to important meetings that discuss crucial matters pertaining my organization 1 2 3 4 5 6 My supervisor often consults me before making vital decisions that affect our company 1 2 3 4 5 6 My supervisor has never shared information concerning the organization with me 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am often invited to actively take part in review and evaluation meetings with my supervisor 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am often given the opportunity to give my opinion in meetings with management higher than my immediate supervisor. 1 2 3 4 5 6  I frequently receive communication from management higher than my immediate supervisor like email, & memos 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am often invited to participate in meetings with management higher than my immediate supervisor. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am often asked to contribute in planning social activities not directly related to my job function. 1 2 3 4 5 6  I am always informed about informal social activities and company social events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am rarely invited to join my coworkers when they go out for lunch or drinks after work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSE TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTION NUMBER RESPONSE TOTAL Strongly Disagree Moderately Disagree Slightly Disagree Slightly Agree Moderately Agree QUESTION ONE 215 264 657 897 1,098 3,131 QUESTION TWO 187 213 723 1,050 1,278 3,451 QUESTION THREE 205 139 871 1,198 1,400 3,813 QUESTION FOUR 1,200 965 899 745 474 4,283 QUESTION FIVE 342 477 984 1,134 1,352 4,289 QUESTION SIX 893 1,207 1,065 731 142 4,038 QUESTION SEVEN 1,092 1,187 873 409 398 3,959 QUESTION EIGHT 289 678 943 1,373 1,085 5,453 QUESTION NINE 623 1,067 1,000 819       674 4,183 QUESTION TEN 845 1,298 1,030 653 423 4,249 QUESTION ELEVEN 876 1,191 954 897 314 4,232 QUESTION  TWELVE 1,043 1,190 874 953 431 4,491 QUESTION  THIRTEEN 654 985 1,098 1,143 582 4,462 QUESTION FOURTEEN 854 1,023 872 973 631 4,353 QUESTION  FIFTEEN 396 786 1,054 1,165 543 3,944 From the above table it is apparent that employees tend to be loyal to their groups; race, sexual orientation, age, ethnicity, gender, political beliefs, religious beliefs or socio-economic status than the overall workforce of the organization. They tend to work in accordance with group affiliation rather than organizational policies. This has and will be a major challenge in embracing management diversity.    RESULTS Precursor and outcome variables The table below shows the potency and course of the linear correlation amid PMRDM and the projected predictor variable which include the following: gender, organizational term, ethnicity, status and age. An evaluation of the above correlations indicated that out of thirteen predictor variables it is only gender, age, ethnicity and status that have no substantial relationship with PMRDM (Klarsfeld, 2010). A number of these relationships were of medium strength, indicating that the correlations were vital. However, extremely strong correlations (r > 0.8) could not be ascertained. Descriptive Statistics of Projected Predictors with their Relationships with PMRDM No. Variables Means SD PMRDM 1. Ethnicity N/A N/A 0.08 2. Gender N/A N/A 0.04 3. Age N/A N/A -0.08 4. Status N/A N/A -0.08 5. Organizational term N/A N/A -0.12 6. Comfort 5.68 0.97 0.23 7. Value 5.60 0.82 -0.14 8. Ideation 5.47 1.05 -0.45 9. Cohesiveness 5.29 1.20 0.45 10. Fairness 4.96 1.26 0.68 11. understanding 4.39 1.24 -0.46 12. Inclusion 4.28 1.20 0.60 13. Treatment 4.46 1.26 -0.68 Regression Analysis For the purpose of determining the most ideal predictors for PMRDM, individual characteristics which include: gender, status, ethnicity, organizational term, age, and the other dimensions of OCFD, were regressed with PMRDM. Results as shown in the table below indicated that it is only status, fairness, inclusion and treatment, variables that had substantial association with PMRDM. The findings therefore concurred with the previous studies which had concluded that the discernment of OCFD is the main expounding variables of PMRDM (Klarsfeld, 2010). Regression Analysis of the predictors of PMRDM Variable PMRDM Beta t Inclusion 0.32 8.939 Fairness 0.31 6.525 Status -0.08 -2.436 Treatment -0.30 -5.599  CONCLUSION From the findings of this research paper, it is safe to conclude that it is only organizational term that differs with PMRDM. Workers with employment contract of less than one year view management as being amenable to diversity management than their counterparts with employment contracts of six years and above. Moreover, out of the thirteen predictor variables, it is only status, inclusion, fairness and treatment that predict PMRDM. This clarifies the 63% of the variance in PMRDM (Klarsfeld, 2010). References Arredondo, P. (1996). Successful diversity management initiatives: A blueprint for planning and implementation. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. Certo, S. C. (2000). Modern management: Diversity, quality, ethics & the global environment. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall. Daft, R. L. (1994). Management. Fort Worth: Dryden Press. Drucker, P. F. (1974). Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Harper & Row. Klarsfeld, A. (2010). International handbook on diversity management at work: Country perspectives on diversity and equal treatment. Cheltenham, Glos, UK: Edward Elgar. Stockdale, M. S., & Crosby, F. J. (2004). The psychology and management of workplace diversity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Wrench, J. (2007). Diversity management and discrimination: Immigrants and ethnic minorities in the EU. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

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Practitioner Interview, What does Human Resources entail?

Practitioner Interview, What does Human Resources entail?

Human resource management involves various activities related to employee and their relationships. It aims at identifying talents within employees and excavates those talents for performing special jobs. Human resource professionals act responsibly to ensure that workers are paid well and according to their service delivery. The work of the human resource professionals is done throughout the week to ensure perfection of their duties. This paper is a project based on interviewing a human resource professional. The interview looks at the basic Human Resource activities, typical duties performed by the professional, the professional’s personal‘s critical issues, the critical issues to be faced in the next decade, and any other interesting information.

Practitioner Interview, What does Human Resources entail?


Interviewer: What does Human Resource entail?

Interviewee: Human Resource covers a number of organizational issues related to human resources and the human resource department. The basic responsibilities involve creation of formulized selection of human resource activities, evaluation of the best activities, and designing a great payroll process (Mayhew 2013 ). The profession checks on the effectiveness and efficiency in managing human capital. This is done with adequate tracking of employee data. The employee data tracking involve employee history, workers’ skills, capabilities of employees, their accomplishments, and their salaries.

Interviewer: What typical activities do you perform as a Human resource Professional?  

 Interviewee: As the professional in charge of human resource department, I am obligated to looking into employee payroll in which I can guide adjustments according to service delivery, competences, and promotions. I am responsible of ensuring that time is observed accordingly and that employee attendance is in accordance with the organizational rules and regulations. I also review performance appraisal and take actions where necessary. In looking into employee payroll, I ensure that every employee gets what he or she deserves according to his or her skill level, level of education, and the value he or she has to the organization (Suttle 2013). In this case, I take part in determining the value of an employee to the organization and act responsibly in setting basis for offering promotions and salary increments.

 Time and attendance are also considered when setting promotional grounds and reasons for increasing employee payments. Performance appraisal is done regularly in order to check on the marginal productivity of labor. The entire department of human resource management is responsible for ensuring that all activities under the department are done correctly. Correct initiation if changes within the organization originate from the HR department that is responsible for recruiting new employees and firing employees for various reasons. As a HR professional, I take part in all these and ensure that employee compensations and benefits are ultimate (Suttle 2013). The department has to ensure that a performance record is maintained and updated accordingly. Performance record served to give capabilities and difference in employee performances. Performance record goes hand in hand with other key development issues within the HR department such as employee self-service activities, scheduling and absence management. With proper scheduling of duties and operations, the HR department comes up with a good way of dealing with ways of managing all cases of absence.

Interviewer: What personal issues do term as critical to your life and your Human Resource Management career?

Interviewee: Like any other profession, Human Resource Management is faced with its own difficulties and success factors. I am a professional in the field but my work is constrained by various issues especially in the aspect of decision-making. Sometimes it becomes too difficult to determine which person to recruit for a certain post especially whenever several candidates apply for the job but have almost equal qualifications (Gutterman 2012). Sometimes I am forced to neglect a close friend applying for a job since he or she is not fully qualified for the position he or she is applying. The reason for this is to discourage nepotism or favoritism and any other aspects of discrimination in the work place.

            In acting this way for the benefit of the organization, the organizational part of my life ends up affecting my personal life. Whenever I neglect my own friend who happens to be so close to my life, the result is personal differences and an aspect of hatred. People usually pressure my life so that I may find a position for them to work within the organization, which is against the Human Resource profession (Gutterman 2012). It also becomes too difficult to decide how best an employee could be promoted without appearing as if the promotion was based on personal motives rather than organizational benefits. This highly disrupts my personal life, personal relations, and my family life.

Interviewer: What are the critical issues to be faced in the next decade?

 Interviewee: There are several problems projected to face the HR department within the next ten year. The first of all involve the changing structure of laws governing labor and employee relations/compensation. Increasing regulation in the labor market would make it difficult to employ as many workers as we have today (Suttle 2013). Employees are also forming labor unions and demanding higher pays, which may be a loss to our organization.

Interviewer: Is there any other interesting information you can point out?

Interviewee: Yes, there is a lot of information related to HRM to provide. HRM considers technology as a key aspect of organizational development. We expect that technological advancements would change greatly within the same time making it too difficult to compete under a labor intense system of organization (Suttle 2013). The organization will be faced with deciding to substitute labor for capital in order to evade the increasing labor law and expensive labor.


Gutterman, A. 2012, September 19. COUNSELING THE HR FUNCTION: SCOPE OF HR          ACTIVITIES . Website: Retrieved February 22, 2013, from                counselor/counseling-the-hr-function-scope-of-hr-activities/

Mayhew, R. 2013, Operational HR Activities. Website: Retrieved February 22, 2013 , from

Suttle, R. 2013. Major Categories of HR Management Activities. Website: Retrieved February 22, 2013,             from Demand Media:   management-activities-37354.html

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The Evil Within Human Nature in the heart of Darkness, Lord of the Flies, and The Great Gatsby

The Evil Within Human Nature in the heart of Darkness, Lord of the Flies, and The Great Gatsby

Although they represent three very different periods, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of

Darkness, William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, and F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby all address
the same fundamental issue: what truly lies in the hearts of men? Heart of Darkness examines
this question through the disintegration of the individual mind in the wilds of the Congo, while
Lord of the Flies shows the breakdown of social norms among school children stranded on an
island. In The Great Gatsby, no one is sent out into the wilderness. In fact, the main
characters live a seemingly charmed, upper-class life, but nonetheless the main characters prove
themselves to be just as vicious as the men who lose themselves in the jungle. All three novels
present the human creature as vicious and self-absorbed and warn the reader that violence,
insanity, and man’s true animal nature are ever-present just below the surface in our supposed

The Evil Within: Human Nature in Heart of Darkness, Lord of the Flies, and The Great Gatsby

In Conrad’s work, nature quickly strips away the illusion of civilization and safety
that the explorer Marlow brings with him to the jungle. In the wilderness of his company’s field
station, Marlow interprets the Manager’s gesture toward “the forest, the creek, the mud, the
river” by saying that it offers “a treacherous appeal to the lurking death, to the hidden evil, to the
profound darkness of its heart.” (35) The evil that haunts Marlow and his story comes from
death, the most fundamental fact of nature. What is hidden by the trappings of London life is laid
bare by the forest, the mud, and the river. It is a truth that cannot be escaped. Marlow feels this
keenly when he finally lands at Kurtz’s camp, as far from civilization as he will ever be. He
declares that “ never, never before, did this land, this river, this jungle, the very arch of this
blazing sky, appear to me so hopeless and so dark, so impenetrable to human thought, so pitiless
to human weakness.” (55) Stripped down to its essence, the wilderness Marlow finds in Africa
cares not one bit about human morals, ideas, or existence. Exposing “the human ego, unshielded
by civilization and its self-contents, to a world of savagery presumed to be far beneath it […] is to
come up against the innate” (Stewart, 319), and in Conrad’s story, the innate is truly horrifying.
Surrounded by an indifference to which the they are wholly unaccustomed, the Europeans in the
story lose the morals and ideals that they feel make them human.

It is this loss that Marlow fears. He finds the smell of the damp earth to be “an intolerable
weight oppressing [his] breast,” intimating “the unseen presence of victorious corruption, the
darkness of an impenetrable night.” (62) The wilderness is not passive its quest to undo mankind,
and Marlow can feel this animosity as a weight. He has seen this corruption in Kurtz and is afraid
that he, too, will be brought face-to-face with whatever it is that lurks just out of his sight, and so
lose something of himself. He declares Kurtz’s final words to be “a moment of triumph for the
wilderness, an invading and vengeful rush.” (72) Kurtz let the unspeakable in nature take hold of
him, and when the wilderness rushed in, all civilized human thought was gone. And something
worse than savagery had taken its place. Of the severed heads Kurtz has spiked in front of his
house, Marlow says they are “only a savage sight, while I seemed at one bound to have been
transported into some lightless region of subtle horrors, where pure, uncomplicated savagery was
a positive.” (58)  Any animal in nature, he is saying, can kill. It is a special horror for a

formerly civilized man to lose himself to blood, power, and hidden evils.
            The children of Golding’s Lord of the Flies are similarly stripped of their “civilized” selves when they are marooned on an island with no supervision and no way off. At first they are able to maintain a semblance of order: they elect leaders and organize themselves around the conch shell that represents their ersatz civilization. In their minds, the boys still cling to their old ways:

Doe 3

“Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them. Yet there was a space round

Henry […] into which he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of the old life.
Round the squatting child was the protection of parents and school and policemen and the law”

(16). Very quickly, though, the boys descend into chaos and violence. The images of parents and
policeman fade from their minds and are replaced by shadowy island beasts and bloodlust. In a
short time they go from being afraid to throw rocks to brutally murdering their classmates.

Simon, the most thoughtful of the boys, wants to blame the wilds of the island for their
savagery, but eventually realizes that “the beast” they’ve been hunting is
actually their own human nature. The Lord of the Flies, a severed pig’s head, says to him “fancy
thinking the Beast was something you could hunt and kill! . . . You knew, didn’t you? I’m part of
you? Close, close, close! I’m the reason why it’s no go? Why things are the way they are?” (113).
There was no way the boys would be able to escape the suffering they created, because they
carry that animal nature within themselves. For Golding, “evil is innate in man […] and those,
therefore, who look to political and social systems detached from this real nature of man are the
victims of a terrible, self-destructive illusion” (Spitz, 29). Their ad-hoc system of government
stood no chance of surviving the overwhelming need for violence and control that was hiding
inside each boy.

In contrast to these men and boys who find their true nature in the wilderness, the

characters in The Great Gatsby let their selfishness, violence, and greed run free right in the

middle of the most civilized of settings. The characters hide behind their money, dancing at

lavish, champagne-filled parties that mean nothing and that serve only to distract them from

their sorrows. The civilized world leaves them unfulfilled: a guest tells Nick “you see I usually find
myself among strangers because I drift here and there trying to forget the sad things that
happened to me” (36). Despite the wealth and beauty around him, Nick himself feels “oppressed
and uneasy” at Gatsby’s parties because he can see they provide only the illusion of real human
interaction (Harvey, 16). Everyone is pretending to be civilized and carefree when really they are
anything but.

Later in the novel, this ennui and forced ease leads to death, when Daisy Buchanan, a rich
New Yorker who should represent the virtues of society, runs down a woman with her car. Nick
says of Daisy and her husband Tom “They were careless people […] they smashed up things and
creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness, or whatever it was
that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made” (156). For
Fitzgerald, civilization does little to hide man’s true nature, and while the book’s narrator
struggles to overcome his failings, the other characters float along unaware of their hideousness,
insulated by the belief that their money and their possessions make them good people. But,
ultimately, even the trappings of civilized society can’t mask man’s true, horrible nature.
            The main characters of Heart of Darkness, Lord of the Flies, and The Great Gatsby all start their stories believing themselves to be safe in a world of civilized rules and learned men. But as the novels progress, Marlow, Piggy, and Nick are horrified as they watch the world around them go mad with violence and greed. Each witnesses men turning to evil, but it’s not just the murder and selfishness that they find so terrible—it’s also the fact that this behavior comes so easily. Each novel shows its characters slipping of the mask of civility quickly and completely, revealing just how close to the surface we all hide our savagery.

Doe 4

Works Cited

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988. Print. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. 1925. New York: Scribner, 2004. Print.
Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Perigee, 1959. Print.

Harvey, WJ. “Theme and Texture in The Great Gatsby.” English Studies 38.1 (1957): 12-20. Web.

11 Oct. 2012

Spitz, David. “An Interpretation of Golding’s Lord of the Flies.” The Antioch Review 30.1 (1970): 21-

33. Web. 11 Oct. 2012

Stewart, Garrett. “Lying as Dying in The Heart of Darkness.” PMLA 95.3 (1980): 319-331. Web. 11
Oct. 2012

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Access to basic health care as a fundamental human right

Access to basic health care as a fundamental human right


The right to health is inclusive of a number of factors, which are the determinants of health. These factors comprise of safe food, safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, healthy environmental condition, as well as gender equality. Apart from these factors, the most vital component that determines the right to health includes getting access to healthcare services. It is also necessary to consider the fact that the rights to health comprises freedoms such as the right to freedom from non-consensual medical treatment and freedom from torture, and degrading human treatment. 

When discussing the aspect of rights to health, it is vital to consider that it contains entitlements such as having access to most of the essential medicines, the right the control, treatment and prevention of diseases and the right to a health protection system. The protection systems should provide equity and opportunity for every individual to enjoy a high level of health. This paper looks into some of the implications of the propositions to health care as a fundamental human right, further establishing the organization responsible for ensuring that all human beings have access to health care. Additionally, the paper looks into what it would take to guarantee health care provision, including the reasons as to why not everyone has the access to healthcare.

Implications of access to basic health

Mountains Beyond Mountains brings about some critical questions that address the issue of health care, as well as the distribution of wealth across the globe. The book gives a glimpse of some of the works that Dr. Farmer is involved in, in his quest to ensure change in the world, condemning some of the developmental issues in Haiti that neglect the improvement of the health practices of the people in the country. It is possible to equate the quest for Dr. Farmer to seeking justice for the people that are not in a position to access health care as a basic right. The particular sense of health rights in this case has to do with the distribution of scarce resources, which comprises of the overall requirements that ensure a healthy people. The understanding of distributive fundamental rights in this case ensures a fair distribution of health benefits and burdens among the different individuals in the society. 

It is vital to take recognition of the fact that it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that its subjects have access to health care. Every individual in society has the right to a specific standard of living, which ensures adequacy in terms of health care access for him or herself, as well as his or her family. The state has the responsibility if ensuring that the citizenry enjoy the adequacy of food, housing social services, clothing, adequate sanitation and health care services. These needs are indispensable components of an adequate standard of living that improves the people’s well-being and health. 

Some of the factors that the government or state should take care of to ensure an uncompromised living standards for its people include ensuring an adequate distribution of clean water to its people, making sure that they maintain a sufficient supply of food to its people and establishing sufficient standards of sanitation. Those factors that relate directly health include the provision of maternal and prenatal healthcare, educating the citizenry on malnutrition as well as disease prevention, and finally the administration of widespread medication and vaccination. All these are the responsibilities of the state or government, which are measures of providing some of the fundamental rights to the people inhabiting the subject community. 

Quality health care includes making sure that the government meets its mandate of health care education provision, provision of good sanitary measures, as well as making certain that the citizenry have access treatment facilities. With all these considerations, it is vital to mull over prevention as the best determinant to a successful health care system, which is a way of ensuring that people have access to good quality health care. Dr. Farmer emphasizes on the distribution of risks for suffering and disease, which is an approach of delivering good quality health care. Dr. Farmer accentuates the fact that suffering and disease are not random events, but entail human agency. 

Dr. Farmer incorporates the term structural violence, as indicated in the book, which refers to violations that are economic and political in nature, and are against the human rights. The consequence of the violations includes poverty, human suffering and disease. An example in this case s the flooding of the Artibonite Valley in Haiti, which led to the creation of water refugees, who were at risk of diseases, suffering and malnourishment. The water refugees had no livelihood means after the floods, and they comprised of Dr. Farmer’s poorest patients. Dr. Farmer insinuates that the suffering that the people were going through was not a result of random events, but they were consequences of decisions made by human beings. Dr. Farmer argues that the events are structured in a systematic way, whose consequences violate the fundamental human rights of accessing basic health care. 



Ways of guaranteeing this right

The explanation for poor health or disease is possibly a derivative of economic social and political force, which shapes the outcome of the health. Some of the violations of the core human rights emanate from lack of social and economic opportunities. Education is one of the critical factors that determine the economic and social position of individuals; this is a precursor to their health. For this reason, it is possible to determine that individuals with low education levels are of a poor health status. The other economic factor that is important for determining the health of an individual is the income level, which is a modifiable factor that determines the health and well-being of individuals. The most transparent way of ensuring prioritization of health support, which is a way of fulfilling the human rights health needs, it would be necessary to ensure an equitable distribution of resources. Provision of preventive measures to the people, which might be inclusive of providing vaccinations to the people, is another way that the government can use to make sure that they provide the basic human health rights to the people. On the political front, the legislators are responsible for coming up with policies that promote health rights among the people. With all these considerations, it is vital to consider that obtaining the basic health rights has not been universally possible. It is possible to argue that shortcomings of the social economic and political responsibilities have affected the acquisition of health care as a basic human right. Not all people have access to the fundamental human rights, especially in relation to health issues. 

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Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

Julie A. Steen, Mary Mann, Nichole Restivo, Shellene Mazany, and Reshawna Chapple

The goal of the study reported in this article was to explore the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice among students and supervisors in social work field settings. Data were collected from 35 students and 48 supervisors through an online survey system that featured two open-ended questions regarding human rights issues in their agency and human rights practice tasks. Responses suggest that participants encountered human rights issues related to poverty, discrimination, participation/self-determination/autonomy, vio- lence, dignity/respect, privacy, and freedom/liberty. They saw human rights practice as en- compassing advocacy, service provision, assessment, awareness of threats to clients’ rights, and the nature of the worker–client relationship. These results have implications for the social work profession, which has an opportunity to focus more intently on change efforts that support clients’ rights. The study points to the possibilities of expanding the scope of the human rights competency within social work education and addressing the key human rights issues in field education.

Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

KEYWORDS: accreditation standards; educational policy; field education; human rights; social work education

In the most recent edition of Social Work Speaks, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) (2015b) announced that “the struggle

for human rights remains a vital priority for the social work profession in the 21st century” (p. 186). The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2012), which is the international umbrella organiza- tion for national social work associations, has integrated the concept of human rights into their Statement of Ethical Principles. Through this docu- ment, they call on social workers to “uphold and defend” (IFSW, 2012) the human rights of clients. In addition, they present international human rights conventions as key to “social work practice and action” (IFSW, 2012). Although NASW (2015a) does not explicitly use the term “human rights” in its Code of Ethics, many of the concepts within the national document are derived from the human rights philosophy. For example, the code requires social workers within the United States to respect “the dignity and worth of the person” (NASW, 2015a, p. 5), “facilitate informed participation by the public in shaping social policies and institutions” (NASW, 2015a, p. 27), and work to “ensure that all people have equal access to the resources, employ- ment, services, and opportunities they require to

meet their basic human needs” (NASW, 2015a, p. 27). These responsibilities align with the types of human rights classified as integrity of the body, polit- ical rights, and social and economic rights (Steen, 2006).

Although social work professional organizations on the national and international levels embrace the human rights philosophy (Healy, 2008; Reichert, 2011; Steen, 2006; Wronka, 2008), questions remain regarding the definition and application of human rights in social work settings. Answers to these ques- tions are particularly important as schools of social work seek to meet accreditation standards that require student mastery of a human rights competency (Council on Social Work Education [CSWE], 2008, 2015). Although human rights content may be easily infused into the curriculum, the field place- ment remains an unexplored venue for human rights education. The field placement is perhaps the most important aspect of social work education, as this is the setting in which social work students directly witness human rights violations and are given oppor- tunities to take a human rights practice approach. Social work educators and the profession as a whole could build a stronger foundation for practice through a greater understanding of the nature of human rights

doi: 10.1093/sw/sww075 © 2016 National Association of Social Workers 9

issues that confront social workers and the ways in which social workers can take a human rights practice approach. To address this gap, we sought to examine the perspectives of field supervisors and social work interns regarding the meaning of human rights and human rights practice in social work field settings.

LITERATURE REVIEW Meaning of Human Rights Foundational to this discussion is the meaning one assigns to the concept of human rights. Many rely on theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) for guidance in defining the scope of the concept (Reichert, 2011; Wronka, 2008). Wronka (2008) divided the articles of UDHR into the following five dimensions: dignity; nondiscrimination; civil and political rights; economic, social, and cultural rights; and solidarity rights. This definition of human rights has found its way into social work in- stitutions. In fact, several of the dimensions listed byWronka are represented in CSWE’s (2008) human rights competency, which includes attention to the client’s right to “freedom, safety, privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education” (p. 5).

The meaning of human rights has gradually expanded beyond UDHR with the creation and adoption of population-specific conventions, de- clarations, and principles. Examples include the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrim- ination Against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and Principles for the Older Person. Many of these documents reaffirm a specific population’s rights to the entitlements outlined in UDHR, but they also extend beyond this foundation by addressing the unique situations faced by the population. For example, CRC establishes a child’s right to be free from military service with the aim of preventing the use of child soldiers (Reichert, 2011). This realm of population-specific rights is one of the most fre- quently featured in the social work literature with authors directing their attention toward the human rights of various populations, such as women (Choi, Brownell, & Moldovan, 2015; Morgaine, 2006) and children (Doek, 2009; Munro et al., 2011; Scherrer, 2012; Viviers & Lombard, 2012; Watkinson & Rock, 2016).

The meanings described previously are largely derived from legal thought within Western demo- cratic countries, leading some to call for an alternative

means for defining the concept of human rights. Use of Western-derived meanings imposes limitations that contribute to colonialism and racism (Ife, 2010). One solution suggested by Ife (2010) involves the “reflexive definition of human rights,”which “occurs when people address the idea themselves and, rather than accept the dominant discursive construction uncritically, think about and define what human rights mean in their own context” (p. 135). Ife emphasized experience and context as being key parts of this making of meaning. “Human rights are constantly being defined and redefined, constructed and reconstructed, in people’s daily lives and their interactions with others, and also in their conscious reflection of what ‘human rights’ mean in context” (p. 135).

This discussion begs the question of what social workers in the field make of the concept of human rights. This leads us to our first research question: What meanings do social work students and their field supervisors attribute to the concept of human rights as it relates to their work in field settings?

Practice of Human Rights Another important question focuses on the actions social workers can take to make human rights a real- ity. In other words, the focus shifts from the concept of human rights to the practice of human rights. Most literature regarding the social worker’s role in human rights presents human rights practice as tak- ing the form of advocacy. In the words of Reichert (2011), this form of practice involves “challenging oppression.” Examples of both case-based and cause- based advocacy within a human rights framework abound. Case-based advocacy, in which social workers campaign for environmental changes that enable a client’s rights to be realized, has been oper- ationalized in a wide variety of fields. In the area of women’s rights, case-based human rights practice has been framed as “interven[ing] to protect [a client] against physical abuse from her partner” (Reichert, 2011, p. 240) and supporting client submissions of individual petitions to the complaint mechanism within the Women’s Convention (Tang, 2004). Cause-based advocacy is also described within the literature. Staub-Bernasconi (2012) listed tasks that fall within this category of cause-based advocacy, including “resource mobilization, consciousness raising, mediation, and empowerment. More spe- cific methods include . . . monitoring, lobbying, and, more and more, also whistle blowing” (p. 35).

10 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

Specific examples of cause-based advocacy in the field of women’s rights can be found in the work of Tang (2004), who urged social workers to “work together with women’s groups and progres- sive NGOs to advocate for and support the imple- mentation of the Women’s Convention in their country” (p. 1183).

Another option was advanced by Ife (2010), who presented a mezzo-level model of human rights practice. He argued that community devel- opment is a means through which human rights can be practiced and achieved. Participatory democ- racy is central to his model. Community members come together to dialogue, build, educate, and advocate. Human rights education is one compo- nent of Ife’s model, though he believed that this task should be carried out in a bottom-up fashion. As such, he cited Freire’s (2014) philosophy and pointed to works of creative expression (for example, drama, art, and music) that provide community members with outlets to share their experiences as survivors of human rights violations. Social workers wishing to engage in human rights practice using this model would support community development through facilitation of community member engagement. An example of this form of human rights practice is described in the literature within the context of Middle East peace efforts (Grodofsky, 2012).

Whereas Ife (2010) emphasized the role of the social worker in the community, some authors have discussed ways in which social workers can integrate human rights into case management and clinical practice. Reichert (2011) described this method as being characterized by client empower- ment, the strengths perspective, ethnic-sensitive practice, feminist practice, and cultural compe- tence. Additional details are offered by Wronka (2008), who presented the following elements as being essential to micro-level human rights prac- tice: “creating a human rights culture,” respecting human dignity, practicing nondiscrimination, using a “nonhierarchical approach,” considering and respecting the client’s cultural context, integrating community- and client-driven interventions, using a “systems-oriented approach,” and respecting self- determination. Berthold (2015) provided the most comprehensive description to date of this approach. Her model of human rights–based clinical practice consists of “reframing needs as entitlements or rights, operating from a stance of cultural humility and intersectionality, fostering a therapeutic relationship

and reconstructing safety, providing trauma-informed care, and drawing from the recovery-model and a strengths and resilience orientation” (p. 2).

This literature provides a foundation on which to ask our second research question: How do social work students and their field supervisors describe human rights practice in their own agency settings?

METHOD Design To attain a greater understanding of the meaning and practice of human rights within social work field settings, a phenomenological approach was taken within the qualitative portion of a mixed- methods study. Field supervisors and field students in a social work department with accredited BSW and MSW programs were contacted by e-mail and invited to participate in the study. The e-mail pro- vided field supervisors and field students with a link to an online survey. The online survey was administered through Qualtrics (2016) and re- mained open for survey completion from February 2013 to April 2013. The survey system was entirely anonymous, limiting the researcher’s influence in survey responses and allowed partici- pants to freely report their perspectives. No incen- tives were given to participate in this research, financial or otherwise.

Survey participants received a summary expla- nation of research and a survey. When participants clicked on the survey link in the recruitment e-mail, the link first directed them to the summary explanation of research, which is an abbreviated consent form approved for use in research posing less than minimal risk to participants. Participants were then directed to the online survey items. A portion of the survey included questions regarding the application of the policy competency in field settings; however, this article focuses exclusively on the results from the human rights section of the survey, which included both open-ended items and a structured scale.

The open-ended items focused on respondents’ view of the human rights competency as they experienced it in the field setting. The survey included the human rights competency as outlined in the CSWE (2008) Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards:

Each person, regardless of position in society, has basic human rights, such as freedom, safety,

11Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education. Social workers recognize the global interconnections of oppression and are knowledgeable about theories of justice and strategies to promote human rights and civil rights. Social work incorporates social justice practices in organizations, institutions, and society to ensure that these basic human rights are dis- tributed equitably and without prejudice. (p. 5)

The survey asked field supervisors to respond to two open-ended items regarding this competency: (1) What (if any) are the major human rights issues in your agency’s field of practice? (2) Please list the tasks that a student could complete in the intern- ship that might demonstrate mastery of this human rights competency. Field students were presented with two nearly identical items: (1) What (if any) are the major human rights issues in your intern- ship agency’s field of practice? (2) Please list the tasks that a student could complete in your intern- ship that might demonstrate mastery of this human rights competency.

In addition to the open-ended items, partici- pants were presented with McPherson and Abell’s (2012) Human Rights Exposure in Social Work scale. This instrument is composed of 11 items de- signed to assess the respondent’s degree of familiarity with human rights. The response set includes seven points on a spectrum ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. The instrument has been tested, and results indicate acceptable factorial validity and reliability levels.

Sample, The final sample for the qualitative portion of the study, consisted of 35 field students and 48 field supervisors. The average age within the student sam- ple was 29 years. The majority of the field students were female (77 percent), with the remainder being male (20 percent) or transgender (3 percent). The student sample included representation from multi- ple ethnicities: biracial (3 percent), black (9 percent), Latino (23 percent), multiracial (3 percent), and white (60 percent). Thirty-one percent of the students were enrolled in the BSW program, and 69 percent were enrolled in the MSW program. The field supervisor sample had similar demographics, with the majority being female (88 percent) and white (60 percent). The sample included supervisors who were biracial (6 percent), black (10 percent), Latino (15 percent),

and multiracial (2 percent). The average age of the supervisor sample was 45 years. In regard to human rights exposure, the average Human Rights Expo- sure in Social Work (McPherson & Abell, 2012) scores were at the higher end of the spectrum for both the student sample (M = 5.15) and the supervi- sor sample (M = 5.28). Note that the score is repre- sentative of the degree of exposure, with seven representing the highest possible exposure and one representing the lowest possible exposure.

Analysis We analyzed the data with attention toward two key concepts: human rights and human rights prac- tice. Responses were sorted so that those with similar conceptualizations were placed together. These groupings were labeled with themes based on key terms in the respondents’ comments. To identify any differences across the two samples, we compared the percentages of supervisors and students issuing comments related to each theme.

RESULTS Meaning of Human Rights Seven themes arose from respondents’ conceptua- lizations regarding the human rights issues encoun- tered in the field of practice associated with their employing agencies or their internship settings. These themes include poverty; discrimination; par- ticipation, self-determination, autonomy; violence; dignity, respect; privacy; and freedom and liberty. Significant statements that exemplify each of these seven themes are presented in the following sections. Poverty. Poverty was the most frequently men-

tioned human rights issue. Forty-four percent of the field students and 37 percent of the field super- visors referred to poverty in response to the first question regarding human rights issues in their field of practice. Supervisors and students found that this human rights violation was closely inter- twined with their work and interfered with their clients’ abilities to meet their physical and psychological needs. Responses focused on the ways in which poverty affects access to housing, health care, and substance abuse treatment. One student stated, “The majority of the clients served are living well below national poverty levels so safety, health care are compromised.”Other students referred to clients being “booted [from treatment] as soon as insurance is up” and the inability to “reunite families because [of a] lack of a place to live.” Field

12 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

supervisors mentioned similar problems, such as “patients without health insurance having issues with obtaining needed medical services.”

Discrimination. Supervisors and students served clients from diverse backgrounds who face discrimi- nation at the societal and organizational levels. Both supervisors and students made statements that re- flected a concern regarding discrimination, though there was a difference between these two groups in the types of discrimination mentioned. Students tended to focus on discrimination against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) population and listed concerns related to the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (P.L. 104-199), “hate crimes,” and “access to safe and appropriate bath- rooms.” They also mentioned “employment dis- crimination” and “housing discrimination.” On the other hand, field supervisors listed “cultural compe- tency,” “equal access to care,” and “discrimination from medical providers” against women placing their children for adoption and “patients who secure treatment throughMedicaid.”

Participation, Self-Determination, and Autonomy. Responses conveyed the idea that clients’ human rights include the right to be treated as autono- mous individuals who participate in the decision- making processes that affect their lives. This theme was mentioned more frequently by field supervi- sors than by students. One field supervisor summa- rized this theme with the following phrase: “the right to self-determination when choices are seen as less than healthy by various members of the interdisciplinary team.” Another supervisor framed this idea as the “right to determine their own des- tiny.” This theme was often mentioned in the con- text of mental health and hospice and included references to “restraints” and dying “in comfort.” Students had similar concerns, such as “clients hav- ing a voice in their treatment plan,” the lack of “an individualized treatment plan,” and a client’s “right to choose how he or she dies.”

Violence. The responses of supervisors and stu- dents also conveyed the idea that the right to be free from violence is a human right. Various forms of violence were listed by both supervisors and stu- dents alike. Students referred to “elder abuse” and “hate crimes.” Supervisors noted “maltreatment,” “domestic violence,” “child abuse,” and “sexual assault.” One supervisor also mentioned “refugees that are fleeing oppression.”

Dignity and Respect. Another human right pre- sented by the respondents is the right to be treated as a being worthy of dignity and respect. This theme was referenced within the context of health systems, schools, hospices, and mental health and substance abuse treatment. Students mentioned “preserving dignity of clients within the health care team and among hospital personnel” and “treating each student as an individual and with respect regardless of your opinion of them.” One field supervisor issued a concern for “devaluation in treatment and perception of those labeled as ‘liabilities’ rather than ‘assets.’”

Privacy. A few supervisors and one student men- tioned either “privacy” or “confidentiality,” though none of these respondents elaborated on this issue.

Freedom and Liberty. A few supervisors and one student used the terms “freedom” or “liberty” in their responses, with little detail regarding the type of freedom.

Practice of Human Rights An analysis of responses to the question regarding human rights practice yielded five themes: advo- cacy, service provision, assessment, relationship, and awareness. Advocacy. Supervisors and students presented

advocacy as one form of human rights practice and defined this in numerous ways (for example, efforts to change policy, systems, organizations, or these structures’ effect on a single client). Many of the respondents (40 percent of field supervisors and 50 percent of field students) made statements reflecting the advocacy theme. These statements were further categorized into the following three subthemes: general advocacy, case advocacy, and cause advocacy. The theme of general advocacy refers to nonspecific statements that include the term “advocacy.” Specific statements regarding advocacy for individual clients were coded under the case advocacy theme. Examples include “advocacy for children’s human rights (as recommendations in as- sessments/staffings)” and “advocating on patient’s behalf to government agencies to obtain services.” This was the most frequently used advocacy code for both supervisor and student responses. Cause advocacy was mentioned by a greater percentage of students than supervisors (18 percent of students compared with 2 percent of supervisors). Examples of cause advocacy within student responses include

13Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

“policy advocacy at the agency level aimed at delivering quality care to marginalized populations” and “having the clinic accept all insurances and Medicaid.”

Service Provision. Supervisors and students in the sample presented human rights practice as stretching beyond advocacy on behalf of the client to include micro-level practice directly with a cli- ent. Service provision, whether direct provision or referral to another provider, was a frequently men- tioned practice that respondents believed to be reflective of human rights practice. Supervisors provided examples across a broad range of fields, such as disability, mental health, homelessness, family violence, and health care. Specific tasks listed by supervisors included “psychoeducation and support services,” “assisting a client in accessing . . . Medicaid services,” “matching birth mothers with adoptive families,” and “participating in outreach efforts to underserved communities.” Student responses reflec- tive of this category included tasks related to discharge planning, psychoeducation, case management, and hospice.

Assessment. Respondents included the accurate identification of clients’ needs and wishes as a form of human rights practice, because assessment is a necessary step before needs and wishes can be met. Statements regarding assessment were prominent in the responses of field supervisors, but not stu- dents. Supervisors viewed assessments as a method for justifying client access to a particular resource. Therefore, a small number listed assessments as a form of human rights practice with people who have disabilities, clients who “have been given a terminal diagnosis,” and “older adults and people who are affected by dementia.”

Relationship. Respondents presented human rights practice as being embodied in the worker– client relationship, specifically in the ways that this relationship is responsive to the human rights issues of dignity and respect, privacy, and nondiscrimination. Students mentioned consent forms and protection of confidentiality as key aspects of human rights practice. Supervisors also mentioned confidentiality but broadened their treatment of this topic by including “fair and equal treatment of each patient” and stating that “all patients are treated with dignity and respect.”

Awareness. According to the respondents, an important element of human rights practice is the

perspective one brings to the work, in particular, a perspective that incorporates an understanding of the possible threats to client rights. This theme of awareness received a small amount of attention from students and supervisors. Students mentioned “being aware of signs of elderly abuse,” “learning more about religious-based organizations, how that can impact what you can and cannot do or say,” and “understanding mental health laws and policy.” Supervisors listed similar items, such as “notice any discrimination that marginalized clients face.” They also suggested activities that could increase student awareness, such as taking a “cultural competency and ethics course” and spending the “night in a homeless shelter or on the street in teams.”

DISCUSSION The results provide rich descriptions of the human rights issues encountered by supervisors and stu- dents in field placement sites. The frequency of re- sponses regarding poverty as a human rights issue was noteworthy, because this problem relates to economic rights that traditionally are not embraced in capitalist countries. This frequency may be an indicator that the profession of social work can expand beyond the Western confines of the human rights definition. The responses also re- vealed the embedded nature of human rights in domestic applications across a wide variety of social work practice fields. The supervisors and students occasionally used abstract or philosophical lan- guage when defining human rights issues, but the majority of comments addressed practical, real- world concerns in the local community. Although their responses were locally embedded, their con- ceptualizations were similar to those found in the literature. The themes that arose closely mirrored the human rights dimensions listed by Wronka (2008). Significant statements included the types of population-specific applications found in Reich- ert’s (2011) classic text.

Although their responses regarding human rights practice were aligned with the literature in the endorsement of advocacy and respect for client rights within the worker–client relationship (Reich- ert, 2011; Wronka, 2008), the supervisors and stu- dents diverged from the establishment on other dimensions of human rights practice. Ife’s (2010) mezzo-level model of human rights practice was not mentioned by respondents. In place of this

14 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

model, supervisors and students emphasized service provision with multiple examples of tasks that con- stitute case management. This conceptualization is unique in that the respondents are emphasizing the actual tasks as opposed to how the tasks are per- formed (that is, what is done versus how it is done). Human rights theorists in social work have long argued that social workers can practice human rights through the way in which they interact with clients (for example, respect for and empowerment of cli- ents) (Reichert, 2011; Wronka, 2008). However, these supervisors and students asserted that the tasks of social work, specifically the tasks of case manage- ment, are a form of human rights practice. Essentially, this argument may be translated into the idea that the core of social work itself is human rights practice.

Discussion of the language that was absent from the results is also warranted. Though students and supervisors mentioned issues, such as discrimina- tion and poverty, that are often related to race, none of the responses addressed race or racism. This lack of attention to race could be due to the absence of this term from the CSWE (2008) human rights competency, which was part of the question prompt. On the other hand, students referred to discrimination against LGBTQ indivi- duals, despite the fact that the human rights com- petency is missing any mention of the LGBTQ population. The supervisors used terms, such as cultural competency, that might indicate a consid- eration of race, but they did not specify a particular dimension of cultural diversity. The absolute absence of race from the responses is significant and may pro- vide justification for Ife’s (2010) concern regarding the racist implications of Western definitions of human rights.

Implications for Social Work Practice These results have implications for the social work profession. Both practitioners and students are rec- ognizing the connection between human rights and social work. Leaders of the profession can strengthen this connection by incorporating human rights lan- guage into the mainstream dialogue, specifically the declarations and publications of professional associa- tions, the subject matter of professional journals, and the framing of conference themes and tracks. When the institutions of the social work profession rein- force the emerging recognition of human rights within the field, the profession can more clearly focus its intention on the realization of human rights.

Results point to specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the profession. One of these concerns is the negative impact that poverty has on the human rights of clients. Poverty is rarely a direct focus of social workers in the United States, where the emphasis primarily lies with aging, child welfare, mental health, and substance abuse. The respondents repeatedly noted the implications of poverty in these practice fields. Professional leaders can respond to this human rights issue by including content regarding poverty at social work confer- ences; addressing the relationship between poverty and the various practice fields; and increasing awareness of the intersections of poverty, race, gender, and age. A second issue of concern noted by respondents is the way in which organizations and providers treat and serve marginalized clients. The profession can provide more education and sup- port for frontline workers on organizational change efforts. Continuing education could equip them with the tools they need to shape their organizations into more respectful environments for clients.

Implications for Social Work Education This study also has implications for social work education. The results may indicate that the human rights competency could be expanded beyond its current state. The current definition of the human rights competency (CSWE, 2015), which has chan- ged only slightly since the 2008 version of accredita- tion standards for social work education, contains a heavy emphasis on advocacy. Although advocacy is an important component of human rights practice, field supervisors and students in this sample reported a conceptualization with a wider scope. Specifically, they incorporated practice tasks related to direct ser- vice provision and case management.

Social work education can respond to this wid- ening definition by integrating human rights into practice courses. As the field of human rights edu- cation has expanded, social work educators now have a wealth of material for use across the curricu- lum. Educators can go beyond the advocacy-based conceptualizations by including textbooks on the human rights approach to practice. The most recent examples include Berthold’s (2015) text on human rights in clinical practice; Libal and Harding’s (2015) text on human rights in community practice; and Androff’s (2016) text on the application of human rights in a wide variety of fields, including child welfare, poverty, and mental health. Furthermore,

15Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

course content regarding human rights should be presented within the context of multiple dimen- sions of diversity, including race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, and religion.

Field educators can also play an important role in guiding student application of human rights concepts in real-world practice. As social work students strive to apply what they learned in the classroom, they often encounter resistance to the full realization of social work ideals. In fact, one student respondent stated, “It’s a hospital. These standards are written into policy. There are chances to advocate for an individual patient, but that’s all.” Field seminar in- structors can bring this issue to the forefront of semi- nar discussions and explore the ways in which students can advance human rights to the greatest extent possible. Dodd and Jansson (2004) provided an excellent model for these types of discussions with an emphasis on preparing students to overcome barriers in organizational change efforts. In addition to seminar discussions, field educators can use the learning contract as an opportunity to more fully integrate human rights practice concepts into the field experience and explicitly label social work activities as human rights practice.

CONCLUSION Although theorists and researchers have made sub- stantial contributions to the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice, the voice of the frontline social worker is an important one to consider. This study was conducted in an effort to bring this voice into the professional dialogue and deepen our understanding of the connection between human rights and social work. With this understanding, the profession can begin to create a clearer roadmap for strengthening this connection and protecting client rights. SW

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proaches to social work practice. New York: Routledge. Berthold, S. M. (2015).Human rights-based approaches to clini-

cal social work. New York: Springer. Choi, M., Brownell, P., & Moldovan, S. I. (2015). Interna-

tional movement to promote human rights of older women with a focus on violence and abuse against older women. International Social Work. Advance online publication.

Council on Social Work Education. (2008). Educational pol- icy and accreditation standards. Retrieved from http://

Council on Social Work Education. (2015). Educational policy and accreditation standards for baccalaureate and master’s social

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Defense of Marriage Act, P.L. 104-199, 110 Stat. 2419 (1996).

Dodd, S., & Jansson, B. (2004). Expanding the boundaries of ethics education: Preparing social workers for ethi- cal advocacy in an organizational setting. Journal of Social Work Education, 40, 455–465.

Doek, J. E. (2009). The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining chal- lenges. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 771–782.

Freire, P. (2014). The pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1968.)

Grodofsky, M. M. (2012). Community-based human rights advocacy practice and peace education. International Social Work, 55, 740–753.

Healy, L. M. (2008). Exploring the history of social work as a human rights profession. International Social Work, 51, 735–748.

Ife, J. (2010).Human rights from below: Achieving rights through community development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

International Federation of Social Workers. (2012). Statement of ethical principles. Retrieved from policies/statement-of-ethical-principles/

Libal, K. R., & Harding, S. (2015). Human rights-based com- munity practice in the United States. New York: Springer.

McPherson, J., & Abell, N. (2012). Human rights engage- ment and exposure: New scales to challenge social work education. Research on Social Work Practice, 22, 704–713.

Morgaine, K. (2006). Domestic violence and human rights: Local challenges to a universal framework. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 33, 109–129.

Munro, E. R., Pinkerton, J., Mendes, P., Hyde-Dryden, G., Herczog, M., & Benbenishty, R. (2011). The contribu- tion of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to understanding and promoting the inter- ests of young people making the transition from care to adulthood.Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 2417–2423.

National Association of Social Workers. (2015a). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from pubs/code/code.asp

National Association of Social Workers. (2015b). Interna- tional policy on human rights. In Social work speaks: National Association of Social Workers policy statements 2015–2017 (10th ed., pp. 182–187). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

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Reichert, E. (2011). Social work and human rights: A founda- tion for policy and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Colum- bia University.

Scherrer, J. L. (2012). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States. Social Work, 57, 11–22.

Staub-Bernasconi, S. (2012). Human rights and their rele- vance for social work as theory and practice. In L. M. Healy & R. J. Link (Eds.),Handbook of international social work: Human rights, development, and the global pro- fession (pp. 30–36). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Convention and the Optional Protocol. British Journal of Social Work, 34, 1173–1188.

Viviers, A., & Lombard, A. (2012). The ethics of children’s participation: Fundamental to children’s rights realiza- tion in Africa. International Social Work, 56, 7–21.

Watkinson, A. M., & Rock, L. (2016). Child physical pun- ishment and international human rights: Implications for social work education. International Social Work, 59, 86–98.

Wronka, J. (2008). Human rights and social justice: Social action and service for the helping and health professions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Julie A. Steen, PhD, MSW, is associate professor, Mary Mann, MSW, is instructor, Nichole Restivo, MSW, is research assistant, Shellene Mazany, MSW, LCSW, is online MSW coordinator and instructor, and Reshawna Chapple, PhD, LCSW, is assistant professor, School of Social Work, University of Central Florida, Orlando. Address correspondence to Julie Steen, School of Social Work, University of Central Florida, 12805 Pegasus Drive, Orlando, FL 32816; e-mail:

Original manuscript received October 27, 2015 Final revision receivedMay 4, 2016 Editorial decision May 18, 2016 Accepted May 20, 2016 Advance Access Publication November 17, 2016

17Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

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human resources

Below are each of the Core learning outcomes (CLOs) for the course. You are to show evidence of your knowledge of each CLO by providing research of at least three resources per topic.  Only one resource can be the text.  In addition, you will need to provide two organizational examples through your research for each core learning objective. Please be sure your resources and research include the following information related to each topic. ALL Topics must be included in the research work.

Topic: Include all 5 topics/learning objectives to research.

Length and format:

The paper should be approximately 7-10 pages in length excluding the cover page.
Each new topic/core learning objective should be clearly noted.  For example, you might bold and underline a new topic you begin to discuss.
References should be listed at the end of each topic and all 5 topics should be 1.5 to 2 pages in length with 12point font, double-spaced with one-inch margins. Use the APA format for all references.
Originality: At least 75% of the verbiage in your offering for each topic must be in your own words. Up to 25% can be the words of others taken from either the text or from the articles you used in support of your offering. You may paraphrase (which is taking the words of others and restating them in your own words see Online Writing Lab (OWL) (Links to an external site.), or you may quote the words of others as long as you give proper credit (see APA link below). Be careful not to plagiarize which is using the words of others and presenting them as your own. Any verbiage presented in your offering that is not properly cited or given appropriate credit will be deemed as you presenting those words as your own.

Late Assignments: I want to make sure we are absolutely clear on this, so there are no misunderstandings down the line. Last minute emergencies, technological problems (computer crashes), etc. will not be grounds for me to give you any more time than the time you have now to do get the assignment uploaded. Be sure to back up and save a copy of your Assignment in case you or we experience technical problems.

Submission: Assignments must be uploaded as a single file attachment (no multiple files will be accepted). I will be able to accept any file saved in Rich Text Format (.rtf) format or Word doc format. This is a 300-level (junior level) class ~~ I expect at least 300-level (junior level) work. You will be graded on what you submit (see grading rubric).

References: Each topic/core learning objective review should contain at least two to three appropriate quotes and citations and two examples from organizations that support the 5 core learning objectives and topics individually2.  This requires research and I ask that you utilize the Park Online Library and reference these examples of industries performing these functions. If you need support on using the APA style, please visit the following websites.

Online Writing Lab  (Links to an external site.)
Content: When writing your papers, be sure to include applicable excerpts from the article (in quotes and referenced) that you use in support of your statements.  Do not forget to include the organizational/industrial examples for each section and CLO.


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Human Resource Capstone/ Training And Employee Development

300–500 words (Human Resource Capstone)

Within the Discussion Board area, write 300–500 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

For this Discussion Board, please complete the following:

Employee compensation and benefits are a key way that companies are able to attract talented employees. To design a competitive compensation and benefits package, HR professionals choose from an array of salary options and benefits providers. There are also legal considerations that must be considered. Consider a small company of 200 employees, and with your fellow classmates, please discuss the following:

(Training and employee development )

Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

  1. What is the purpose of conducting a training needs analysis?
  2. Describe the process of a training needs analysis.
  3. Use examples, either from your personal experience or from research, of the types of training needs analyses that organizations use to define training options.
  4. How do organizations use the process to determine the best approach to designing training?
  • What employment laws need to be considered to prevent discrimination?
  • What kinds of benefits would you offer to employees, and what benefits providers would you use?
  • What strategy would you use to ensure that employee salaries attract the best talent?

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Find a cultural artifact (e.g.., an advertisement, short music video, meme, etc.) that represents some aspect of human sexuality

For this post, I’d like you to do some googling and:

1) Find a cultural artifact (e.g.., an advertisement, short music video, meme, etc.) that represents some aspect of human sexuality.   Then,

2) Choose an article from this week that you want your peers to use as “lens”  to analyze the representation of sexuality in that particular artifact.    (For example,  maybe you find a Coors Beer Gay Pride ad.  Or you see a McDonald’s commercial and you want to use Valenti’s  “Cult of Virginity” article.   I don’t know if this commercial exists, but hey.  Be creative.  Find interesting or boring artifacts; remember not all of them have to be blatantly “sexual” for sexual subtexts (and presumed norms, values, etc) to be present.)

This post (i.e.,  your artifact and the article you want us to use to analyze it)  DOES NOT COUNT as one of your two required posts for this thread.

3)  Scroll through your peers’ posts.   Choose two.   Use the concepts from the selected reading to help you analyze the artifact.   This is a text-based analysis and should not be based on your opinion.   After engaging with the original text, you’re welcome to include opposing perspectives from other articles.   (i.e.,  maybe that hypothetical McDonald’s ad isn’t really about virginity and controlling women’s bodies but might be better understood using a queer lens from another reading.  Just a thought.)

Be smart.  Be creative.  Show us that you’ve read and are able to use the concepts from the readings to make informed arguments.

Everyone should have three posts on this thread:   One (1) post with your artifact and article  +  two (2) posts that engage with your peers’ artifacts/readings.

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ECON3340 Southern Methodist Economics of Human Resource Management Exam

please answer all the questions.

1.table on the right contains Labour Force Survey data by gender Nova Scotia in May of 2019. Determine the relative labour market performance of males and females based upon the data given. Would consider this to be a temparal or cross-sectional analysis? Explain your answer.

2.Use a graph to explain the costs and benefits of obtaining a post- secondary degree. If a female (or anyone) had an interruption in their career how would this affect the graph and the cost-benefit analysis?

3. Explain the two most recent retirement trends discussed in class and why retirees have changed their behaviour. How are these trends related to pension plans and the labour market?

4. Explain why income inequality is an important issue and how we measure the relative level of income inequality. Explain two policies which are designed to reduce income inequality and explain how we know they are working

5.Explain “points system” that Canada uses to implement its immigration policy. What is the goal of the points system? Explain the two variables which Canada can adjust on its immigration policy?


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Grossmont College Early Human Migrations & Fossil and Genetic History Paper

Early Human Migrations


The fossil and genomic record tell us that our species originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago (These numbers might now go back further). The first 100,000 years were spent in Africa and soon after our species began to expand into different world regions.

What you are doing

Your task will be to explore the complex fossil and genetic history of modern humans as they left Africa for the first time.

For this webquest you will only be able to choose one of the following world regions:

  • The Americas (you will be including both North and South)
  • Europe

All the above world regions have complicated population histories that are the result of a number of populations that have come together to form the present population. What insight do genomic studies of ancient fossils and modern populations give us in reference to the number of founding populations that form your chosen world region?

Before you begin your task make sure you read the following items.

  • Use the following links to help you with your webquest.

Tips for success

  • Please keep your answer to only what is asked in the assignment.
  • I recommend composing your content offline in a text editor and then copy and paste the text into your reply post. If something happens you will have an offline copy of all of your hard work!
  • I highly recommend using Google Docs (Drive) to compose offline, as Google plays well with web-based forums. If you are using Microsoft Word to compose offline, you may need to do some editing to the format when you paste it into the reply.

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