What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?.

Advertising campaign

selects an advertising campaign created by an external (not in-house) advertising agency for its client that is a national or international product, brand, service, company, or organization. The campaign must be current and will have run in the media within the last two year (2016-2018). The campaign must be in the English language.

An advertising campaign is defined as a series of related ads that are based on the same theme, message, and offer. The Snickers series commercials “You’re Not You When You’re Hungry,” is a good example of a campaign. It was created for the Snickers brand by ad agency BBDO. Another good example is Dos Equis’ “The Most Interesting Man in the World” campaign created for Dos Equis by ad agency Havas.

The advertising agency must be an external agency, not an in-house agency owned or controlled by the brand or manufacturer. The campaign must have been placed and appeared in at least two different media (e.g., TV, magazine, radio, newspaper, digital, social media, etc.).

Here is the assignment:
Deconstruct and analyze the selected campaign and present your analysis in a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation of 14 slides plus an introductory, title slide and a sources slide (for a total of 16 slides). The first slide (introductory) must include your name, the advertising campaign and the advertising agency selected. Slide 16 is the Sources slide that will reference any source material or texts that you include in the body of your presentation. Sources in the slide must be in APA format. Information from the Wells Library on how to develop and write sources is at Pages.

Your analysis in the PowerPoint or Prezi will include the following:

1) Copy and paste (for print, outdoor, Web, social media) or embed or provide a link (for TV, radio or video, digital) in the PowerPoint for at least two of the ads.

2) Present a thorough description of what you believe is the target audience for the campaign, including demographics, psychographics (attitudes, values, and lifestyle – VALS). Answer the questions: a) Does the campaign in your opinion demonstrate understanding and empathy for this target audience? How? b) Does the advertising “connect” emotionally with the target audience? If so, how?

3) Answer these questions succinctly in your PowerPoint: a) What is the business problem this ad campaign is solving for the product, brand or company? b) What is the advertising communication objective of the ad? c) Is this a new product being introduced, or is this a reintroduction of an existing product? d) Is this campaign building brand awareness and identity, or is this a special sales promotion to move the product by price incentives?

4) Based on your analysis: a) what is the creative strategy of the campaign? b) what is the “big idea?” or what is the major promise of the campaign? c) what emotional “connection” has been created between the brand and the consumer? d) does the ad use some memorable creative device to communicate its benefits to the consumer? Examples of memorable creative devices are the Gecko character in Geico; or the duck in Aflac; or the Old Spice “man.”

5) a) What are the key consumer benefits of the brand that are communicated in the campaign? b) what are the rational benefits communicated? c) what are the emotional benefits communicated? d) are there supporting reasons to purchase or try the product? e) is there a “call to action”– asking the consumer to do something specifically like go to a Website, redeem a coupon, call a toll-free number, come in for a test drive?

6) Is there anything that you would do to improve the ad to make it better, more effective?

7) What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

8) Do you think the ad is ethically and socially responsible? Why or why not?

9) Develop an overview of the advertising agency that produced the campaign – this will require research through sources such as www.adforum.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.  or www.adage.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Specify the ad agency name, size, (number of people and/or revenue) location, clients, awards, reputation, and advertising specializations.
Other sources to identify the advertising agency include the Websites of five major ad agency holding companies: www.omnicomgroup.com; (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. www.wpp.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; www.publicisgroupe.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; www.havas.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; and www.interpublic.com. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. At these sites, you can find the individual agency you are researching under a tab that will list all the agencies the holding company owns. For instance, Chicago headquartered agency Leo Burnett is under www.publicisgroupe.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., Ogilvy is under www.wpp.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., and so on.
Another way to find the ad agency that created the campaign is to Google, Use the search words for the brand and the agency, e.g. “Ad agency for Snickers, Betty White” or “Snickers advertising agency, You’re Not You When You’re Hungry” or “Geico ad agency.”

Have fun with the creation of your PowerPoint or Prezi, and feel free to use graphics, images, animation and sound. This is your opportunity to shine creatively while thinking critically about how advertising is created and constructed.

Make sure you have selected the correct agency that created the campaign. If you are not certain AFTER you have thoroughly done your research, ask me. A common mistake is to incorrectly think the company that makes the product (the manufacturer, marketer or advertiser) is the advertising agency. For instance, the maker of Tide is Procter & Gamble, but P&G is not an ad agency; it is the manufacturer and the marketer that hires ad agencies for its 300 plus brands. The same is true for other manufacturers and marketers of multiple brands: Unilever, General Mills, Kellogg’s, Kraft, ConAgra, and Kimberly-Clark–these are all manufacturers and marketers who HIRE external ad agencies; they are not ad agencies. Selecting the wrong agency will reduce the grade on this assignment by two full grades.

1) Presentation is well organized, neatly and clearly presented. Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation are used. Correct number of slides are included. Correct APA format used in sources slide.  25 points
2) Responses to prompts/questions are complete, accurate, and demonstrate ability to analyze an advertising campaign and to think critically about key issues related to advertising.  25 points
3) Presentation demonstrates ability to analyze and apply course and text content; ability to conduct secondary research; and ability to clearly express ideas and opinions informed from the research and source materials. All key questions in assignment are answered. 25 points
4) Presentation demonstrates ability to design, create, and write a PowerPoint or Prezi as an effective communication tool for an audience. 25 points

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What measurement do you think is necessary to determine if the campaign is successful in accomplishing its objectives?

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Demonstrate an understanding of basic business law, its practices and principles, and the legal environment in which business operates

Demonstrate an understanding of basic business law, its practices and principles, and the legal environment in which business operates. OutcomeA1.1:

Demonstrate an understanding of basic business law, its practices and principles, and the legal environment in which business operates.


You are the Business Development Manager of a travel agency ‘World Wide Tours’ which is operating in the GCC countries.

You and a colleague have been requested by the Regional Manager to investigate opening a branch of ‘World Wide Tours’ in the UK.  Before going any further with this initiative, it is considered important to establish the legal background for operating a business in the UK.


A specific requirement is that you provide background information about the legal environment within which any business operates in the UK. You must include a description of the following:

  • the sources of law in the UK (5 marks),

  • the English Court System (5 marks),

  • the alternative forms of Dispute Resolution in the UK (5 marks),

  • the methods of International Dispute Resolution (5 marks)

  • the role and application of ethics to the operations of a business (5 marks)




You will need to report on the legal institutions and processes in the UK for creating and enforcing the law. You will need to explain the options for resolving international disputes. Finally, you will need to discuss the role ethics plays in business and its impact on the way a business conducts its operations.

The assignment is to be 1500 -2000 words and presented as a professional report including citations and a List of References identifying all of your sources. (5 marks)

Task 1 is to be uploaded on Moodle and submitted to Turnitin

on or before 30 September 2018.



Task 2 Individual REPORT (Parts 1 and 2)


Maximum 70  marks allocated

Submission date:  30 September 2018


You have been asked to prepare a report for a seminar to explain aspects of contract and tort law to your colleagues. You are asked to illustrate the legal principles by the use of case studies, as detailed below.

You should include the following in a professionally produced report:


Part 1 (30 marks)

Outcome A2.1:         Identify the basis, terms and validity of commercial contracts.

Question 1:

  • Betty wants to buy Don’s boat. She telephones him and asks Don how much he would be willing to sell his boat for.  Don tells her, ‘Not less than AED85000’. Betty says, ‘I accept your price, I will bring you the money this afternoon.’

Advise Don whether he is legally obliged to proceed with the sale.          (2 mark)


  • Bilal sees a television set in a shop with a price tag of AED 1500. He says he will buy the television set but the shop assistant says that the price tag should read AED 2000 and refuses to sell it to him for AED 1500.

Is there a contract and why?

(3 marks)

  • Explain the differences between:

(i)  executed consideration, and

(ii) executory consideration, and

(iii) past consideration.                                                                                       (4 marks)



  • If a family member wants to establish that an agreement with another family

member is to be legally binding, what must he/she do and why?

(3 marks)



Question 2:

(a)Explain the meaning and significance of the following 5 contractual terms (numbered 1 to 5 below). Give an example of each.


  1. Express term
  2. Implied term
  3. Condition
  4. Warranty
  5. Innominate term    (6 marks)


Question 3:

(1) What is an exclusion clause?                                                          (2 marks)


(2) In each of the 2 following situations, have the exclusion clauses been

incorporated into the contract? Give reasons using cases, if possible.


  • Mohammed buys a ticket to a concert. On the back of the ticket, there is a clause excluding liability for any loss or damage to the property of the concert goer, howsoever caused.                                                                           (3 marks)


  • Ayesha arrives at a hotel, checks in and goes to her room. There is a notice on the wall saying that the hotel will not be liable for any loss of valuable items, if the safety box in the room is not used. Ayesha has been to the hotel 3 times in the last 6 months.                                                                          (3 marks)


(3) The Consumer Rights Act 2015 implies terms into contracts for the sale of   goods. Explain the purpose and impact of sections 9, 10, 11 and 15 of the Act.

(4 marks)



You will need to report on the legal principles and their application in contract law. You will need to explain the essential elements for a valid contract and their impact on the validity of a contract. In addition, you are required to explain specific terms found in contracts and their significance and the effect of legislation on contractual terms.

Part 2 (40 marks)

Outcome B1.1:         Understand the key provisions of consumer protection legislation.

Outcome B2.1:          Explain the processes for set up of different types of businesses.



  1. Explain the 3 elements to be proved by the claimant to be successful in a claim for the tort of Negligence?                                   (10 marks)


  1. Maha, who recently passed her driving test, decides to drive to the shopping mall. On turning right at an intersection, she negligently fails to see a car being driven by Tariq and crashes into it. Tariq was not wearing a seatbelt at the time of the accident and was badly injured. Tariq’s wife, Noura, hears the crash and rushes to the scene of the accident; she is so shocked at seeing Tariq’s injuries that she shortly afterwards develops a psychiatric illness.

Explain the legal liability of Maha and explain how the defence of Contributory  Negligence can affect such a claim.                                                  (12 marks)

  1. Explain the 4 following types of fiduciary duty which an agent owes to the principal; (i) duty not to take bribes, (ii) duty not to make secret profits , (iii) duty to avoid a conflict of interest and (iv) duty to account.

(8 marks)


Outcome C3.1:      Understand the key provisions of employment protection legislation


  1. You have been dismissed from your job. You want to make a claim against your employer and are comparing the criteria to be satisfied to bring a claim in either:

(i) wrongful dismissal, or

(ii) unfair dismissal.

Identify the criteria to be met to bring a claim in each and the advantages and disadvantages of each type of claim.

(10 marks)


You will need to report on the legal principles and their application in tort law. You will need to explain the legal basis for a claim in tort. In addition, you are required to explain specific terms from the law of agency and specific provisions from employment legislation.


Task 2 (Parts 1 and 2) is to be 2500 -3000 words and presented as an individual professional report including citations and a List of References identifying all your sources.

The report is to be uploaded on Moodle and submitted to Turnitin

on or before 30 September 2018



Demonstrate an understanding of basic business law, its practices and principles, and the legal environment in which business operates

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It’s the same for the selection of HC in the market

It’s the same for the selection of HC in the market


It’s the same for the selection of HC in the market

Think specifically about the readings for this module.  Think of the Healthcare marketplace not in the usual sense but as other markets.  There are buyers and sellers.  Take a farmer’s market.  How do you pick the best tomato (i.e., the quality of the product)?  

It’s the same for the selection of HC in the market.  How does one measure quality?  Are their rules involved?  Did the rules change with COVID-19






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Logic Of George Boole And Its Application To The Design Of Modern Computers

Logic Of George Boole And Its Application To The Design Of Modern Computers

Modern computers are now considered as one of the most important digital machines in our modern time. People use computers in many ways. In business, computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners, check customers’ credit status, and transfer funds electronically. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel, thereby increasing gas mileage. Computers also entertain, creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. Computer programs, or applications, exist to aid every level of education, from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus.  But did you know that that the design of modern computers originally came from the logician George Boole who developed the Boolean algebra?

Logic Of George Boole And Its Application To The Design Of Modern Computers

Boolean algebra is a two-valued algebra system representing logical relationships and operations. Later, scientists and physicists like John von Neumann and Alan Turing used his algebra system to develop modern computers.

In the latter part of the study you will see the different people who used the Boolean algebra as their channel for the progress of digital computers.

Boole, George (1815-1864), British mathematician and logician, who developed Boolean algebra. He was born on November 2, 1815 in Lincolnshire, England.   Largely self-educated, in 1849 Boole was appointed professor of mathematics at Queen’s College (now University College) in Cork, Ireland. In 1854, in An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Boole described an algebraic system that later became known as Boolean algebra. In Boolean algebra, logical propositions are denoted by symbols and can be acted on by abstract mathematical operators that correspond to the laws of logic. Boolean algebra is of prime importance to the study of pure mathematics and to the design of modern computers. He died on December 8, 1864 in Ballintemple, Country Cork, Ireland.

Boolean Algebra is a branch of mathematics with laws and properties similar to, but different from, ordinary high school algebra. Formally a Boolean algebra is a mathematical system consisting of a set of elements, which may be called B, together with two binary operations, which the symbols and may denote ⊗. These operations are defined on the set B and satisfy the following axioms:

1. ⊕ and ⊗ are both commutative operations. That is, for any elements x, y of the set B, it is true that x⊕Y = y⊕x and x⊗y = y⊗x.

2. Each of the operations ⊕ and ⊗ distributes over the other. That is, for any elements x, y, and z of the set B, it is true that x⊕ (y⊗z) = (x⊕y) ⊗ (x⊕z), and x⊗ (y⊕z) = (x⊗y) ⊕ (x⊗z).

3. There exists in the set B a distinct identity element for each of the operations ⊕ and ⊗. These elements are usually denoted by the symbols 0 and 1 such that 0 ≠ 1, and have the property that 0 ⊕x = x and 1 ⊗x = x for any element x in the set B.

4. For each element x in the set B there exists a distinct corresponding element called the complement of x, usually denoted by the symbol x’. With respect to the operations ⊕ and ⊗, the element x’ has the property that x⊕x’ = 1 and x ⊗x’ = 0.

A Boolean algebra may have other sets of axioms, all of which may be shown to be equivalent to those just given. The axioms given here are essentially those first published by the American mathematician Edward Huntington in Postulates for the Algebra of Logic (1904).

The English mathematician George Boole first treated the subject in 1854. It is possible to denote the operations ⊕ and ⊗ by any two symbols; +, ∨, and ◡ are sometimes used instead of Å, and ×, ^, ∩, ·, and O instead of ⊗.

As an example of a Boolean algebra, consider any set X and let P (X) stand for the collection of all possible subsets of the set X. P (X) is sometimes called the power set of the set X. P (X), together with ordinary set union (◡) and set intersection (∩), forms a Boolean algebra. In fact, every Boolean algebra may be represented as algebra of sets.

From the symmetry of the axioms with respect to the two operations and their respective identities, one is able to prove the so-called principle of duality. This principle asserts that any algebraic statement deducible from the axioms of Boolean algebra remains true if the operations ⊕ and ⊗and the identities 1 and 0 are interchanged throughout the statement. Of the many theorems that can be deduced from the axioms of a Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s laws, that (x⊕y)’ = x’⊗y’ and that (x⊗y)’ = x’⊕y’, are particularly noteworthy.

The elements that are contained in the set B of a Boolean algebra may be abstract objects, or concrete things such as numbers, propositions, sets, or electrical networks. In Boole’s original development, the elements of a Boolean algebra were a collection of propositions, or simple declarative sentences having the property that they were either

true or false but not both. The operations were essentially conjunction and disjunction, denoted by the symbols ^ and ∨ respectively. If x and y represent two propositions, then the expression x∨y (read x or y) would be true if and only if either x or y or both were true. The statement x ^ y (read x and y) would be true if and only if both x and y were true. In this type of Boolean algebra, an element or proposition’s complement is simply the statement’s negation.

A Boolean algebra of propositions and a Boolean algebra of sets are closely connected. For example, let p be the statement, “The ball is blue,” and let P be the set of all elements for which the statement p is true, that is, the set of all blue balls. P is called the truth set for the proposition p. Indeed, if P and Q are the truth sets for statements p and q, then the truth set for the statement p∨q is clearly P ◡ Q and for p ^ q the truth set is P ∩Q.

Boolean algebra has many practical applications in the physical sciences, in electric-circuit theory and particularly in the field of computers.

As an example of an application of Boolean algebra in electrical-circuit theory, let p and q denote two propositions: declarative sentences that are either true or false but not both. If each of the propositions p and q is associated with a switch that will be closed if the proposition is true, and open if the proposition is false, then the statement

p ^ q may be represented by connecting the switches in series. The current will flow in this circuit if and only if both switches are closed, that is, if both p and q are true. Similarly, a circuit with switches connected in parallel can be used to represent the statement p∨q. In this case the current will flow if either p or q or both are true and the respective switches are closed. More complicated statements give rise to more complex switching circuits.

The objectives of the study aims to know the life of the logician George Boole. To recognize and appreciate the people who used the system of Boolean algebra and the help given by Boole’s logic to design modern computers.

The importance of the study is to know whether the logic of George Boole has a great aid to the design of modern computers. To be thankful and grateful to the people that aided and contributed to the design of today’s computers.

This chapter includes the review of Related Literature about the study entitled The Logic of George Boole and its Application to the Design of Modern Computers.

“How do computers do what they do?” and “How does a computer engineer design a computer?” A computer and similar complex machines is at the heart a system of circuits that perform logical and arithmetic operations. It was determined that the cheapest way to make such a machine was to start with the binary number system which could be effectively handled with Boolean algebra. The computer in front of you does its math and logical thinking using Boolean algebra. The Boolean algebra was used to design the switching circuits of the computer. The materials used to build the switching circuits are not important in this lecture. The logical design used to make the switching circuits work correctly is important in this lecture. Using Boolean algebra, the computer can do logical thinking very fast and inexpensively thanks to the underlying semiconductor electronic circuitry.

In the future computers chips may be made of some material other than semiconductors, perhaps a biological material that is alive and has been genetically designed to do Boolean algebra. And so computers would be grown in laboratories. This

may lead to truly new life forms. I hope that thought doesn’t scare you, but motivates you to learn computer logic. But for now the computers we have today are still the marvels of technology. And even though you find computers of different flavors and capabilities, they all have a few things in common. One very important common thing among computers is that they process information using the rules of Boolean algebra.


This chapter includes the Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data about the study.


George Boole           British logician and mathematician           1847   Boolean algebra

Konrad Zuse German Engineer    1930’s Z1 calculating machine

John Atanasoff         American Physicist  Late 1930’s   Design of the first digital computer

Clifford Berry American Physicist  Late 1930’s   Design of the first digital computer

Alan Turing   British mathematician         1930’s Recognized binary logic for the development in digital computers

Claude Shannon     American Mathematician    1940’s Recognized binary logic for the development in the digital computers

John von Neumann Hungarian-born Mathematician    1944 to 1945 Usage of the binary arithmetic system for storing programs in computer

B. Analysis and Interpretation of Data

19th-century British logician and mathematician George Boole, who in 1847 invented a two-valued system of algebra that represented logical relationships and operations first proposed binary logic. German engineer Konrad Zuse used this system of algebra, called Boolean algebra, in the 1930s for his Z1 calculating machine. American physicist John Atanasoff and his graduate student Clifford Berry also used it in the design of the first digital computer in the late 1930s. During 1944 and 1945 Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann suggested using the binary arithmetic system to store computer programs. In the 1930s and 1940s British mathematician Alan Turing and American mathematician Claude Shannon also recognized how binary logic was well suited to developing digital computers.

This chapter includes the summary, conclusion and the recommendation of the study entitled the logic of George Boole and its application to the design of modern computers.

Today in our modern world, people use computers in making their researches and in storing important facts and information. It was made possible by the logic of George Boole, Boolean algebra and the mathematicians like John von Neumann and Claude Shannon. In the year 1847, British logician and mathematician George Boole invented a two-valued system of algebra called Boolean algebra. Then Konrad Zuse who independently developed “electromechanical” computers, in which a series of electrically controlled devices known as relay represented numbers, Z1 calculating machine used Boole’s concept. In late 1930’s, John Atanasoff, Clifford Berry and Alan Turing designed the first digital computer and introduced the concept of a theoretical computing device now known as Turing device, which was important in the development of the digital computer respectively. Claude Shannon who developed information theory, which is a theoretical study, however, it has had a profound impact on the design of practical data communication and storage systems, such as telephones and computers. During 1944 to 1945, Hungarian-born American mathematician, John von Neumann: who was also known for the design of high-speed electronic computers.

These people became a part and have a great part in the advancement in the design of digital computers. This only means that Boole affects all of our lives in this contemporary world together with the people who contributed in the design of modern computers

            Therefore I conclude that the concept of Boolean algebra by George Boole really helped in the development and progress in the design of digital computers. Through the people like Alan Turing and Konrad Zuse who aided and used Geroge Booles’ two-valued system of algebra in the advancement of computers that without them digital computers would be impossible. This connection of Boole with the design of computers means only that he affects all of our lives in the modern world because we are using the product of his logic in our every day lives.

            I would like to recommend that further studies should be conducted about Boolean algebra and how it works and used as a mathematical system primarily used in the design of computers. The life of George Boole and the people who used his logic should also be deeply studied.





Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

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What did you find of most interest or revealing about Apple during your research from1985 to 1996? Describe its importance to our research.

Management; Apple Company Leadership

What did you find of most interest or revealing about Apple during your research from 1985 to 1996? Describe its importance to our research.

Apple is one of the most successful technology companies globally. Founded by Steven Jobs, the company had flourished since 1976, however the period between 1985- 1996, the company experienced the lowest sales due to change in leadership (Scheneiders, 2010). The following are some of the leadership changes and their implications are as follows.

What did you find of most interest or revealing about Apple during your research from 1985 to 1996? Describe its importance to our research.

  • In 1985– the co-founder Steve Jobs was stripped of all his power and authority in the company. This made him to sell off all his shares as a retaliation response and he moved to founding another technology company called NeXT Inc.
  • 1n 1985– John Sculley took over as the chairman of the board of directors and the company’s new leader. Change in leadership however in most instances does not mean change in loyalty; this means that employees may not necessarily be willing to adopt the new methods imposed by the new leader.
  • In 1987– Apple Inc had its first corporate stock dividend, the stock split and with it came a quarterly dividend of 0.3%. This means that the company’s stock value decreased (Fiancial times, June 1985).
  • Between 1989-1990– the Sculley spearheaded the acquisition of many companies to keep up with the quality of work that Steve Jobs did. Some of the companies acquired during the time; Styleware, Coral software, Satellite Communication Company, Orion Network System and Nashoba Systems. Some of these acquisitions ended up being more of liabilities than assets to the company.
  • Early 1990– this was under the leadership of Spindler, the company was involved in the manufacture of too many models that created confusion because they had minor differentiations. This was also accompanied by poor marketing strategies and the retailers would refuse to display the computers. This tarnished the PR of the company as it was known to be based on simplicity. This decreased the sales of the devices and decreased the revenue earned by the company (Linzmayer, 2004).
  • Several poor decisions were also witnessed during this time for instance the purchase of the competing firm IBM, a decision that was made in order to prevent Sun Microfinance from acquiring the company. Also during the same time there was a need to make a deeper penetration into the market the company signed a contract with a third party to Apple Inc had as it was only able to get 10% of the plough back from the endeavour.
  • Officially the company was sinking as it had lost the market share control it initially had and there was a decrease in innovation and revenue. This prompted the board to request Steve Jobs, the co-founder to return as an interim CEO in 1996. Once Jobs came back he was able to make the company focus on the manufacture of a limited variety of products as opposed to many products that have no sales. He also found a loophole in the 3rd party licensing of the Mac Os and terminated the contract (Scheneiders, 2010). The company was restored to its initial glory as was termed as one of the biggest company turns of the 21st century.


Financial Times, Peter Hawk, Apple Computer Experiences Change in Leadership, Retrieved from Public Plans, June 1985

Linzmayer, W. O. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0; the Definitive History of the Company, Springer Publishers

Scheneiders, S. (2010). Apple’s Secret of Success- Traditional Marketing Vs Cult Marketing, Oxford University Press, New York

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The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States.


The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States. To sustain the relevance of the information, the research points out the main points and uses statistics from reliable sources. The research will focus on primary sections that include the negative and positive effects marijuana has on individuals. Moreover, the research will discuss the symptoms associated with the withdrawal from the use of marijuana, for example, loss of memory. Addiction is also discussed in the research and the probable means of treating it. It is also clear that marijuana abuse has adverse effects on the brain and it is discussed by capturing the chemical aspect of the harmful process. Finally, the research paper has personal contributions that can be applied in dealing with marijuana abuse. These methods include the use of professionals to prescribe the drug in the states that have legalized its consumption. This avoids cases of addiction and helps curb the adverse effects caused by marijuana.

The following research paper is an in-depth examination of marijuana as a drug and its use in the United States.


Marijuana is currently the most consumed illicit drug in the United States, with users ranging from the age of 12 years. The prevalence of the drug in the United States can be blamed on different reasons that continuously make it accessible to its users. Peer pressure is one of the reasons behind the drug’s prevalence among teenagers. Taking the drug is portrayed as an acceptable and prestigious gesture among peers. As such, many teenagers end up consuming it because they want to relate to what their peers are doing. Statistical studies present marijuana as the most abused illicit drug in the United States with 11.5% of all the citizens in the country abusing it. Since 2002, the drug’s abuse rate has been escalating annually, and the trend has been consistent (Budney, Roffman, Stephens & Walker, 2007). The statistics also reveal that the spread of marijuana abuse is highly occurring in high schools and colleges. Clearly, the schools stand out as the most probable places that the abuse of marijuana prevails because of the gullibility of the students. They are young and curious to try out different substances, including marijuana.

Once people begin abusing marijuana, there are high probabilities that their bodies become addicted to the substance. The chemicals contained in marijuana spread from the lungs to the bloodstream. Sequentially, the chemicals pass through the bloodstreams to the brain where they alter the functionality of the cells. This is why people get used to the drug to the extent of addiction because the chemicals alter the brain’s functionality. An addict is bound to experience severe symptoms, which include a craving for the drug upon withdrawal from the substance. It is also common for a marijuana addict to experience uncontrollable mood swings that affect their thinking and can end up acting in abnormal ways (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011). Sleep disruption is also an effect that addicts face upon withdrawing from marijuana. Loss of memory is also an effect commonly experienced by marijuana abusers, and this is attributed to the damaged brain cells upon supplying it with harmful chemicals (Onaivi, 2002).  

Several effects of the abuse of marijuana have been witnessed among the addicts, which is one of the reasons it is viewed as an illegal substance. Addiction is one of the leading effects of abusing marijuana, where the users find it difficult to stop using the drug. Loss of control of someone’s action is a probable effect seen among marijuana abusers. Once a person abuses the substance, they are most likely to consume it in large quantities. In turn, their thinking capacity is impaired and can act uncontrollably. Hangovers are common among marijuana users with many experiencing lazy moments and migraines once the substance subsidizes from the body (Onaivi, 2002). Marijuana abusers are at times associated with immoral acts such as stealing and violence because of the impairment subjected to the brain.

Statistics show that marijuana addicts that seek medical help to quit the drug must have been using it daily. Others have tried to quit, but without any success because the pressure is too much or the environment lacks the proper support for them to stop abusing the drug. Checking into a rehabilitation center is a common treatment that marijuana addicts seek to help them overcome the addiction. At the centers, the addicts are subjected to behavioral therapies and medications aimed at reducing craving for the drug. Contingency management and family-based treatments are also solutions that marijuana addicts are subjected to with an aim of dealing with their addictions for the drug.

Currently, some of the states in the United States have legalized the consumption of marijuana because it has some beneficial aspects that medical professionals have discovered. It is a common drug used among cancerous patients undergoing chemotherapy. The chemotherapy process is intense, and the patients smoke marijuana to calm their nerves after exposure to radiation. Marijuana has also been discovered to relieve muscle pain, which is helpful to various ill people. For example, people suffering from multiple sclerosis can take marijuana to relieve their pain. However, it is a requirement that the patient consumes marijuana meticulously to avoid negative effects such as addiction.

Marijuana is composed of chemicals readily absorbed into the bloodstream upon consumption. Some of the components channeled to the brain induce negative effects to its cells. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, abbreviated as THC, is a chemical contained in marijuana and highly affects the drug consumer negatively. Once it gets into the brain cells, the chemical creates a euphoric sensation that is transmitted all over the body. The THC also inhibits the brain from forming memories because it affects hippocampus. Upon the release of the THC into the brain cell, the chemical disrupts the function of the cannabinoid receptors. Consequently, the addict’s continuous supply of the THC to the brain cells disrupts the formation of memories (Earleywine, 2002). The addict ends up with blurry images and inconclusive memories about recent activities, especially those moments that unfolded while consuming the drugs.

Marijuana’s prevalence in the United States can be curtailed if the government takes stringent measures to stop its supply. The government is strict about the abuse of marijuana, and for the states that have legalized it, the law is clear that the use has to be monitored by a physician. Indeed, marijuana has advantages that relate to health and has no harm if consumed according to the doctor’s prescription. On the contrary, some people abuse marijuana for entertainment despite the harmful effects of exposure to their brains.


Budney, J. A., Roffman, R., Stephens, S. R., & Walker, D. (2007). Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addict Science Clinic Practice, 4(1), 4-16.

Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Marijuana. Retrieved on 18 March 2014 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/marijuana

Onaivi, E. S. (2002). The biology of marijuana: From gene to behavior. New York, NY: Taylor & F

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The fallacy of Damnation and its corresponding Cardinal Virtue

The fallacy of Damnation and its corresponding Cardinal Virtue

The fallacy of damnation is built around the idea that when an individual has a feeling that something is wrong with him or herself or when one has a feeling that somebody else has a problem, it means that the individual or the person he or she feels has a problem must be worthless (Feinberg, John, Paul, and Aldous, 123). The fallacy goes further to ask questions such as: at what point does one conclude that another person is worthless? Is it right to criticize somebody who performs evil actions simply because one wants him or her to change their behavior? Is it right to compel somebody to do what one thinks is the better way of behaving? Is it right to criticize somebody just out of anger by using his or her wrong behavior as an excuse? The corresponding cardinal virtue for the Damnation fallacy is prudence, which is all about prudence. It guides people to decide between right and wrong, given any particular situation.

Kant’s Deontology as an ethical theory

Immanuel Kant formulated this ethical theory. It is considered deontological due to several reasons. The first reason is that Kant argues that for an individual to behave morally right, he or she must act out of some duty. Kant also argued that it is not as the result of people’s actions that make them wrong or right but as a result of the intentions of their actions. Kant argued that morality is prescriptive. His ethical theory is very vital in the sense that it helps people to know which actions are their duties and which ones are forbidden. Moral statements are very categorical in the sense that they can prescribe actions in spite of their results (Barber, 96). A hypothetical imperative does not demand or prescribe any action. He argues that people should never be used as a means of getting to an end since they are moral being who require human treatment.

How Kant’s theory can serve as an effective antidote for the fallacy of Damnation

The theory of damnation is all about treating people with high morals and avoiding judging others for what they do just based on perceptions. According to Feinberg, John, Paul D, and Aldous (98), people should never become personal with others to the point of revenging on them under the pretext of correcting their wrong behaviors. They should rather treat others based on moral principles since this would give them the wisdom to tell between right and wrong. What Kant’s theory stands for is not very different from the principles of the fallacy of Damnation. Kant says that humans are at the highest point of creation and are rational. They for that matter demand unique and equal treatment. Kant further says that one person’s happiness should never be promoted at the expense of another person’s. People should treat others how they expect to be treated.

The fallacy of Jumping on the Bandwagon and its corresponding cardinal virtue

Bandwagon fallacy is a situation whereby people tend to change their views concerning something irrespective of whether they are factual or not and join the majority’s views to avoid being considered the odd ones out. It has the simple belief that “being that everybody is doing it (or thinking it or saying it); you should also be doing it”. The fallacy argues that the majority is all times right and if a majority is doing something, then, any other individual should be doing it, being that he or she will be part of the majority, which is always right. The argument may be problematic because the premise stating that “the majority is always right” cannot be said to be true (Feinberg, John, Paul, and Aldous 79). The phrase appears stupid and very few people would admit falling for it but it is an easy trap that people would not realize they get into. It is a bandwagon that very few individuals would realize they are jumping into. The cardinal virtue associated with this fallacy is that of justice since it is concerned with the will. People should have their personal opinions listened to without being subjected to the will of the majority.

Sartre’s Existentialistic Ethics

As brought out by Sartre, the main concept in this ethical theory is that existence precedes essence; subjectivity is the beginning of ethics. Sartre says that anything that is human essence only comes after humans have existed and made their choices. This ethical theory is radically different from other theories previously encountered. It is not as prescriptive as other theories such as those of Kant and Aristotle; rather, it comments towards the nature of ethics. Man creates existentialist ethics, they can never exist without being created by man. According to Barber (102), if at all God created humans for a purpose then they have some essence. Humans have a purpose before they are born. But Sartre argues that there is no God and humans cannot have essence before they begin to exist. He writes from an atheistic point of view and makes people wonder if there is any essence of ethics without God.

Why Sartre’s theory serves as an effective antidote for the fallacy of jumping on the Bandwagon

Feinberg, Paul, and Aldous (123) have the opinion that fallacy of jumping on the Bandwagon majorly dwells on the idea of being influenced by peer influence to follow whatever the majority is doing even if it is not right, while Sartre’s theory talks about the essence of ethics and how human existence is significant in the formation of any ethics. Sartre’s theory becomes an effective anecdote for the Bandwagon fallacy because it talks about human nature and human behavior and what affects ethics, which is much related to Bandwagon’s aspect of acting as a majority to influence ethics and human behavior. Sartre has the opinion that human beings have a purpose for existence and should for that matter create their own ethics and behavior without having to follow the majority.

The fallacy of Jumping on the Bandwagon and its corresponding cardinal virtue

The fallacy of Bandwagon fallacy is a situation whereby people tend to change their views concerning something, irrespective of whether they are factual or not and join the views of the majority to avoid being considered the odd one out. It simply believes that “being that everybody is doing it (or thinking it or saying it); you should also be doing it”. The fallacy argues that the majority is all the times right and if a majority is doing something, then, any other individual should be doing it since he or she will be part of the majority, which is always right. The argument may be problematic because the premise stating that “the majority is always right” cannot be said to be true (Feinberg, John, Paul, and Aldous, 112). The phrase appears stupid and very few people would admit falling for it but it is an easy trap that people would not realize they get into. It is a bandwagon that very few individuals would realize they are jumping into. The cardinal virtue associated with this fallacy is that of justice since it is concerned with the will. People should have their personal opinions listened to without being subjected to follow the will of the majority.

Mill’s on Liberty

This is a philosophical work that was developed by John Stuart Mill, a British philosopher. It applies Mill’s ethical principles of utilitarianism to the state and society. Mill seeks to explain the standards for the relationship existing between liberty and authority. He tries to emphasize the significance of individuality, which is considered as a prerequisite for high pleasures. Mills also attempts to criticize the aspect of “tyranny of the majority” in his attempts to defend individualism. His works revolve around the fundamental liberties of individuals, legitimate objections to any form of government intervention, and the relationships existing between an individual and society. This theory is about the struggle between liberty and authority. Mill says that the citizens’ liberties should control the tyranny of the government. He has the belief that control of the authority should be divided into two mechanisms: the necessary rights of the citizens, and the establishment of constitutional control mechanisms in relation to the consent of the whole community. According to Feinberg, John, Paul, and Aldous (98), there should be a sort of representative body to express the interests of the society in the governing power. Mill proposes that it is important for individuals to be left to rule or control themselves; society should be immune to tyranny.

How Mill’s position in On Liberty servers as an effective antidote for the fallacy of jumping on the Bandwagon

Mill’s On Liberty is very effective in the sense that it mainly advocates for individualism rather than tyranny or following a majority. It has the belief that individuals are rational beings and should be left to make their own decisions and control themselves. Mills argues that individuals should have liberty and not subjected by the authority to do things against their will. In relation to the fallacy of jumping on the Bandwagon, Mill argues that the tyranny of numbers or the majority should never be left to influence or dictate individual interests. Barber (99) says that individuals should never be scared to stand for what they think is right simply because they are not part of the majority; majority is not always right, as believed.

Works Cited

Barber, Sotirios A. The Fallacies of States’ Rights. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2013. Internet resource.

Feinberg, John S, Paul D. Feinberg, and Aldous Huxley. Ethics for a Brave New World.   Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2010. Print.

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The Expansion Of Toyota Into Chinese Market Through The Use Of Its Management Model

The Expansion Of Toyota Into Chinese Market Through The Use Of Its Management Model

1.0 Abstract

The modern day business markets exhibit extreme volatilities that make it difficult for their managements to rely on conventional wisdoms and past experiences when trying to effect best management strategies (Uva 2006, p.1).The selection of best management models has called for the top management to carry out intensive research in their organizations to determine their unique needs and challenges. As the effects of modern day globalization continue to pose considerable challenges to the existing management patterns, current managers have been called upon to ‘upgrade’ their skills to cope with the ever changing and demanding business situations.

Though there have been a number of challenges for modern day businesses to overcome, it should be noted that the selection of proper management models to address these challenges has business practically implemented across various business organizations.

This study aims to demonstrate how selection of the best management models can lead to accumulation of a number of benefits for business enterprises. The study selects the expansion of Toyota into the expansive Chinese market through the use of its widely acknowledged management model.

There were various reasons cited for the choice of the model in this market. Some of the key reasons cited in defence of the selection of the model included the need to embrace hybrid technology to answer to the needs of the shifting auto-market towards more fuel-efficient car models. Other reasons cited for the use of the models included the need to reduce on the production costs as well as the need to overcome the stiff competition as posed by Toyota’s rivals amongst them General Motors, Kia Motors, Honda Motors and Ford Motors. 

A variety of challenges stood in waiting for Toyota, having made a late entry into this lucrative but challenging auto-market. Key amongst them were the increasing energy costs that led to the increased costs of production, the few number of skilled manpower that made it difficult to implement the ‘complex’ processes of the model, the very demanding Chinese auto-consumers and the less capital availed to implement the expansion programme.

Towards its end, this study advises on the importance of addressing both the needs of the particular institutions and its business partners when choosing or customizing a particular management model.

2.0 Acknowledgement

This dissertation could not have been successfully completed without the help and guidance of the following groups of individuals who extended lots of valuable assistance in the various stages of the project.

First on the cue, my gratitude goes to the management at Teesside Business School for having introduced this research project amongst its courses. This research has helped me to put my research skills into practice. Also, in availing the course outline in the Project Handbook distributed to each of us, the management ensured that all the course students were fully guided and inspired in overcoming all the obstacles they encountered during the completion of this research project. For this, I also salute them.

In addition, I would like to thank my project supervisor, for having accorded me the necessary support during the preparing and presentation of this research project. His unwavering and moral support was the key to the successful completion of the project.

Many thanks to the 10 primary source respondents in China, who took their time to answer the various questions mailed to them. For showing this gesture, I salute them all.

To my course mates, I say thank you for having given me the needed encouragement. As we “depart” from the institution, I pray that God will open opportunities for us to meet and share our inspirational ideas in future.

To my family and close relatives, I say thank for having provided me with the necessary financial assistance to complete the project. Without your assistance, it would have been impossible to carry out the phone conversations and print the completed versions of this project.

Lastly, for the omnipresent God, I say thanks for having answered all my prayers and having passed on the strength to me to complete this project. For this, thank you Dear Lord. Amen.

Table of Contents

1.0 Abstract_ 2

2.0 Acknowledgement_ 3

3.0 Background_ 5

3.1 Current business environment 5

3.2 Need/Justification for doing the project 6

4.0 Introduction_ 6

5.0 Aim_ 8

6.0 Objectives_ 8

7.0 Literature Review_ 9

7.1 Definitions of management models 10

7.2 Need for management models in business institutions 11

7.3 Management models and their application_ 11

7.4 Management models at successful institutions: Case study of Toyota management model 12

7.5 Components of the Toyota management models 13

7.5.1 The marketing system_ 13

7.5.2 Product development system_ 14

7.5.3 The design management system_ 14

7.5.4 Standardized work sequences 14

7.5.5 Just-In-Time Systems 14

7.5.6 Addressing “customer” needs 14

8.0 Toyotas expansion into Chinese market 16

9.0 Other factors which facilitated Toyota’s entry into Chinese market 17

9.1 The 4P Model 17

Diagram 2 showing the 4P model 18

10.0 Comparison of Toyota and other rivals 18

10.1 Honda Motors 18

10.2 Kia and Hyundai Motors 20

10.3 General Motors (GM) Ltd_ 20

10.4 Ford Motors 22

11.0 Research Strategy_ 22

11.1 The study population_ 23

11.2 Sampling Technique 24

11.2.1 Random Sampling Technique 24

11.3 Main source of Research Data 24

11.3.1 Secondary source 24

11.4 Methods and techniques of Data Collection_ 27

11.4.1 Questionnaires 27

11.4.2 Follow-up phone interviews 29

12.0 Findings_ 30

13.0 Presentation and Interpretation_ 31

14.0 Conclusions_ 35

15.0 Recommendations_ 35

16.0 References_ 38

17.0 Appendices_ 41

Appendix A: Project Report Certification (Sample) 41

Appendix B: Research Ethics Form (Sample) 43

Appendix C. The Chevy Volt electric vehicle, one of Toyota hybrid cars of 21st-century. 45

Appendix D. Sample Research Questionnaire 46



3.0 Background 

3.1 Current business environment       

Today’s business environment has been greatly affected by the increased effects of globalization. These increased effects of globalization have forced international businesses to undergo processes of rapid transforms (Thurman 1993, p.39). For instance, during the period 1970-1990, the total items produced as well as the flow of finance around the globe rapidly increased from 12% to a high of 27% for the produce and 3 trillion to 50 trillion for the financial flows. The increased business transformations have left businesses trying to overcome the many internal and external challenges. Some of these challenges have been fundamental; thus calling for rapid and/or reactive adjustments to be effected by managements of affected businesses. This is in order for them to maintain a competitive status.

 Ideally, even though today’s firms can be said to possess large physical assets and routinely undertake huge investments in fixed plants, research and development, market development, and so forth, the overall success factor seems to boil down to how capable the people in the organization are-in terms of such aspects as spotting business opportunities and mobilizing their own business research initiatives to go after these opportunities (Amdam 1996, p.246). Competent “brain driven” staffs are therefore vital in running modern day industries.

3.2 Need/Justification for doing the project

It is for the above reasons that Teesside university school of business has identified and incorporated a Business Research and Project Module under its key courses to enable its students to sharpen their research skills as well as acquire the relevant knowledge spurring the growth and development of modern day competitive industries. In this module, students are required to demonstrate their unique business research capabilities by demonstrating their abilities to identify and investigate topical management or business issues or problem. The students go ahead to analyse and evaluate relevant information, drawing supportive conclusions and making recommendations for effecting changes.

4.0 Introduction

In a spontaneous attempt to address the recent negative effects of globalization, especially the challenge of increased stiff competition, managers of multinational companies have identified and implemented the use of a growing number of management models (Jonker & Eskildsen 2009, p.2). These models have provided a “stable” theoretical framework that can be used to observe, create and assess a real life organizational ‘situation ‘in order to make desired (future) improvements (Jonker & Eskildsen 2009, p.3).Management models shape the way managers think, manage and run their organizations (Rapid Business Improvement 2007). According to Smith and others (2010), management models combine three elements necessary to develop and systematize a management approach within and outside the company (p.11). These elements include a definition of performance; a set of management objectives; and organizational devices, processes and skills (Smith et al. 2010, p.112).

In assessing the assessing the practical application of management models across various multinational corporations, this business dissertation narrows down to the use of the management model by the world’s undisputed leading auto manufacturer, Toyota, to its new Chinese market.  Toyota’s expansion into the world’s populous and lucrative market of China in 2002 was marked by the use of its Japanese management model that demonstrated how companies (in this case Toyota) can create extraordinary value by fostering long-term, partnerial relationships with their suppliers (Hohn 2009, p.14). In using its management model to expand into China, Toyota’s management recognized that more opportunities existed for cost reduction during product planning than in actual development production and development (Shim et al. 2009, p. 379). In doing this, the company was target costing to facilitate its ability to compete in the competitive Chinese market.

The major component of the Toyota model has been the Toyota Production System (TPS), which, according to Fortune magazine, mainly derived its success from ‘highly experienced managers working unselfishly with a motivated, well trained workforce (Heller & de Bono 2005). The TPS emphasized that production of Toyota models was to solely depend on the preferences of customers and not necessarily machines. In addition to the TPS, other components of the Toyota management model include: The Just in Time (JIT) logistics system and the supplier partnering process (Russo & Zhao 2010).

In selecting to analyze the management model at Toyota, the researcher was motivated by the success-story of the Japanese company that started its business as a little known car manufacturer with a production capacity of only 10,000 vehicles per year in the 1950’s but rose impressively within a half a century to become the undisputed world leading auto manufacturer as of 2006 with an estimated worldwide market share of 15% and sales of 10 million vehicles a year (Paul 2011, p.546). In analyzing this model, the researcher will pay attention to factors facilitating the company’s increasing auto-market share for instance, the reduced costs of ownership for Toyota products.


5.0 Aim

            The research study aims to demonstrate why selecting and implementing best and unique business models can go a great way in ensuring the success of any business enterprise in the current competitive global markets.

6.0 Objectives

The following were the objectives of this project:

  • To clearly define what management models are.
  • To explore into the need for management models across business institutions
  • To select the Toyota management model and study some of its unique features.
  • To highlight more additional factors which have facilitated the growth of Toyota into a world auto-leader?
  • To study how Toyota expanded into the competitive Chinese market using this management model.
  • To recall some of impacts that the Toyota model has contributed to the company, especially in terms of revenue and sales
  • To list as well as analyse some of the challenges that the management has encountered in its efforts to successfully implement the model.
  • To inquire and list some of the benefits that the consumers of Toyota models have derived from the models created using the company’s management model.
  • To provide a comparison of Toyota Motor Corporation and its closest competitors, some of whom include Ford Motors, Kia Motors, Honda Motors and General Motors Corporation. 

        7.0 Literature Review

The following literature review has been done based on the objectives stated above. This literature aims to identify, evaluate and synthesize the established bodies of finalized and recorded works of scholars, researchers and practitioners in this area. In line with the aim and stated objectives above, the following bodies or themes will form the topics of literature review for this dissertation:

7.1 Definitions of management models

Management models, by their definition, are, “a broad range of informal and formal models that are used by organizations to represent various (functional, social, and emotional) aspects of a business, such as operational processes, organizational structures, and financial forecasts (Jonker & Eskildsen 2009, p.3). From another perspective, management models can be looked at as, “referring to formalized and systematic representations of a set of practices (Smith et al. 2010, p. 111).

In summing up the works of 9 scholars, Wimmer (2004), gave a comprehensive definition of business management models as, a description of the following components each of which should be determined contingently considering technological, institutional changes, competitive and macro-economic environments (p.31). Wimmer’s components included the: value model which involved realization of product, information and service qualities; customer model which targeted groups of customers in their various segmentations; activity model which involved strategically positioning the initiated business activities on the industry market and the financial model which specifies the monetary and time costs associated with initiating and sustaining the business. In other words, the financial model estimates the revenues and profits associated with implementing the specific management model in the specific business institution.

On his part, Birkinshaw (2010) gave his formal definition of a management model as “the choices made by the executives of a firm regarding how they define objectives, motivate effort, coordinate activities, and allocate resources”.  From Birkinshaws definition, the following 2 important features can be derived;

  • Management models are mainly concerned with making right choices
  • Management disciplines consist of 4 specific dimensions; defining objectives, motivating effort or the people, coordinating activities and making right decisions.


7.2 Need for management models in business institutions

The need for management models keep on varying from one business institution to the other. According to Jonker and Eskildsen (2009), the need for management models has arose from the fact that many business institutions have currently come to struggle with the question of successfully designing and organizing their new-and often difficult to grasp-dynamic business demands (p.2). The two scholars go ahead to stress that the present day competitive market, and the rapidly increasing societal demands have become imminent and as such called for the need of management models to assist in innovation, renovation and re-invigoration.

Tellingly, management models are needed to help business organizations to realize outcomes such as, products, services, profits and ideologies while taking into account the well being of institutional staffs, customers and the surrounding community members (de Bono & Heller 2004). In addition, Jackson and Mathis (2007) that the most common reasons behind the adoption of management models is to address poor team work and enhance employee leadership, communication and team building amongst others (p. 312).

7.3 Management models and their application

Management models have not been miracle cures in the sense that any institutions that applied them were guaranteed success. Jonker and Eskildsen (2009) noted in their studies that the application of management models was hard work that called for dedication, persistency and courage prerequisites (p.7). The reason why the two scholars arrived at the above was based on the fact that the application of management models brought about other unforeseen consequences for the organization. In this sense, they were not physical in nature (Hohn 2009). Management models do not give complete descriptions of organizations and their contexts but provide condensed versions of reality- that facilitate the management of complexities in organizations (The Boston Consulting Group 2007).

7.4 Management models at successful institutions: Case study of Toyota management model

According to the studies conducted by Hohn (2009), the best-practice models for supply chain management from a performance point of view still remained those based on the Japanese “keiretsu” relations, of which the Toyota management model formed part of (p.14). The “keiretsu” relationships emphasized on negotiations with simple build-to-print component suppliers thus lessening on the anticipated risks (Hohn 2009, p.14).

Hutt and Speh (2009), in highlighting some of the essential requirements of managers using the management model, went on to note that Toyota: 

  • Imposed stringent selection criteria that ensured that every supplier met the model’s requirements in terms of cost, technology and quality (Hutt & Speh 2009, p.19). The Boston Consulting Group (2007) emphasized on this requirement when they stated that Toyota carefully monitored its supplier network and demanded that each senior executive at supplier organization was to be responsible for all performance and quality issues.
  • Retained critical new product development (NPD) and design knowledge in its in-house operations; (Hutt & Speh 2009, p.19) and
  • Took the responsibility of helping its suppliers to develop on their business capabilities. For instance, by regularly performing semi- annual consulting services and quality audits to enhance suppliers’ capabilities. According to the Boston Consulting Group (2007), the company performed quality audits after a period of 6 months across all the suppliers.

Tellingly, the Boston Consulting Group (2007) went on to list the following as some of the additional key tools employed by Toyota in its management model:

  • The company employed proprietary processes to facilitate rapid resolution for the identified quality issues. This prevented the problems from recurring.
  • The company employed a robust network of sharing knowledge. This ensured that suppliers shared that best practices thus enhancing their capabilities. 

7.5 Components of the Toyota management models

The Toyota management model is made up of the key strategy, namely, The Toyota Production System (TPS), also referred to as the Lean manufacturing system. Drawing from Goldsmith (2011) research, The TPS boasts of more than 50 years of experience-leading to its successful adoption and implementation across many business organizations. It has also acted as a basis upon which modern-day management theories have been formulated from.

Hino (2006) identified the following series of functions as the key components of Toyotas Production System:

7.5.1 The marketing system

This consisted of the following related policies; marketing theory and product research & and production engineering research, and comprehensive product planning (Hino 2006, p.174).

7.5.2 Product development system

This was made up of the Shusa or the Chief Engineer system. Under the chief engineer, the following sub systems exist: design and development, individual product planning, production engineering, purchasing, fabrication and sales (Hino 2006, p.174).

7.5.3 The design management system

The design management system incorporates the following aspects: standardization, product diversification or parts minimization, project management, product information management and design reviews (p.174).

From the Kiano’s (1997) keynote address at Kentucky University, the following were identified as the key components that sum up Toyotas TPS; 

7.5.4 Standardized work sequences

These comprised of the repeatable process steps and machine processes or rational methods, work flow or logical directions and reasonable lengths of time and endurance between processes (Kiano 1997, p.4).

7.5.5 Just-In-Time Systems

These ensured flexibility while avoiding inconsistencies across production systems. These systems are based on little or no inventory, supplying the production process with the right part, at the right time, and in the right amount, and first-in-first out flow (Kiano 1997, p.5).

7.5.6 Addressing “customer” needs

This principle emphasized on improving customer relations by encouraging your workforce to practice one-by-one confirmation, listening to your workforce, trusting your workforce and supporting your people (Kiano 1997, p.7).

The Toyota Motor Corporation (2011) emphasized that the TPS was established based on two concepts: the first called “Jidoka” meant “automation with the human touch”. This meant that when a problem was identified in the production system, the affected product stopped immediately to prevent the production of more defective products. The second concept, “Just-In-Time,” meant that each process produced what was only needed by the adjacent successive process. This ensured a continuous flow.

Conclusively, from the above themes, the components of a TPS can be summarised as shown in the below diagram. 


Diagram 1 depicting the various components of the TPS (Source: Toyota Motor Corporation, 2011)


8.0 Toyotas expansion into Chinese market

Before its entry into China, the Chinese auto market was an already competitive market that was dominated by the well established automakers of Kia Motors, General Motors, Honda Motors, Ford Motors, and Isuzu amongst others. At the time of Toyota’s entry in 2002, the Chinese auto industry market was growing at a high of 1 million vehicles a year (Asia News 2005). The market other than being expansive contained customers who had specific demands on the models of vehicles that they wanted.

Chen and Yao (2006) noted that as the world’s second largest automaker at that time, Toyota made a relatively late entry into the Chinese market when it formed a principal alliance with the FAW Group in 2002 (p. 206).The two authors went ahead to aver that though the company had already achieved popular name recognition through its previous automobile exports to the Chinese market, its entry made it to become a follower rather than a leader in China by its virtue of its conservative organizational and corporate structure that majorly emphasized on the use of its management model (p.206). The adoption of the efficient TPS in Toyota’s entry into China was highlighted as a major factor that facilitated the passing of General Motors by Toyota as the largest automobile company in the world during the second quarter of 2007 in terms of sales (Toyota Motors Corporation 2011).

Though many scholars overlook some of the major challenges that Toyota encountered at the time of its entry into the competitive Chinese market, The Asian News (2005) brings to our attention that the company went through a bumpy road in China during its first 7months of entry into this market. For instance, sales of the Vios, one of its top three models in the mainland, had tumbled more than 30%, making it to lag behind the rival models of Honda Motors, Kia Motors and General Motors (Asia News 2005). Though the Japanese automaker was paying the price for its late entry into this populous Chinese market, The Toyota Motor Corporation (2011) noted that the company strategically positioned itself by using the TPS model to attain sales target of 1 million cars in the Chinese market by the year 2010; a target which it surpassed when it recorded a sales output of 1.3 million cars. The Asian News (2011) concluded that the company’s success in the Chinese market was achieved after the company fought its additional challenge: the political risks that were caused by anti-Japanese feelings in China.

9.0 Other factors which facilitated Toyota’s entry into Chinese market

Other than the components stated above in the TPS, the following philosophies, which also constitute part of TPS, facilitated the successful expansion of Toyota into the Chinese market;

9.1 The 4P Model

The 4p model has the following components:

9.1.1 Philosophy

Philosophy requires that all Toyota’s inventions and principles of operation are initiated with the aim of achieving long term success.

9.1.2 Process

The process stipulates that the use of right processes during the production of Toyota models will guarantee right results.

9.1.3 People and their partners

This virtue emphasizes on Toyota adding value to its organization by developing their human resource manpower.

9.1.4 Problem solving

By believing in problem solving, Toyota continuously solves its root problems. This drives the company ahead.















Diagram 2 showing the 4P model

10.0 Comparison of Toyota and other rivals

10.1 Honda Motors

Honda Motors had successfully fought to redeem its earlier perceived “bad” image of being a dominant Japanese motorcycles producer to become a renowned world wider auto producer. According to Chinese association of Automobile Manufacturers (2009), Honda’s first fully-fledged entry in Chinese auto market had come as early as 1982 when the company began to locally produce motorcycles through a technical operation agreement. From there, the company tremendously expanded its auto operations by using marketing strategies that were tailored towards local demands. As of 2005, the company’s had successfully established its presence on the Chinese auto market through two of its core brands, The Accord and the CRV. As such, the company formed a major rival to Toyota’s late into the Chinese market.

Established: January 1982
Capital Investment of: US$100 million 
Capitalization Ratio of:100% Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
Representative: Mr. Atsuyoshi Hyogo, President 
Employment aasociates: Approximately 150 associates 
Where Located: Beijing (Headquarters), plus Shanghai, 
Guangzhou (branch offices)
Business Areas: China’s Regional Headquarters
Investment activities espescially for Honda-related businesses around  China
Importing and selling of Acura auto brands as well as its service parts 

Table 1 showing an overview of Honda’s Chinese investment


10.2 Kia and Hyundai Motors

According to the Kia Homepage (2000), Kia Motors and Hyundai Motors partnership with Jiangsu Yueda Group, a Chinese local partner, to establish a production plant with an annual capacity of 300,000 vehicles marked the successful entry of the Korean auto makers into the Chinese market. The parties in the partnership agreed to adhere to the government regulations especially on the domestically produced vehicle ratio. As such, the parties experienced favorable auto sales growth to present thus posing a stiff challenge to Toyota Motors Corporation.

10.3 General Motors (GM) Ltd

Though GM had experienced reduction in sales as a result of its insistence in producing the highly fuel consuming sports utility vehicles (SUV’s), the USA based automaker continued to sell more cars in the foreign markets, especially China, than its domestic American market (Kelly 2010). For instance, the company made history sales of 1.21 million auto units in the months spanning January 2010 to June 2010 (Kelly 2010).

Though GM had a head start in the Chinese market, Toyota has done its best globally to overtake it as the world’s number 1 automaker and seller.

Below is a comparison of the 5 key categories upon which the two auto giants have been regularly compared. 


Table 2 showing the 5 key categories (Source: Greimel, 2008)
1. Domestic domineeranceToyota
2. Expansion overseasGM
3. TechnologyToyota
4. PartnershipsToyota
5. Corporate cultureToyota











Chart 1 depicting sales battle between GM and Toyota in the last 12 years (Source LS2). 


10.4 Ford Motors

China’s rough terrain plus its growing number of rich citizens have facilitated increased purchasing of Ford vehicles for instance, the Ford Escape. The Ford Escape was well suited to China’s demography in addition to being fuel-efficient. As such, Ford has been able to pose relatively stiff competition on the Chinese market. Also, Ford’s widely praised trend of producing unique car designs that specifically answer to the needs of the “heavily” demanding Chinese auto market have been its key to its success. A comparison of Ford Motors and Toyota would present the following statistics in the Chinese market.

On the production systems, Ford’s system was specifically designed to create huge quantities of vehicles but of few models. On the other hand, Toyota’s production system produced less quantities but of very many models. As such, Toyota had a difficulty in meeting the specific market demands. 

In terms of cash and established market, Ford boasted of a $5 billion at its disposal for Chinese operations. It also had a relatively large market. On the hand, Toyota did not possess the vast resources to match the many economies of scales and the many volumes of inventories at Ford’s disposal.

11.0 Research Strategy

In analyzing how enterprise management models have been successfully implemented across various business settings, the researcher selected to study the successful implementation of the Toyota management model which was used by the company to expand into the populous Chinese market.

In analyzing this model, the researcher chose Toyota’s Beijing offices as the investigative location upon which the company’s top managers and engineers of the TPS formed the core team of respondents who were mailed the questionnaires. Being a survey kind of study, the researcher combined both the conclusive and descriptive research approaches to carry out the study. The conclusive descriptive approach was preferred for this kind of study since it was well suited in answering the core questions of what, who, when, how and where as deduced from the aim and objectives of this study (Housden 2008, p.62). 

                11.1 The study population

The researcher chose a study population of 500 respondents. This study group was constituted by 5 senior managers at the company’s production in Beijing, 45 supervisors and 450 Chinese consumers for Toyota products.

The 5 senior managers were summed up by the company’s CEO, one marketing manager, one human resource manager, one production manager and the chief systems engineer. The researcher selected the 45 supervisors as a measure adhering to the objectivity principles. This is because based on the fact that they were always 100% present at the production sites, they we better placed to provide answers related to the use of the TPS system to enhance production of hybrid models in the Chinese market. The Chinese Toyota products’ consumers in Beijing were incorporated in the study population to help the researcher determine the level of satisfaction derived from using products created based on the TPS model.

11.2 Sampling Technique

11.2.1 Random Sampling Technique

The random sampling technique was used to select a relatively small number of respondents from the study population of 500. The researcher decided to take 20% of the study population as the sample population for study. As such, this meant that out of the 5 senior managers in the study population only 1 (Chief Systems Engineer) made it to the sample.  In addition, out of the 45 supervisors, only 9 made it to the sample. Furthermore, only 90 Chinese consumers of Toyota products out of the 450 made it into the sample. Therefore in total, the researcher had a study sample of 100 respondents. The small number achieved by the sample was so because, the project period being 2 months, it would have been impossible for the researcher to find enough time to travel and carry out the project by involving a large sample. In addition, the researcher, being a mere student at Teesside University, would not have sufficiently accumulated enough financial resources to successfully carry out the project. The chosen sampling technique gave each user an equal chance of being interviewed thus ensuring that objective findings were acquired in this investigative study (StatPac 2011).

11.3 Main source of Research Data

11.3.1 Secondary source

Other than the 10 primary sources highlighted above, the researcher based his findings from the many sources of secondary data that were availed at his disposal. The internet acted as the link between the researcher and the many relevant secondary sources of data availed to the researcher. Advantages of the secondary sources

The researcher in adopting to use the secondary data, he intended to substantially reduce on the high costs he would have incurred were he to major in the use of primary sources to collect data. Housden (2008) emphasized on this advantage when he stressed that secondary data could be gathered quickly and inexpensively. Also, in using this type of data, the researcher intended to exactly narrow down on the specific elements that were vital in answering his identified problem (how companies successively implement business enterprise models). This was possible through formulating questions to be used in the various search engines. In addition, the researcher intended to minimize on the little time that was allocated for him to complete the whole project. As such, he carried out the projects from the comforts of the school cybercafé and on the laptop from his room.

The researcher did not have to worry about informed consents or restrictions arising from human subjects. Finally, the researcher deemed it right to adopt the use of secondary data to avoid tempering with the quality of his research as a result of using primary data which may have been unrepresentative. 

The researcher successfully defined his study sample, clearly defined his study problem and was able to generate various hypotheses from the many topics of secondary sources of data availed at his disposal. As FAO Corporate Document Repository (2011) noted, “the assembly and analysis of secondary data almost invariably improves the researcher’s understanding of the marketing problem, the various lines of inquiry that could or should be followed and alternative courses of action which might be pursued. Setbacks from the use of secondary sources

Whilst the researcher is able to achieve considerable benefits through the use of this source, the following shortcomings were acknowledged as having been derived from the use of the sources.

The researcher encountered a lot of difficulties when searching for information from the internet. For instance, through performing a search on “management models” the following related searches were displayed for him to choose from: strategic management models, human resource management models, risk management models, change management models, cash management models, knowledge management models and project management models amongst others. The many hits as displayed above presented a challenge to the researcher when redefining boundaries.

The researcher was not able to measure or estimate any inaccuracies that may have been involved during the compilation of the many secondary sources of data he consulted. As such, he may have consulted some sources whose levels of accuracy may have been low. 

The authors of some secondary sources may have biased when presenting their pessimistic or optimistic views on the topics at hand. As such, the researcher of this project found it difficult to arrive at a middle ground when consulting such sources.

Some data sources though containing appeasing pieces of literature, appeared outdated in terms of dates of publication. For example, Honda’s entry into China market was documented by some articles as early as 1982. With the ever changing technology that has led to the increased researches, the researcher found it unsuitable to incorporate ideas from such literatures.

11.4 Methods and techniques of Data Collection

11.4.1 Questionnaires

The researcher compiled relevant questions on the topic of study having thoroughly reviewed the existing secondary sources on it. The questions on the questionnaires were carefully structured to reflect the aim and objectives of this study. Based on these objectives, the structured questionnaires addressed themes related to management models, Chinese auto market, Toyota Motor Corporation, the TPS model and challenges affecting Toyota amongst others. In order to generate large amounts of data, the researcher majored in the construction of open ended questionnaires. For instance, in order to receive as many benefits from the users of Toyota vehicles, the researcher required the respondents to list some of the benefits they derived from using Toyota cars.

Having been mailed a list complete with respondents email addresses of the staff Toyota China offices, the researcher randomly selected the 100 sample respondents to answer the compiled questions. He then wrote an introductory letter to request the identified staff to assist in responding to his research questions. The staffs, having responded in the affirmative, were emailed the scanned questions. They were then required to fill by typing in them.

The researcher also requested to be provided with a list, full of addresses, of prominent sellers and customers of the vehicles, from which he randomly sampled the population to respond to the questions. He also, wrote them an introductory letter and requested the identified customers to respond to the research questions. Having responded in the affirmative, the researcher mailed them the questions. Advantages

The researcher received a lot of information from the use of open ended questionnaires. As such, he had to review them at his pace and arrive at necessary conclusions from them.

The researcher was able to gather the responses in a standardized way. In doing so, he was able to improve on the level of objectivity for this project.

Having carefully formulated the questionnaires, the researcher did not have to travel and pose the questions. Instead, he mailed the compiled list of questionnaires to the relevant respondents. As such, he was able to reduce on his time and travel expenses. Also, the researcher was able to completely do away with printing expenses since the questionnaires were mailed as soft copies and mailed back after being filled in soft copies. Shortcomings

Since the researcher did not travel to administer the questionnaires, it was impossible to explain any “unclear” areas or areas misinterpreted by clients. As such, some questions were irrelevantly answered. For instance, when requested to fill their professions, some consumers typed “teach” instead of “teaching”.

The use of open ended questionnaires availed large volumes of raw data from the respondents. The researcher, being alone, found it difficult to process the large of volumes of data.

Some respondents did not successfully respond to all questions. Some questions were left unattended to. The causes of the “gaps” were not immediately traced by the researcher.

Some respondents could only provide one word when responding to a question that required them to provide an explanation or a comment. For instance, when requested to comment on the unique benefits that were possessed by Toyota cars, some respondents just typed “comfort”. This made it hard for the researcher to deduce the exact interpretation of such answers. However, the respondent was to discover later on that some respondents were discontented and suspicious on the mission of the research.

11.4.2 Follow-up phone interviews

In order to seek clarifications on responses that appeared ambiguous, the researcher decided to make follow-up calls. Advantages

The researcher was able to address the challenge of desirability bias that would have occurred were he to make a personal visit to interview the respondents. As Mitchell and Jolley (2009) emphasized, interviews contacted through phone prevented the interviewer from biasing respondents’ responses via subtle visual clues such as frowns, smiles and eye contact (p.268).

The telephone interview enabled the researcher to narrow down on selected samples easily. This would not have been possible with any other survey method (Mitchell & Jolly 2009, p.269).

In addition to the two advantages above, the telephone interviewing proved more convenient, cheaper and consumed less time since it was only used to address sections where clarifications were needed. Limitations

It was not possible to reach certain respondents. As such, the responded had no alternative but to deduce his meaning.

The researcher was limited to asking simple and short questions to save on his limited airtime value.

12.0 Findings

The following were the findings from the questionnaires posted to the Toyota’s top management, the supervisory team and the company’s consumers. Findings from secondary sources have also been incorporated.

When analyzing the questionnaires and the secondary literature for some of the reasons why Toyota decided to implement its management model, the following findings clearly emerged.

  • Toyota wanted to improve on the quality of its models.
  • The company wanted to hold its engineers and top heads accountable for their actions.
  • The company wanted to minimize some of the high costs that were involved in the production of its cars.
  • The company wanted to maintain focus and regularly advance its research and development centres.
  • The management wanted to give direction, measure effectives of its processes and take corrective measures where necessary.
  • The company wanted to provide its top engineers a real tool to be used when coaching or implementing the successive processes.
  • The company wanted to establish a tool that was effective for both its projects and ‘non project’ changes.
  • The company wanted to fight the stiff competition as posed by its competitors.

On researching some of the unique features the Toyota management model contained, the following were listed.

  • The Toyota Production system
  • The Just-In-Time System
  • Jidoka
  • ‘The Toyota Way’
  • The 4Ps

On some of the challenges associated with successfully implementing the model, the following were listed.

  • Increasing costs of raw materials
  • Few expatriate engineers
  • Component breakdown
  • The ever changing consumer demands

On some of the impacts the model has had to the company since its roll-out in China, the following were revealed:

  • The company had rapidly increased its market share.
  • The company’s returns had thrice improved since 2002.
  • The company had been able to develop many hybrid car models.
  • On some of the benefits that the consumers of the Toyota models had derived from the use of cars created using its management model, the following were categorically revealed.
  • Toyota’s car users were able to able to save on their fuel expenditures.
  • Toyota’s users were able to automatically monitor the movement of their vehicles.
  • The users were also able to protect their lives in case occurrence of accidents.

13.0 Presentation and Interpretation

Table3 showing the total number of respondents to various reasons for adopting the use of the management model at Toyota


Reason(s)No. Of respondendents
Improve quality10
Fight competition8
Minimize costs6
Measure effectiveness7
Creation of project tool3


The following chart 2 depicts the above reasons and the corresponding respondents who stated the various reasons.


From the data presented above, it clearly emerged that the main reason why Toyota adopted the use of the management model in its China operations was to improve on the quality of its cars. All the ten primary source respondents listed the reason in the questionnaires. The improvement of quality may have been the primary reason for implementing since as Toyota Motors Corporation (2011) averred, the rising energy prices had rapidly increased the prices of fuel thus creating a shift in demand. The demand for cars shifted from the luxurious high consuming cars to more fuel efficient cars. This was emphasized when the company’s President, Akio Toyoda stated that, “environmentally friendly cars and emerging markets were to be its two pillars of growth globally as from the year 2000 (A1SaudiArabia 2011).

In taking 100 percent to represent the most or the main unique feature of the model and 0 to represent the least, the following depicts the rating of the several unique features identified.

Table4  showing the %-age rating of the several unique features

Unique feature%-age rate
Toyota Way’60


Pie chart 1 showing the %-age rating of Toyota management model features.



From the pie-chart, it was clear that the TPS formed the major unique component of the company’s management model, followed by the Just-In-Time, Jidoka, Toyota Way and the 4P model. This was so because the TPS was the interactive physical system that was created by Toyota to represent its theoretical management model. This system provided the sole unique feature from which other the other listed features were able to provide support services to it.

Taking 10 to represent the most recurring challenge and 0 to represent none, the following table depicts the scores of the various identified challenges.

Increasing costs10
Few Expatriates3
Component breakdown6
Ever-changing consumer demands8


Line graph1 showing the scores of various challenges as displayed above


From the chart above, the increasing cost of production were highlighted as the most prevalent challenge facing the successful implementation of the model. The increasing costs of production may have been caused by the rising energy prices since as Uva (2006) noted when assessing the impacts of the rising energy prices, the rapidly rising energy prices had forced many companies to adopt or to consider adopting one or more energy saving techniques such as, updating the heating or cooling systems for better efficiency, conserving electricity and improving management amongst others (p.1).

14.0 Conclusions

From the analysis done above, it was clear that a number of factors may have facilitated the adoption of the Toyota management model. Though a considerable number of factors were cited as having been behind the leading auto-giant’s adoption and implementation of  its management model, the key factor that emerged from the rest was the rising production cost that caused shifts in auto markets from the highly consuming car models to less and efficient consuming models. The increasing fuel costs were thus behind the adoption of manufacturing hybrid car models by Toyota that went a great lenghth to answering the consumers changed demands.

The Toyota Production System constituted the key component of Toyota’s management system. This key component was supported with other minor features for instance, the Just-In-Time system, the 4P model and the principles contained in “the Toyota way”. 

15.0 Recommendations

From the study conducted above, it clearly emerges that each business is unique when rated in terms of the production challenges it faces. The many differences across businesses are not specifically facilitated by the businesses’ end products but rather by the uniqueness that exist. The following are some of myriad factors upon which these uniqueness may be determined: 

  • varying equipments,
  • layout constraints,
  • buy decisions versus make decisions and;
  • union requirements.

The above factors should be carefully reviewed by any top management when choosing their management models since the selection of ‘right’ management models form the key to the success of any business change process. Choosing of right models can outline the differences between transitions that are easy and smooth and those that cause great deals of strife or conflicts within the specific business enterprises. In general, it is recommended that before selecting the type of management model for any organization, managements should consider the needs of their particular businesses and their other networked suppliers.     This will ensure that the selected model addresses the needs of these two key groups. Managements are also advised that the right management models are those which can allow for customization to cater for the ever changing needs, just as the Toyota management model which was able to allow for customization to address the changing needs of its consumers.

Managements at various business units are also informed that though the use of the various conservation energy strategies have been cited as some of best practices when considering better management, most of the technologies involved always call for huge sums of additional capital both for setting up and upgrading the particular technologies. For instance, the implementation of the Toyota Production System cost the company a set up budget of $ 150million for its set up alone.





















16.0 References

A1SaudiArabia 2011, Toyota shifts focus to emerging green markets, viewed 10 April, 2011, < http://www.a1saudiarabia.com/Toyota-shifts-focus-to-emerging-markets-green-cars/>.

Amdam, RP 1996, Management education and competitiveness: Europe, Japan and the United States, Routledge, London.
Jonker, I & Eskildsen, J 2009, Management models for the future, Springer, Heidelberg.

Asia News 2005, China: Hard for Toyota to break into the Chinese market, viewed 9 April, 2011, <http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Hard-for-Toyota-to-break-into-the-Chinese-market-4181.html>.

Birkinshaw, J 2010, Reinventing management: Smarter choices for getting work done, John Wiley and Sons, UK.

Boston Consulting Group 2007, Innovation 2007: A BCG senior management survey, Boston, viewed 8 April 2011, <http://www.bcg.com/documents/file15063.pdf>.

Chen, J & Yao, S 2006, Globalization, competition and growth in China, Routledge, NY.

Chinese association of Automobile Manufacturers 2009, Honda business in China, viewed 9 April, 2011, <http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:UXttV7S5k38J:world.honda.com/investors/annualreport/2006/pdf/ar2006-23-31.pdf+Honda+motors+entry+into+China&hl=en&gl=ke&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgWKp0WxMOmmrw91rhOnkTTLbZTaUrVSRHoaRAf8d9HFJS1SOHYhaew1sBhIOzc0zCMu7wZqiygAibMN45gsurPUzPXeRiXuiyLmKvSgR6lND0fHedowso5UyPR7AREiwu7wefl&sig=AHIEtbSIcfCem5YmACCE4iaIM_8-6tE4JA>.

FAO Corporate Document Repository 2011, Marketing research and information systems: Chapter 2: Secondary sources of information, Agriculture and Consumer protection, viewed 9 April, 2011, <http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3241e/w3241e03.htm>.

Goldsmith, O 2011, Functioning of a Toyota production system, Ezine Articles, viewed 8 April, 2011.

Greimel, H 2008, GM vs. Toyota: Who will rule the next century? Automotive News, viewed 9 April, 2011, < http://www.autonews.com/article/20080925/ZZZ_SPECIAL/309259998/1215>.

Heller, R & de Bono, E 2005, Thinking managers: Japanese management: Business strategy lessons for the West, viewed 7 April, 2011, <http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/management/japanese-management.php>.

Hino, S 2006, Inside the mind of Toyota: management principles for enduring growth, Productivity Press, New York.

Hohn, M I 2009, Relational supply contracts: Optimal concessions in return policies for continuous quality improvements, Springer, Heilderberg.

Housden, M 2008, CIM coursebook marketing information and research,
Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Hutt, MD & Speh, TW 2009, Business marketing management: B2B, 10 ed., Cengage Learning, USA.

Jackson, JH & Mathis, RL 2007, Human resource management, Cengage Learning, USA.

Kelly, KC 2010, GM sells more cars in China than in USA, Huliq, viewed 9 April, 2011, < http://www.huliq.com/10017/gm-sells-more-cars-china-usa-4>.

Kia Motors Homepage 2000, Hyundai/Kia Motors to advance into Chinese mainland, Kia, viewed 9 April 2011, < http://www.kiamotors.com/about-kia/company/corporate-news-view.aspx?idx=27>.

Kitano, M 1997, Toyota Production System, University of Kentucky, Kentucky.

Mitchell, M & Jolley, JM 2009, Research design explained, Cengage Learning, USA.

Paul, J 2011, International business PHI learning Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

Rapid Business Improvement 2007, Management models, leadership models, coaching models and business models, London, viewed 7 April 2011, < http://rapidbi.com/management/managementmodels/>.

Russo, B & Zhao, J 2010, How the Toyota way went astray, Global Auto Sources, viewed 8 April 2011, < http://autonews.gasgoo.com/commentary/how-the-toyota-way-went-astray-100308.shtml>.

Shim, JK, Siegel, JG & Dauber, N 2008, Corporate controller’s handbook of financial management 2008-2009, CCH, London.

Smith, NC, Bhattacharya, CB & Vogel D 2010, Global Challenges in responsible business,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

StatPac Inc 2011, Survey sampling methods, viewed 31 March 2011, < http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm>

Thurman, JE 1993, On business and work, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Toyota Motor Corporation 2011, Toyota Production System, viewed 8 April 2011, <http://www.toyota-global.com/company/vision_philosophy/toyota_production_system/>.

Uva, W 2006, Pricing your products to survive rising energy costs, Cornell University, New York.

Wimmer, MA 2004, Knowledge management in electronic government: 5th IFIP International Working Conference, KMGov 2004, Krems, Austria, May 17-19, 2004 : proceedings,Springer, Heidelberg.



















17.0 Appendices

Appendix A: Project Report Certification (Sample)











  1. I confirm that the work in this Project Report is original and has been carried out by me as part of my programme of study.


  1. I confirm that all secondary material has been properly acknowledged by me and referenced in this work.











Appendix B: Research Ethics Form (Sample)



Please return form with 

Section A completed to:

The Secretary, 

Research Ethics Committee

School of

Section A:   To be completed by the appropriate Project Supervisor or Director of Studies.



Project Title:



Name of Project Supervisor/Director of Studies:


Names of Researcher(s)/Students working on this project:


Please tick type of Researcher:                                                                                                                                                                       
 Taught Postgraduate PG Research Student Staff – higher degree Staff – other research Final Year Under-grad.  Student 

Expected duration of project from:                                                       to:


Aim of Project:





Methods/Procedures (please specify)





Ethical Consideration      The following points have been assessed:

1.  The merit and feasibility of the proposal

2.  Possible discomfort, distress or inconvenience to participants and/or Researchers

3.  Procedures for respecting confidentiality and operating with data protection legislation.

  1. 4.  The implications of monetary or other inducements to University of Teesside, its staff, student or researchers, to participants or anyone else involved. 
  2. 5.   Potential conflicts of interest arising between the researcher’s employment and the research project or other collaborative research.
  3. 6.  All safety risks have been assessed in accordance with the University’s Risk Assessment Procedure and measures taken where appropriate to make them as low as reasonably practicable.
  4. 7    If the research involves human subjects, the following points have also been assessed:

Procedures for:

  1. providing explanation to participants including the preparation of an appropriate information sheet
  2. obtaining informed consent from participants or where necessary from their parents or guardians, including the preparation of a written consent form
  3. 8.  If the work may involve participants from vulnerable groups, the nature of recruitment and participation of these people.
  1. I have read the University’s guidelines on ethics related to research, and to the best of my knowledge and ability confirm that the ethical considerations overleaf have been assessed. I am aware of and understand University procedures on Research Ethics and Health & Safety.  I understand that the ethical propriety of this project may be monitored by the School’s Research Ethics Sub-Committee. 
  2. (Please complete the following as appropriate)    Please Tick
  1.  I have appropriate experience of the general research area.
  • I confirm that I have Research Ethics Training required by my School.
  • I confirm that as Supervisor that I will monitor progress of the project.
  • I confirm that the project complies with the Code of Practice of the following Professional Body:


  • I recommend that the project should proceed without submission to a Research Ethics Committee


Signature of Staff Researcher:    ________________________________________


Date: _________

Signature of Project Supervisor/Director of Studies: _______________________Date: _________       


                   To be completed by Chair of School Research Ethics Committee


As Chair of the Research Ethics Committee of the School responsible for the project, I have read the University’s Guidelines on Ethics Related to Research, and confirm that:

  • The Researcher/Supervisor has received, or has been exempted from University Research Ethics Training, and
  • Appropriate procedures exist for monitoring the progress of the project.


I now authorise the project as recommended above.

Signature of Chair of School Research Ethics Committee::                          __________________________________


Date: _________

As Chair of the Research Ethics Committee of the School responsible for the project I recommend that the project should be referred to the School Research Ethics Committee for approval and a Request for Ethical Approval Form must be completed.

Signature of the Chair of School Research Ethics Committee: 




Date: _________

The Chair of the School Research Ethics Committee must send a copy of an APPROVED Research Ethics Release Form to the Principal Researcher/Supervisor/Director of Studies as appropriate and to: The Secretary, University Research Ethics Committee, Research & Development Office, University of Teesside.  The original of the form should be kept in the School.  A Copy of a REFERRED Research Ethics Release form must be returned to the Staff Researcher or Principal Supervisor/Director of Studies concerned for further action.



Appendix D. Sample Research Questionnaire




Toyota’s Expansion into the Chinese auto-market by use of its management model


Instruction(s): Study the following questions and provide your own responses (Any stated or listed points should be numbered e.g. 1.).

  1. State some of the reasons that led to the adoption and implementation of the Toyota management model when it expanded into the expansive Chinese auto-market.










  1. What are the challenges that the Toyota management faced when implementing the management model in the Chinese market.










  1. What were some of the impacts that were derived by Toyota in the use of the management model in its Chinese market?










  1. Using 5 to represent the most successful results and  1 to represent least successful results, rate (by ticking in the relevant corresponding box) the performance of the Toyota management model in the Chinese market. (to be answered by the Toyota staff only).











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The History Of The Afghan Army And Where Its Weakness Began

The History Of The Afghan Army And Where Its Weakness Began 


Analysts have long made Afghanistan a central focus of study. Despite the fact that NATO has learned a lot about the region, the people’s culture, as well as the state’s complexity, a main concern remained: what would become of Afghanistan? The uncertainty could result in other circumstances that the NATO forces could not be able to handle. This paper will seek to analyze the history of elections in Afghanistan. These elections will happen when the NATO forces exit Afghanistan in early to mid-2014 after handing over the security situation to the security forces in Afghanistan. Consequently, several issues will arise including the ability of the Afghan forces to be as effective as the NATO forces, political opposition to the new president, as well as Afghan’s new position in the international community. In addition, Afghan leaders will have to determine how they will be in the international community as a new sovereign state without the presence of any foreign army, which they have depended on for the past 11 years. Several gaps of information exist in the literature concerning Afghanistan. This thesis shall look into the current state of the Afghanistan forces. 

Key Words: Afghanistan, security forces, international community, NATO forces







ISAF- International security assistance force

NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization

OEF- Operation Enduring Freedom 

USAID-Agency for International Development 

DOD- Department of Defense

CERP- Commander’s Emergency Response Program 

PRT- Provincial Reconstruction Teams

ICG-International crisis group 

TI- Transparency International

FATA-Federally Administered Tribal Areas 

ISI- Inter-Services Intelligence 

ANA- Afghanistan National Army

UN-United Nations

UNAMA-United Nations Mission to Afghanistan 





Abbreviations. 4

1.0 Introduction. 5

The research question. 7

Subordinate questions. 7

Limitations. 7

Methodology. 7

Thesis Outline. 8

The aim of this study. 9

Significance of the study. 9

2.0 Relations to previous studies. 9

2.0 Methodology. 10

2.1 Case study. 10

2.1.1 Building of Explanations. 12

2.1.2 Data Triangulation. 12

3.0 Theoretical Discussions. 13

3.1.1 Afghanistan and security issues. 13

History of Afghanistan Authority. 14

1978: The Soviet Union and Afghanistan. 15

The Taliban: From fiscal year 1994-2001. 16

Afghanistan sovereignty. 17

U.S. Assistance in Afghan. 18

NATO in Afghanistan. 19

Stages of NATO expansion in Afghanistan. 21

Stage 1: NATO’s expansion to the north. 21

Stage 2: NATO goes to the west 21

Stage 3: NATO’s expansion to the south. 22

Stage 4: The Eastward expansion: ISAF takes responsibility for the whole of Afghanistan. 22

Effects of NATO involvement on Global Security. 23

The Transformation of NATO.. 25

The Lessons that can be learnt from the Afghanistan case study. 26

Impact of the International Community on Afghanistan. 31

Democracy in Afghanistan. 35

Proposed Reforms. 36

Conclusion. 38

References. 39


1.0 Introduction

In the last decade, the Afghanistan situation has been a subject of focus in the international community. The political and social effects of the Cold War and Communism resulted in the deterioration of the state. This is because the situation has resulted in terrorist attacks connected with the Taliban forces and other terrorist leaders like the late Osama bin laden (Swenson and Sugerman, 130-146). The two conditions brought about insurgent groups like the Taliban who have come together to ensure they are in power. This has resulted in various wars in Afghanistan that have destabilized the military. In addition, the political and military aspects of Afghanistan have been influenced by foreigners.  As part of Afghanistan’s policy, the state aims at becoming a pluralist democracy. Nevertheless, there is great fear of what will occur in that nation state after the NATO army hands over their control of the nation state to the Afghan government. By extension, the NATO forces will give their control to the National security forces in Afghanistan. This army will safeguard the security, fighting, and peace in the whole state. There are many speculations about whether the state will go back into a state of anarchy or civil war, or whether it will still pursue democracy.  Only time will be the final test as to whether this state will remain democratic. While there are many possibilities open to the end state of Afghanistan, this study investigates whether the Afghan security forces are ready to handle the security situation in their nation state after elections.

There are speculations that the Taliban forces may just be buying time before there is mass departure of the NATO troops in the fiscal year 2014. Various efforts carried out to ensure that this insurgency groups are terminated has proven to be a failure. Numerous reports have proven that the Afghan security forces have been able to hand over their weaponry to the insurgencies. These forces have been given another name dubbed, “green-on-blue,” or “attackers on the inside” to connote their work. The Taliban attack because of hostility towards what the coalition may depict. In the fiscal year 2012, there was an accidental burning of the Bible by the Americans and this sparked hatred of the Taliban towards the west. Hence, the attackers on the inside of the Afghan security forces pose a major threat to the upholding of democracy in the nation state. Furthermore, the Afghan forces do not have adequate military strength to shake off the things that act as a threat to the security of the nation state. This was depicted when the Afghan president Fahim warned that the security situation would go down if the security forces were not given the right machinery before the NATO forces left Afghan in the fiscal year 2014. Without such equipment, the Afghan security will rely on the civilians for security. This will compromise the state of security that exists in Afghan. In this scenario jihadists could spread their propaganda to the populace; and be a menace to the nation state. 

This research paper will look into present conditions in Afghanistan to populate what will happen after elections, and discuss how the security forces will perform after the withdrawal of the NATO force from Afghanistan.  The research will look into Afghanistan’s history it is evolution into democracy. However, much emphasis will be placed on how the NATO forces have prepared the Afghan forces to be able to handle the security of the entire state once they hand over their power. 

The research question

The discussion and analysis in the paper center around one research question: Are the Afghanistan security forces ready to handle the security situation in their nation state after elections? To address this question, subordinate questions are also entertained.

Subordinate questions

1.         How have the Afghan forces been able to handle the security in Afghanistan? 

2.         How has the interference of foreigners affected the Afghanistan military?

3.         How have the NATO forces prepared the Afghanistan army for the period after elections?

4.         Has democracy been achieved in Afghanistan?

5.         How has self-interest been manifested in the Afghan soldiers?


Although the research was prepared with much attention, there were various limitations. For instance, since the study is premised more on the secondary sources of research, the research is more likely to be biased. This is because it relies more on the opinions of the various authors who have written on this subject. Secondly, since the research is new, it has lacked researches carried out by past researchers. Previous research forms the basis upon which most researchers are built upon. 


The thesis’ key objective is to ensure that there is sufficient knowledge on the operations of the Afghanistan army. This will enable analyst to judge whether the Afghanistan force will take care of the issues of security in Afghanistan after the elections in 2014.  This case study will depend on methods that will support such analysis. After the problem has been identified, the researchers will immerse themselves in the secondary and primary sources that are present. In research terms, immersion implies that the resource materials employed must be placed under thorough assessment to know their authenticity, bias as well as their value in this thesis. The outcome will assist to narrate the exact record of what happened. Various journals, books as well as articles have been employed in this thesis to explain the situation in Afghanistan. The historical information that has been provided in this thesis provides excellent perspective on the Afghanistan security forces. 

Thesis Outline

Chapter 1 introduces the title of the study by giving a brief background of the Afghanistan security forces and the democratic situation in the nation state. This chapter also outlines the main significance of the study and the reasons why the research was conducted. The objectives of the study, research questions that guided the researcher and the assumptions that the researcher had while conducting this research. 

Chapter 2 comprises of the literature review and summarizes the relevant research. Additionally, it explains the history of the Afghan security forces, their previous times status and whether they have improved or not. 

Chapter 3 discusses the methodology used and explains the qualitative content analysis methodology used to interpret this study. 

Chapter 4 investigates and explains the results of the qualitative content analysis and themes that emerged when three different individuals coding is analyzed. 

 Chapter Five discusses the limitations, results and implications of this study in regards to how the conditions of the security forces in Afghanistan. 

The aim of this study

Soon after the Afghanistan elections, the new president will face the challenge of ensuring that his army does not defect to the insurgent groups that exist in his nation state. Most of these soldiers defect because of lack of money and their own self-interests   Therefore, it is imperative that both the new government NATO ensures that the Afghan military is taken care of so that there is stability in the government. This thesis therefore seeks to look into the history of the Afghan army to know where the genesis of its weakness began. Moreover, it seeks to understand the various ways that the Afghan government can ensure that there is stability in the army. 

Significance of the study

This study is relevant to government officials, scholars, nongovernmental organizations, and humanitarian groups who have an interest in the Afghan situation and a smooth transition of power and security in 2014. 

2.0 Relations to previous studies

This topic came about because of lack of sufficient material for the research topic. The materials for this topic have not only been scarce in the media but also few academicians have been able to focus on what would happen to Afghanistan after elections. Katzman Kenneth, a senior Iran analyst has managed to write numerous books on Afghanistan security issues. Articles written by this author have been employed in this thesis. Barnett Rubin has also written numerous works on Afghanistan. He is a political scientist who has managed to establish his niche in the study of Afghanistan issues. 

A wide variety of literature on Afghanistan security issue portrays diverse perspectives. This thesis illustrates some of the perspectives with a specific stress on the security issues in Afghanistan. 

2.0 Methodology

The methodology of this thesis is depicted in this section. It follows an analytical mode of explanation building grounded in realism theory. To increase the conclusion of this case study’s validity, data triangulation is employed. This comprises of the employment of several types of data at once.

2.1 Case study

This thesis depicts a case study of the Afghanistan military and the main concern is whether the military is considered strong enough to assist the newly elected president. The research design of this thesis is a case study that is explanatory in nature. The topic was chosen based on the following criteria: The author of this subject matter considered the topic interesting. Additionally, little research is done on the topic. Hence the author desired to find out more on the subject matter. The foremost reason as to why there is research on this topic is that there is lack of information on the topic. Having seen the gap in this subject matter, the author carried out research on the topic. 

The realist theory was employed as the theoretical foundation of the subject matter. The US foreign policy in Afghanistan together with the various interests in play in this state all relate to the theory. Realists argue that politics is all about the struggles that go on amongst the powers at play. The anarchical state of nature that exists in Afghanistan is an environment conductive too the interests of realism to be manifested. In this theory, various nation states always feel uneasy amongst other nation states hence may opt to employ the military to frighten other nation states hence advance their own interests (Doughert and Pfaltzqraff, 1996). In this case, Pakistan and other nations like India have been able to support insurgent groups to destabilize Afghanistan for their own selfish interests. 

The September 11 attacks in the US have made Americans behave with a sense of animosity towards the Afghan people. Hence, they employed direct military actions, deterrence as well as forced diplomacy to defend themselves. In addition, the US seeks to ensure that there is balance of power and that no leader that is reckless takes power in Afghanistan (Girardet, 126-29). Military response was employed in Afghanistan by the US to take care of the terrorism issue. This is what has destabilized Afghanistan until now, as the insurgent groups do not desire the western influence in their nation state. Under former president George Bush’s command, the US leadership believed that the war in Afghanistan was both bad and good (Pillar, 2003). Furthermore, the death of Osama bin Laden would be the only solution to end the crisis of terrorism in Afghan, it was believed. The US began to threaten other states that supported Afghan terrorists. These nation states were mainly North Korea, Iran as well as Iraq. The entire globe was engaged in the realist approach of ensuring that the states were free from terrorism. 

While the Afghan war is deemed to be a war to top the Taliban regime, there is still a war against the Al-Qaeda. In this case, the realist approach cannot be employed when the war is between a state and a non-state actor; like Al-Qaeda (Rubin, 1995). To explain this war, the realist theory is wanting in areas that involve the solutions to be employed in resolving the terrorism issue in Afghan. This is because attacking terrorists will only result in the advancement of suicide bombers as well as martyrs. Hence, the civilians will be the victims of the war that may exist between these two actors. Another point would be that the US attempted to gain support from the UN and needed to work with NATO. In the realism theory, states do not seek support from international regimes. This is especially hen they feel they are threatened by other nation states (Taylor, 2010). In the Afghan situation, America discovered that a state may require the assistance of other nations to be able to legitimize their behavior. Furthermore, there ought to be a share of the cost of the war involved in stopping terrorism. Realists do not place their emphasis on the domestic affairs of the nation state in concern. In addition, their foreign policy does not feature in any way in the foreign policy. However, the employment of power to solve problems has been the main issue in Afghanistan and that has been able to support the realist theory. 

The case study is split into two main parts: one section will be on Afghanistan before the coming of the Soviets while the other will look into life after the Soviet’s departure. Yin purports that there are three types of case studies (Yin 2009). For instance, the explanatory case study focuses on explaining the why as well as the how questions. In this case study, we look into the why there will be instability after the NATO departure from Afghanistan and how this can be curtailed. 

2.1.1 Building of Explanations

A technique dubbed analytical would be most suitable for this case study. In this case, data is analyzed by the author by building various explanations regarding the case given. Giving explanations on the phenomena may require knowing a presumed set of connections on the reasons why what happened took place (Yin 2009). This may not be deemed as the easiest method because the various casual connections that the author may choose may be too complex. In addition, the links may be hard to measure exactly. Therefore, this thesis is mainly premised on the realist theory despite the fact that this theory does not fully explain the various phenomena that may have occurred in the history of Afghanistan. By beginning the analytical chapter with the reasons as to why the security in Afghanistan will fail after elections, this will assist in making very precise conclusions on the matter. In narrative form explanation building may prove to be very challenging and thus this thesis has avoided to ground itself on the theoretical arguments on Afghanistan security. 

2.1.2 Data Triangulation

This explanatory case study of Afghanistan has been conducted as follows: Through explanation building technique, there have been grounded theoretical arguments on the topic. This has been illustrated as one of the main strengths that a case study has. Case studies are able to increase the conclusion’s strength (Pattson, 2002). 

Multiple sources of data may be employed for the researcher to construct an interpretation of events that is more valid. This thesis has been able to employ diverse kinds of data to be able to strengthen the conclusion. Examples of the data that have been employed are books, newspaper articles and academic articles. The employment of newspaper to gather information on the subject matter may however, raise issues on the legitimacy and the preciseness of the information received. Nevertheless, the many articles as well as book that have been employed renowned scholars may assist in negating the concerns that have been raised on validity and objectivity. Moreover, this thesis has been able to employ various sources to increase the validity of the sources of information.

3.0 Theoretical Discussions

This section looks into and discusses the theoretical foundations of this thesis. This thesis concerns Afghan elections and whether the security present will be able to handle the president who will be elected in office. This part of the thesis will illustrate the various debates that have been raised concerning the issue and also take a position on the situation in Afghanistan. 

3.1.1 Afghanistan and security issues

The administration of Afghanistan has been in hand of foreigners since 2001 when the United Nation aided it to end Taliban’s reign and develop a sovereign government. Several attacks that followed before and after development of the new government pushed U.S. government into deploying their security in the country to ensure internal security to the Afghan citizens and other United Nation workers who were assisting in the Nation (United Nations General Assembly Security Council, 2010). Since then, the U.S. military has been assisting in Afghanistan and it is anticipated in two years to come, to withdraw its military to give the Afghan government a chance to have a full control of its country. However, there are still more question regarding the power of Afghan government to run the nation. This section contains a review of various materials to establish the strength of the government to learn the nation. Among the discussed issues, include the state’s sovereignty, the dependency of the state on foreign aids, the democracy in the state and the proposed reforms.

History of Afghanistan Authority

Despite the fact that this nation has had diverse regimes that have upheld different perspectives, the governing structure in Afghan has always been weak. The government has been unable to put in place vital administrative as well as financial institutions on the ethnic communities that exist in Afghanistan (Dewing, 2007). Many people in this nation are divided by mountains increasing the anxiety between the Afghan central government and the urban dwellers. Afghanistan has had democratic institutions formed in the western style. Under the fiscal year 1964 Afghan constitution, King Zahir was set as the constitutional monarch whose rein was short lived

As landlocked nation state in the central part of Asia, Afghanistan has no navy. The Afghan president is the military’s commander in chief acting through Defense Ministry. The headquarters of the Military’s National Command center in Afghan based in Kabul. Currently, the Afghan military has over 20,000 soldiers and by the fiscal year 2015, the figure will have risen by 260,000 (Browne, 2010). Originally, the military comes from the Hotaki dynasty in 1709. This military has been able to combat through many battles with India and Persia from the 18th to 19 century. The second Afghan war with the British occurred in 1880.  In 1880, the British were able to reorganize it when Amir Khan headed it. However, during King Amanullah Khan’s the military underwent upgrading (Barfield, 2010). In the past, the Afghan government depended on the community militias, regular army as well as the tribal levies as institutions of military. The state sustained the usual army while the government leaders controlled it (Robson, 2007). The militia of the community was mainly comprised of men who had able bodied who were mobilized for combat. 

In 1919, Afghanistan fought with Britain. The British saw as a threat to take over India. Additionally, the British feared that Russia’s collaboration with the Afghans would result in chaos. During this period, the Afghan army was not strong and possessed 50,000 men (Cook, 1987). The men in these armies were arranged 75 infantry battalions and 21 Calvary regiments. Furthermore, they possessed approximately 280 up to date missiles pieces. The Afghans also ensured that the 80000 front line tribesmen and other local militia under the command of the British were employed to tame the Afghan army. Like the present times, the armies lacked training, and were not paid well. Furthermore, they had shortage of supply and the distribution of the weapons also proved to be challenging. 

1978: The Soviet Union and Afghanistan

The leaders in Afghan attempted to free themselves from the influences of foreigners. Its geographic, political as well as economic aspects were significant to the Soviet Union. From 1978 to 1992, the Afghanistan army was backed up by the Soviet Union. This was a period called The Cold War. This army was backed by the Soviets to fight the mujahidin multinational funded faction (Girardet, 128-29). This faction was funded by both America and Saudi Arabia. The military was then trained by the Armed forces in Pakistan (Tharoor, 2009). The Soviet deployed the Afghan’s 40th army in 1979. The Saur Revolution led to the creation of Afghanistan nation as a state. The government in this time had close ties with the Soviet Union as the Russians had supported Afghanistan from the Tsarist era (Amstutz, 1986). Various incidences like the Panjdeh Incident in 1885 were a military conflict in the southern part of the Oxus River to seize it. The Russians sent military as well as economic aid to this region during this region (Rubin, 1995). The Soviets influenced the politics as well as the military structure of the Afghan people. In addition, their military was trained in Russia. The nuclear test in India resulted in President Khan building up its military. This was to be able to counteract the influence that both Pakistan and Iran had on the Afghan military. 

In 1978, the government of Afghan signed a treaty that made them be able to call the Soviets whenever they had rebels. However, the results of this war was that the reforms made by the Soviets resulted in civil wars in Afghanistan (Zakaria, 2010). The leaders in Afghanistan fought to be in power and to be free from external interference. They also attempted to become friends with other powers in the world to gain economic, political as well as military gains. The Soviet influence resulted in the disintegration of Afghan in the internal organization and the nation was devoid of a central government. In addition, Afghan lacks ruling entities that are powerful enough to influence the decisions of the government (Barfield, 2010). Tribal factions like Muhajadeen had already created their own territory through which they fought the Soviets. The Soviets left a power vacuum when they left Afghanistan after their defeat. This resulted in various foreigners coming to influence the affairs of Afghan. In addition, the war destroyed the various cultural institutions as well as Afghan society. 

The Taliban: From fiscal year 1994-2001

The Taliban came into being in the midst of all the chaos as well as the war that existed in Afghan. The group was able to promise stability as well as peace to the entire Afghan (Tharoor, 2009). This was because the group was tired of war in the state. Consequently, the civilian population in Afghan welcomed the Taliban with the hope that they would make the destructions end. However, in 1995, this group betrayed the hopes of the people, as they became the most lawless group that has ever existed in Afghanistan (Nojumi, 2002). In 1996, this group was able to capture Kabul and overthrow the authority that was in that place. The lack of the government resulted in Massoud joining the Northern alliance, which was formed to combat the Taliban.

The Taliban were left in charge of the Kabul because the Northern alliance went to the North of Afghanistan. This group was formed by the service intelligence in Pakistan. This intelligence service employed the Taliban to create an Afghan government that would favor Pakistan’s agenda (Taylor, 2010). Hence, the Pakistanis have been able to provide logistical, military as well as financial support to the Taliban. The Afghan government too started to implement the Islamic values on the day-to-day life of the students. There were no radios, alcohol as well as televisions and any defiance would make the person go through floggings and execution (Griffin, 2000). The women in this society were not treated as human beings and polygamy was encouraged amongst the men. Prostitution has a serious legal outcome and not all women could be able to come out without being accompanied by a male relative. The Taliban were hostile to any western or external influence. 

The Taliban began a culture that ensured the restoration of the conservatism culture in Afghan. This culture was anti-American policies and ensured that young children underwent the madrassas (Griffin, 2000). This was to make sure that the children learn the Islamic culture as opposed to the western ideals. The foreign influence in Afghanistan ensured that the Taliban continued to be in power as they fought to destroy the western values. 

Afghanistan sovereignty

The capability as well as the accountability of governance in Afghanistan is vital for ensuring that there is great success during the planned transition from the NATO forces to the newly elected leadership in Afghanistan (Katzman, 2010). Since the Taliban regime came to an end, the capacity of the governing structure in Afghanistan has increased. However, there is still nepotism as well as corruption that have been prevalent. The Afghan president has accepted that the American government forms various institutions of anticorruption in the nation state. These institutions have been the main source of conflict during Karzai’s regime (Dewing, 2007). Despite the weak governmental structure, Karzai has attempted to ensure that the authority is concentrated in Kabul. The Afghan 2014 elections have raised various concerns on what will become of the nation-state when NATO and the US hand over power to the Afghan people. This is because there are so many power structures that are informal which comprise of both regional as well as ethnic leaders (United States Mission to NATO, 2010). These leaders have been a major component while looking into the formal structure of power in Afghanistan.     

In the past years two proceedings have changed the focus of determination to stabilize Afghan as deadline for U.S. government to drawdown its force approaches. Initially, the Afghan president announced that his country would fully take responsibility for security and sovereignty by the end of 2014 (Kesselman, 2009). The NATO conference held on November 2010 in Lisbon confirmed this standard for full change to Afghan sovereignty and long term pledge to strong association beyond 2014. Although there are specific caveats concerning conditions-based choices concerning the benchmarks, the time frame needs to guide the Afghan government, regional partners, and the International Security Association Planning strategic planning (South and Central Asia, 2009). 

Calls for Afghanistan state government strengthening have become a cliché, suitably repeated in all major reports or speeches on the war. However, there has been moderately little thoughtful discussion concerning what strengthening this government would really entail (Dewing, 2007). This is possibly because the deeper an individual digs, the more rooted the obstacles seem.  The obstacles include powerful warlords, local traditions instead of central, complex terrain, a long antiquity of violence and conflict, governance, ethnic and tribal identities dominance against a national one, and none of them bode well (Rashid, 2011). Actually, these were the reasons why most critics prefers the United States President to pull back instead of escalating since, forming even a slightly effective and credible central state in a nation with such influential centrifugal propensities is a fantasy and any mission aimed at achieving this is out to fail (Campbell, 2006). Analysts from all sides have appealed for recent numerous precedents to boost their situations, from fruitful counterinsurgencies to unfruitful imperial intervention. However, none of the frequently cited similarities is ideal since none gives an answer to the current most pressing question of how and whether a nation for instance Afghanistan can currently obtain a sensibly well-functioning federal state (Berman, 2010). 

U.S. Assistance in Afghan

U.S. support to Afghanistan before 2001 flowed mainly via the UN, NGOs, and agencies. The role of U.S. in Afghanistan rose radically after the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), where U.S. government offered assistance via three agencies that included the State Department, the U.S (South and Central Asia, 2011a). Security and military assistance from 2001 accounted for over half of U.S. backing for Afghanistan (United Nations, 2008). These funds have been given via DOD primarily through the Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP), the Afghan Security Forces Fund, and other counter-narcotics suitable funds. Afghanistan security has been one of the major concerns for United Nation. Since 2001 when the Taliban was removed from power following military intervention led by the U.S., the U.S has been assisting the country in security maintenance even after election and development of president Karzia Government (Margesson, 2010).

U.S. president Barack Obama in December 2009 announced the success of lengthy Afghanistan policy administration review that involved reinforcement of temporary troop and a novel design of military strategy to reverse new Taliban gains (South and Central Asia, 2011b). The policy addressed efforts to raise the afghan governance quality, and to build a stronger relation with Pakistan. The proposal withdrawal and troop increase from July 2011 dominated the heading, although the civilian surge effect was considered to be more essential in the policy (Margesson, 2009). The U. S. government wishes to continue with offering military assistance to Afghanistan. This would be until the government can be in a position of controlling its territory sufficiently to prevent its international terrorism use and support regional stability. According to Chaturvedi (2005) Afghanistan will never be able to achieve this if it will continue with the current popular confidence crisis that spring from government weakness, the unpunished power abuse by power-brokers and corrupt officials, an extensive political disenfranchisement notion, and a longstanding economic opportunity lack (South and Central Asia, 2011b). 

NATO in Afghanistan

NATO’s first troops were deployed in Afghanistan in 2003. This force was known as the ISAF or International Security Assistance Force. Its main function was to help the government of Afghan to maintain security and rebuild the nation state. In addition, this force was relevant as it helped in training the Afghan national army as well as the police (Pillar, 2003). The force provided an environment that was lawful and conducive for an election that would be fair and free. The PRTs or the Provincial Reconstruction Teams are the main ingredients for this partnership between the civil society and the military. 

Formed as per the Bonn conference in 2001, was a UN creation that was established to assist Afghan become stable in its internal affairs. The opposition in Afghan attended this conference and this started the process of the nation state’s rebuilding. For instance, a government structure that was entirely new was formed dubbed the Afghan Transitional Authority (South and Central Asia (2011c). Furthermore, this concept was set up to aid the newly formed organization as well as ensure that Afghan was a secure nation state. The UN desired that the regions around and outside Kabul support the entire process of reconstruction. These agreements resulted in the formation of a three-way partnership between the UN assistance mission in Afghanistan, the Transitional Authority in Afghan as well as ISAF.  In 2003, NATO took over the leadership of the operations of ISAF (South and Central Asia, 2011b). This resulted to an end of the national rotations held after six months. The Alliance formed was in charge of the command, strategizing and the organization of the entire force that was in Afghanistan. The new Afghan leadership was able to overcome the challenge presented to them of finding new nation states that would assist in leading the various missions to Afghanistan. In addition, the challenge of setting up the headquarters after every six months in an environment that is very challenging was solved (Stankovic, 2010). A NATO headquarters that was enduring helped the smaller nation states to be able to take over the responsibility of leadership thereby taking a role that was much stronger within the headquarters. 

Initially, the role of ISAF’s mandate was basically to offer security in Kabul and the regions that surrounded it. However, in 2003, the UN extended its functions to comprise of the entire Afghan area. This resulted in an expansion of the entire UN mission in the whole of Afghanistan. 

Stages of NATO expansion in Afghanistan

 Stage 1: NATO’s expansion to the north

The North Atlantic Council authorized General James Jones, the Supreme Allied Commander to beginning the northern expansion. This was started in 2003 in the month of December. The force did this by taking over the Provincial reconstruction team that was led by the Germans in Kunduz. Under the Operation Enduring Freedom command, the other PRTs that were eight in number continued their Afghan operations (Stankovic, 2010). In 2003, December, the Kunduz military component was put under the command of ISAF. This was the first step to ensure expansion of this mission. A summit meeting held in Istanbul by the Government and the Heads of State belonging to NATO announced the establishment of provincial reconstruction teams. These teams would be set in Baghlan, Feyzabad, Mazar-e-Sharif as well as Meymana in the north of Afghanistan (Weinberger, 2002). The process finalized in 2004, marking ISAF’s first phase of completion. The operations of this mission were about 3600 sq km in the northern part of Afghan. This made it possible for the mission to be able to influence the security of the nine provinces. 

Stage 2: NATO goes to the west

This stage began in the fiscal year 2005, February. ISAF took charge of two PRTs that were added to it in the Farah and Herat provinces. Heart also acted as a logistical base for ISAF. In September, two other PRT was ISAF led which became functional (Suhrke&Borchgrevink, 2009). One of the bases was in Chaghcharan, capital of Ghor province while the other one was in Qala-e-Naw, capital of Baghdis province. This finalized the westward expansion plan that ISAF had nine PRTs which were led by the ISAF command in the west as well as the north after this expansion plan. This mission was to offer security in nearly half of Afghanistan’s territory (South and Central Asia, 2009). This alliance prepared to make the Afghan South to be much bigger.

The Alliance was able to deploy 2000 soldiers temporarily in September 2005. This was in support of 18 September elections at both the provincial and parliamentary level. The ISAF mission’s expansion led to the formation of a nine people command team that led people in the west and north of the nation state (Rhyne, 2011). These were capable of offering help for nearly half of all the civilians in the nation state. The Alliance went on to prepare to expand to the Afghan south.

 Stage 3: NATO’s expansion to the south

A meeting in Brussels in 2005 by the foreign ministers of the allied foreign ministers backed up a plan to make way for the expansion of ISAF functions. In addition, this expanded the NATO presence in Afghan (Paya, 2010). This plan’s top most agenda was to expand ISAF’s functions to the south in the fiscal year 2006. In 2006, this plan was able to be executed when ISAF took charge of Afghan’s southern region. The coalition that was led by the Americans expanded its operational area to cover for the six provinces, which are Helmand, Day Kundi, Nimroz, Kandahar, Zabul and Uruzgan (Weinberger, 2002). Furthermore, the ISAF took charge of the rest of the four PRTs that were added to it. There were 13 PRTs that were led by ISAF to the North, South, West which were was three-quarters of the entire territory inn Afghan.  As a result, this number increased from 10000 men to 20000.

Stage 4: The Eastward expansion: ISAF takes responsibility for the whole of Afghanistan

The last stage of expansion was executed in the fiscal year 2006. The troops took over charge of the international military forces in the east of Afghan. They were assisted by a coalition that was led by the US (Innes-Ker & Walsh, 2006).  Furthermore, the revised plan of operation created a pathway for a greater function of ISAF in Afghan.  This expanded the area of operations that belonged to the alliance. This comprises of ISAF’s deployment to the National army in Afghan. There exist various stages of command such as

•           Major General Hilmi Akin Zorlu, Turkey

•            Major General John McColl, UK

•           Lieutenant General Goetz Gliemeroth from Germany- this was the first NATO command mission that NATO was involved in.

•           Lieutenant General Rick Hillier, from Canada

•            Lieutenant General Van Heyst, from Germany

•           General Mauro del Vecchio, from Italy

•           General EthemErdagi, from Turkey

•           General Dan K. McNeill, from the USA

•           General Stanley A. McChrystal, from the USA

•           General Jean-Louis Py, from  France

•           General David Richards, from the UK

•           General David D. McKieman, from the USA

•            Lieutenant General Sir Nick Parker, from the UK – He was the deputy commander of the ISAF forces. After General Mc Chrystal resigned, Parker was able to assume the interim command. 

•           General David H. Petraeus, from the USA

•           General John R. Allen, from the US

Effects of NATO involvement on Global Security

Many nation states all over the world supported the Afghan conflict. America’s military success was able to ensure that there was unity amongst the various nation states like Pakistan, Iran, Russia as well as China. Pakistan was formerly a major Afghan ally. The NATO mission that is in Afghanistan operates under the UN mandate (Margesson, 2009). This was as per the request of the government in Afghan. Hence, its legitimacy had no doubt. This was an opportunity for Afghan to be able to reconstruct itself after the conflict. 

The entire world has security interest as to ensure that Afghan does not get into war. The restoration of the Taliban in Afghanistan would ensure that Pakistan involves itself in forming nuclear weapons. In addition, the West would ensure that its enemies are susceptible to attack. A withdrawal would also mean that the West have betrayed the people in Afghanistan (Rashid, 2011). This betrayal is mainly to the civilians who have their expectations in the especially those who put their trust in the West and came back to their motherland to begin fresh lives. NATO must ensure that there is a reduction in the corruption level in Afghan. In addition, the reduction in corruption would ensure that the Afghan people embrace the western values. This would develop the positive values like accountability in government as positive values from the West. Nearly 27% of the population in Afghan is illiterate. This has been a factor causing many elections in Afghan to be rigged (Swenson &Sugerman, 130-146). This has made NATO to be hopeless that they can ever be able to not only ensure security in the region but also to win the Afghan conflict. In addition, the West has been interested in ensuring that democratic values have been set in place. This would consequently result in security in Afghan. 

The Taliban rose quickly because they had never been won over by the NATO and other forces. The Taliban have been very instrumental in ensuring that no authority in Afghanistan holds power. It is said that NATO made it worse by killing innocent Afghan civilians during the conflict. When more civilians die during the war, many of these civilians will turn to the Taliban and other insurgent groups for assistance. That would be risky especially when the NATO plan has been to ensure that the security of Afghan comes back. Obama sought to deploy 33,000 more soldiers in Afghan (Douglas, 2008). This was apart from the fact that Afghanistan was able to economically advance.  Obama had two options in order to curb the Afghan war. They would employ counter terrorism, which would imply that many civilians would be killed in the process. Secondly, they would employ a counter insurgency that is manpower intensive. The choice of the COIN employed greatly affected the motivation that both the Americans as well as NATO had in the Afghan region (United States Mission to NATO, 2010). Nevertheless, President Obama gave a promise to the Americans that the troops would be out by the fiscal year 2011. 

President Obama is disappointed with the fact that most of the Europeans have not been able to get involved in the Afghan war. He argued that the security of the world issues involve all the member states hence the US ought not to be left alone to handle the Taliban issue (WahabuddinRa’ees, 2010).  NATO should not have behaved itself as a force that is occupying Afghan but as a partner that has the objective of ensuring that the local Afghan army has been built up. The building of an Afghan army that is better and larger will ensure that the insurgents are kept out in Afghan. President Karzai of Afghan also talked of reconciling with the Taliban. They also ensured that there was a council of elders in the Middle East was called to assist in the reconciliation (Girardet, 129). This may conflict with America’s agreement with the Taliban as they were also attempting to fight the insurgents. However, NATO must ensure that they have negotiated with the insurgent from the point of strength. This is because reconciliation forms a greater aspect of this negotiation. NATO desires to implement a new strategy dubbed Mushtarak. In this new strategy, the NATO forces advertized themselves before time to motivate the civilians to get out of any harm (Weinberger, 2002). This would ensure that there is a reduction of the deaths of the innocent civilians.

The Transformation of NATO

NATO always seemed to be marginalized when it came to fighting against global terrorism. Lord Robertson’s argued that the people who criticized NATO were making a mistake attempting to be the moment’s parochialism (South and Central Asia, 2011c). The community in Transatlantic required a lot of time so that they could heal from the September 11 attacks wounds. NATO has been able to adapt to its various even before the Western powers gave them their agenda. The treaty of Washington resulted in the allies widening their views on what self- defense meant (Kuchins, 2011). This was supposed to be defined beyond the traditional meaning towards any response to a military invasion. In addition, this was the first article five that lacked any Russian content in it. This was to demolish every myth that any defense strategy that was collective had to revolve around Russia. 

The NATO member states also experienced transformation in how the forces were deployed. Various statements in a major document that addresses how the various challenges would be solved each time it took place complemented these (Rhyne, 2011).  This marked the conclusion of the debate that left out NATO’s agenda to be out of Afghanistan. NATO moved from understanding security issues in a functional as well as geographical way. This was very important as it made sure that the relevance of NATO in future shall be maintained. 

NATO’s military concept soon resulted in the defense against any form of terrorism in Afghan. This concept broke new grounds as it ensured that the employment of force was done early enough. NATO Prague summit came to an agreement that new military abilities ought to be developed (Barry & Greene, 2009). These strategies would be significant as they support NATO’s various missions on counter terrorism. Specifically, NATO’s response force together with other chemical, biological as well as nuclear weapon defense has been created. Additionally, several nation states who were partners in this operation also took part in the operative active endeavor. This was in article 5 of the NATO naval operations against to counter terrorism in the Mediterranean.

The Lessons that can be learnt from the Afghanistan case study

One of the major functions of NATO outside Europe was when it took charge of the ISAF force. This mission was however met with many challenges like not having the military capabilities required for the mission (Campbell, 2006). In addition, the mission faced the challenge of not being able to convince other nation states who were allied to the mission to participate in it. There were various debates on what comprised of equal sharing of the burdens and risks in the entire mission. In addition, this mission revealed the military as well as the political inconsistencies that existed in the alliances. The mission also revealed the diversities that existed amongst the allies on the significance of the Afghan mission and why it was relevant to conclude the mission (Kuchins, 2011). The involvement of Afghanistan in the mission put NATO in a better position to be able to meet the challenges in the future. Presently, NATO has been built up to the point that it is able to face other challenges more than it was in the period prior the attacks on September 11.

The military abilities of all the nation states and their allies as well as their partners were one of the key transformations that occurred between the allies as well as the partners. In this war, many partners experienced many losses while the ISAF mission speeded up the process of change in many nation states (Weinberger, 2002). The legacy that the cold war left in many nation states was a major hindrance in the mission. Many nation states that participated in ISAF did it for the first time after many decades of war. Through the war equipments as well as training, the forces adjusted to their various tasks that were quite demanding (Barfield, 2010) Consequently, this has made NATO be more experienced in how they handle crises in the world like in Libya. This alliance became a major source of internal partnership making NATO coalition be more global. There was also change in the NATO partnership. Many all over the world shared the NATO mission in Afghanistan (Robson, 2007). This included various members from Latin America as well as in Asia-Pacific. Consequently, this NATO partnership could not only be reached worldwide but also it was able to change the regions surrounding it. These transformations have been imperative in making sure that NATO performs effectively. This is because they have now been able to solve various future crises like attacks in the cyber, proliferation, terrorism as well as disasters.

The third area of NATO’s transformation was its link with other institutions. From the beginning, the function that NATO had was to ensure that there was security in the entire Afghan region. This security would be able to make the civilian population in Afghan to be able to participate in reconstructing their nation state (Katzman, 2010). The engagement with the civilians was always seen as something that would drag the military’s plan of expansion. However, this would be critical component in ensuring that the nation state remains stable. Over a period of time, the connection between various civilian organizations, NGOs as well as ISAF were established. For instance, the link between NATO and the UN, which began during the Balkan war, in the 1990 period, had been challenging to improve. NATO attempts to combine military, economic as well as political instruments to ensure that a comprehensive approach is achieved (Nawroz, et al, 1996). Presently, NATO has been able to form a relationship with their civilians more than any other international community has before the September 11. This combination is far better than any other plan. 

The mission of transformation that was began by NATO during this period is not yet about to finish. Nevertheless, NATO has been able to weaken the Al Qaeda’s control in Afghan and by the end of fiscal year, 2014 will however be a challenge (Griffin, 2000). Despite the fact that NATO is now in operational in many nation states, there is still need for connecting with other nation states. This is to ensure that a collective mindset that ensures collectivity in terms of the mindset is set. Consequently, this would make NATO only be concerned about a region when there is a crisis (Browne, 2010). This would make there to be a contemplated deployment of the troops to that place. In addition, more attention needs to be given in partnership. Specifically, India and China ought to take Afghan’s future very seriously to make Afghan’s future of security be achievable. Lastly, more theoretical work is required in relations to the function of NATO in fighting terrorism. For instance, the military concept can be complemented with a political concept. 

NATO was confronted by many challenges in the beginning of the 21st century. First, there were fresh terrorist threats and proliferation of weapons. These all occurred in regions outside the European territory. Much attention was placed on the attention of the US towards the Middle East and Central Asia. Nevertheless, NATO ought to be able to deem itself as the only body that can be able to handle the security issues in the entire Europe. It has been able to overcome every other challenge that hinders security in the region. It’s involvement in Afghan has been able to reinforce NATO’s function of both military as well as political appeal. 

U.S., Partners &Allies 

For instance, the United Nations Mission in Afghanistan role is to manage Afghan’s rebuilding, humanitarian relief as well as recovery. In addition, it manages all the various activities of development with the government. 

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)

This is one of strategic military commands in NATO. It is based in Mons, Belgium and has charge over the operations of the Alliance. These operations, range from the Arctic to Afghanistan.

The Afghan Women’s Mission

These organizations work with women in Afghan who are given to ensure that there is peace, democracy as well as the rights of women. 

USAID and Afghanistan

More than $4 billion has been spent in Afghanistan by the US from 2002. This funds have gone towards developmental aid (Katzman, 2010). The USAID has been known to provide the greatest civilian help for governmental, rural, and the development of infrastructure.

Governance in Afghanistan

The current president of Afghanistan is Hamid Karzai, who came into office in the year 2004 after the country’s first democratic elections in November of the previous year South and Central Asia (2011b). Constitutionally, the country was to carry out its first elections in June but failed to meet the deadline and deed the elections five months later with an 80 percent turnout.

The Afghan national assembly consists of 249 elected members of the lower house (Wolesi Jirga, meaning house of the people) and 102 members selected of the upper house (MeshranoJiga, meaning house of elders). This national assembly is entitled to make and reform laws in the country (Berman, 2010). The national assembly also takes part in matters of governance and decision making for the country. Among the members of the upper house, on-third are appointed by the president according to the constitutions for a five-year term (half should be women), one-third appointed by the elected provincial council for a four-year term, and one-third appointed by elected district council for a three-year term. The Afghan national assembly has become the key formal institution for political independents through expressing political opposition and exerts influence on the president. The national assembly also puts the powers of the president in-check. In doing so, the lower house has the power to vote no confidence against ministers. Both the lower and upper houses of the national assembly can pass laws of the land. The USAID has helped the Afghanistan national assembly build its capabilities with a parliamentary assistance program for the country. 

Currently, United States-led NATO forces mostly help the Afghan president Hamid Karzai to govern the state. Some of the issues that are of major importance in the transition from NATO forces to full Afghan leadership are corruption, nepotism, and improving transparency in Afghan governance (Suhrke&Borchgrevink, 2009). Hamid Karzia has acknowledged the help offered by United States to build anti-corruption institutions that would facilitate combating some of these issues. These institutions have however been faced with challenges in fighting corruption in this country when it targets the president’s allies or relatives (South and Central Asia, 2011b).  President Hamid Karzia’s bold step of issuing a decree on administrative reforms on July 26, 2012 was taken as a stride forward in the fight against corruption.

The constitution of Afghanistan provides for an independent judiciary as an arm of the government that has equal powers, led by a nine-member supreme court. The president has the legitimate powers to appoint the nine members, but subject to confirmation by the lower house of the national assembly. Three judges are appointed for a ten-year term, three for a seven-year term, and the other three appointed for a four-year term. The chief justice, who is currently Abdul Salaam Azimi, who was appointed in May 2006, heads the judiciary. 

Through the help of the NATO forces, the Afghan government was able to conquer the Taliban regime in the late 2001, and been able to stabilize and increase the capacity of the formal governing structure. Despite the weaknesses of the Afghan government, the president of the state has tried to concentrate his authority in the capital Kabul, through his legitimate powers. 

Impact of the International Community on Afghanistan

The international community throughout the years has always influenced Afghanistan. Both the United States and the Soviet Union have taken part in the political and economic in Afghan (South and Central Asia, 2011c). The international community has not only contributed positively in the issues of Afghanistan but also negatively. The country being fragile, divided by ethnicity, tribal affiliations, geographical and economic interests, any outside intervention is likely to cause conflict and outbreak of a civil war. Through the years 1978 to 1992 in the cold war period, the Afghan was fighting hand in hand with the Soviet Union and Pakistan against international community influence in the country. The Soviet Union offered military and financial aid to Afghanistan, while Pakistan offering training to the Afghan army. The Soviet Union involvement in the country was mainly because of its self-interest (Girardet, 129). Afghanistan was mainly fighting the American and Saudi Arabia during this period. Therefore, the Soviet Union involvement was not for the benefit of Afghanistan but its own. The Russians sent military as well as economic aid to this region during this period (Rubin, 1995). The Soviets influenced the politics as well as the military structure of the Afghan people. Even though Afghanistan was fighting against external influence, the Soviet Union was in the heart of the influence. The Soviet Union also trained the Afghan army to manufacture nuclear power and weapons during this period of the cold war. 

The military conflicts in Afghanistan can therefore be traced to international involvement where different countries supported conflicting parties in the country. Some of the causes of instability in Afghanistan can also be traced to the prolonged involvement of the international community in the country (Swenson &Sugerman, 130-146).  However, it was necessary for the global community to engage so that the country respects basic human rights and democratic governance. Afghanistan has always been blamed for abusing human rights and specifically humiliating the female gender. Through international community intervention, some of these rights have been observed and equity ensured. Some of the human rights benefits that have resulted from international community intervention include the women movement into prominent positions in all areas of Afghan governance despite the conservative attitude. In the years 2004-2006, three female ministers were in the cabinet (Suhrke&Borchgrevink, 2009). The ministers were Masooda Jalal who was the minister of Women’s Affairs, SediqaBalkhi who was the minister for Martyrs and the Disabled, and AminaAfzali who was the Minister of Youth. This clearly shows that the international community has facilitated gender equality in the largely conservative country. 

The international community also has been providing the country with funding to reconstruct, develop democracy, governance, and rule of law programs. The United States has been more active in funding activities in Afghanistan with the Obama Administration strategy increasing the funding to reconstruct and improve the county’s economy (WahabuddinRa’ees, 2010). During the fiscal years 2002-2012, the USAID has spent over 1.5 billion Dollars on the improvements of human rights and the rule of law as well as democracy.  In the fiscal year 2012, the USAID spent the following funds in Afghanistan.

         $435.5 million for good governance

         $37 million for political competition and consensus building

         43 million for civil society

For the fiscal year 2013, the ESF democracy and governance requests $578.2 million, including;

         $31 million for human rights as well as rule of law.

         $37 million for political competition and consensus building

         $43 million for civil society

Reconstruction of the political, social, and economic activities in Afghanistan is an issue that would certainly require international community involvement. Reconstructing Afghanistan would be a complex task that would need international support, human and material resources, and a stable political governance over a long period (Creighton, 2009). This is because for a long while, the country and its surroundings has been destroyed by conflict. The war against terrorism inside and outside Afghanistan is an international issue and therefore advocates for international involvement. The Afghan government, with the aid of the international community, has made remarkable steps towards realizing macro-economic solidity from the year 2002 (Kuchins, 2011). The international community originally focused on disaster management and reconstructing key economic organizations by availing essential government services. A vital support for the authorities’ fiscal policy has been a strong commitment to execute resonance fiscal and monetary policies. The Afghan government’s hard work has clearly produced outcomes since the country’s economy shows strong signs of improvement, inflation has also been moderate, and the exchange rate relatively stabilized (Margesson, 2009). Afghanistan remains among the poorest countries in the world despite the recent strong economic growth. The high poverty levels require well-targeted social programs and considerable venture to maintain economic growth, to arrive at the proclaimed objectives of a per capita level of approximately 500 dollars.

In order to achieve Afghanistan’s rebuilding and growth objectives, the Afghan economy would persist to need large amounts of exterior technological and monetary support in the coming period (Margesson, 2009). s. A temporary debt sustainability study organized by the International Monetary Fund’s staff proposes that Afghanistan’s capability to service external debt remains very limited (Segell, 2004). That study showed that even with elevated economic growth rates and reserved levels of highly concessional borrowing, pardon of two-sided debt will be essential to guarantee sustainability over middle term. It is obvious that Afghanistan will require relying tremendously on grants.

Among the international organizations that have been involved in reconstructing Afghanistan, the International Monetary Fund has been working closely with the country’s government since its liberation. The International Monetary Fund’s main concern has been to offer the government with strategy counsel and technological support (Margesson, 2009). The financial institution has also posted a resident representative in the country’s capital Kabul, in spite of the security environment. The IMF practical backing has paid attention on initiating a new national currency, putting in order the new central bank, and bank laws, improving financial management, intensification of income policies and administration, and improving the numerical record (Segell, 2004). The international financial institution completed its first Article IV discussion with the Afghanistan government in November 2003.       

Democracy in Afghanistan

There are numerous factors that challenge the development of sovereign nation in Afghan. This ranges from Afghanistan ethic composition to its unforgiving geography that present distinctive challenges to developing a functional government, particularly one that entails a strong core authority aiming at dominating governance of various features of society (Crisis Group Asia Report, 2009). Afghan is a multi-ethnic country and divisions in linguistic makes national democracy forging quite a challenge. The country contains two main ethnicity; Pashtuns and Tajik that accounts for 40 and 35 percent of total population respectively (Segell, 2004). Pashtuns who are particularly found in south feel relegated by the current president and see him as a figurehead representing external interests instead of that of Afghan. The largest part of the positions of government is filled non-Pashtun and thus, many Pashtun view this government via an ethnic prism, possibly because they previously dominated the government before Taliban rule (Creighton, 2009). Therefore, the political support of Karzai involves a number of groups who oppose or distrust his government. Low rates of literacy inhibit the knowledge dissemination that is required for democratic participation. In addition, the country lacks enough history of reforms liberalization. The uncertain steps toward national level democracy were assumed in 1964 and 1949. Since then there no much improvement that took place and worse the 1973 coup nullified all past efforts toward democracy (Barry & Greene, 2009). 

The first parliament quality after the Taliban government fall is marginal. According to international crisis group (ICG), the Afghan parliament contains more criminal and warlords than democrats. In addition, most of pro-American figures contain distasteful pasts which in Barry and Greene (2009) views propose a suspect obligation to democracy. The country is also faced by major crimes that include resource plundering and Narco-trafficking among others. The national government of Afghan is riffed with corruption and its document among the worst in the world and ranked 176 in 180 states by Transparency International (South and Central Asia, 2011c). The country is also faced by disorder and violence. The Afghanistan security has deteriorated to a level that about half of the nation was proposed as a no-go region for NGOs by 2007UN map. The safety absence for most of the country’s population contain a number of consequences one of them being weak trust in democracy (Dubay, 2012). 

Neighbors of Afghanistan especially Pakistan exert important influence over the Afghanistan politics. Afghan has long been viewed as influence sphere Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Directorate of Pakistan sponsored the Taliban establishment in mid 1990s and has frequently been accused of assisting rebels in Afghanistan (Innes-Ker & Walsh, 2006). The relationship between Afghan and Pakistan is complicated by Taliban support or involvement among most tribes of Pashtu along the border of Afghanistan/Pakistan, and the Pakistan army unwillingness or inability to govern border as well as the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan close to the Afghan border. The greatest part of this region was under the actual control of local tribes and a few parts especially in South and North Waziristan currently seem to be under Pakistani Taliban full control (Weinberger, 2002). 

Proposed Reforms

Reconstructing the Afghanistan justice system after about 25-years of changing governments and war is a great challenge; translating that reform agenda makes the activity even more frightening (Douglas, 2008). The previous history of Afghan legal reforms is typified by negotiation among varied legal traditions. Currently, western aid has been proactive and visible, with minimal effort to involve Islam law and minimal Afghans consultation. This procedure has emphasized the separation between Western statutory law and Islamic law instead of the possibility of integration and accommodation (Rhyne, 2011).

Legal traditions of Islamic are marked by constant negotiation and diversity. To be able to achieve liberal and integrative reforms, the justice sector international assistance is expected to involve respected and established Afghan clerics in a more serious manner to make the reform relevant to Afghans. In addition, Muslim nations would have been a main source of assistance (Swenson&Sugerman, 130-146). In Zakaria (2010) view, involving Muslim nations with a history of negotiating the association between the ruler’s law and scholar’s law for instance Pakistan , Turkey and Egypt could have reinforced the integrative aspect in reform of justice sector (Berman, 2010). Although there has been involvement of a few legal advisors from Egypt in the Supreme Court, UN mission and last phase of reform program led by Italians, the overall major actors were Italians and Americans of which neither of them has a lot of experience in positively engaging with Islamic law. Pakistan involvement was ruled out due to their bad history of supporting Taliban (Jensen, 2011).

The reforms carried out in judicial sector are not satisfactory to all Afghans. According to Peter (2011) for legal reforms to be effective and legitimate, they need to be involved with the Afghanistan justice foundation for instance Islamic law. They also need to be visibly molded by Afghans. In his view, foreign legal experts need at least to be Muslims for them to be accepted in conservative segment of religion represented by the Saidabad mullah. Although the mullahs practically welcome non-Muslims cooperation on projects development provided they respect Afghan religion and culture, legal assistance is a sensitive issue since law lies at the society moral foundation heart. 

The research performed on the current legal reforms in Afghanistan has also shown importance of integration of system of informal justice. This is because there has been a lot of disillusionment with sector of formal justice about 7 years after Bonn Contract (Fichtner, 2008). A report written by Human Development in Afghan recommend for the development of local Jirga and Shura system of informal justice that depend on customary and Sharia law instead of emphasizing on massive and quick reconstruction of the formal sector ruins (Suhrke and Borchgrevink, 2008). 


In the past years two proceedings have changed the focus of determination to stabilize Afghan as deadline for U.S. government to drawdown its force approaches. Calls for Afghanistan state government strengthening have turn to be a cliché, suitably repeated in all major reports or speeches on the war. U.S. support to Afghanistan before 2001 flowed mainly via U.N. NGOs and agencies. The role of U.S. in Afghanistan rose radically after the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), where U.S. government offered assistance via three agencies that included the State Department, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Department of Defense (DOD). U.S. president Barack Obama in December 2009 announced the success of lengthy Afghanistan policy administration review that involved reinforcement of temporary troop and a novel design of military strategy to reverse new Taliban gains (The Telegraph, 2012). However, numerous factors challenge the development of sovereign nation in Afghan. This ranges from Afghanistan ethnic composition to its unforgiving geography that present distinctive challenges to developing a functional government, particularly one that entails a strong core authority aiming at dominating governance of various features of society.

There has never been any history in the world that would bring all the nations in the world in one stage. This is because the number of the troops was many. Despite the fact that there were many troops that were stationed in Iraq while there were many insurgent groups in the nation state. Other people believe that the war can be won with the right strategies in place. The West must win the war not just for prestige but also because this was the first globalization conflict. The capitalist system that was established by the Western nation states was at the verge of breaking down. The downfall of Afghan could result in negative outcomes on a system that has attracted a lot of trust and has resulted in the prosperity of the Western nation states.

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Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

Julie A. Steen, Mary Mann, Nichole Restivo, Shellene Mazany, and Reshawna Chapple

The goal of the study reported in this article was to explore the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice among students and supervisors in social work field settings. Data were collected from 35 students and 48 supervisors through an online survey system that featured two open-ended questions regarding human rights issues in their agency and human rights practice tasks. Responses suggest that participants encountered human rights issues related to poverty, discrimination, participation/self-determination/autonomy, vio- lence, dignity/respect, privacy, and freedom/liberty. They saw human rights practice as en- compassing advocacy, service provision, assessment, awareness of threats to clients’ rights, and the nature of the worker–client relationship. These results have implications for the social work profession, which has an opportunity to focus more intently on change efforts that support clients’ rights. The study points to the possibilities of expanding the scope of the human rights competency within social work education and addressing the key human rights issues in field education.

Human Rights: It’s Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings

KEYWORDS: accreditation standards; educational policy; field education; human rights; social work education

In the most recent edition of Social Work Speaks, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) (2015b) announced that “the struggle

for human rights remains a vital priority for the social work profession in the 21st century” (p. 186). The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2012), which is the international umbrella organiza- tion for national social work associations, has integrated the concept of human rights into their Statement of Ethical Principles. Through this docu- ment, they call on social workers to “uphold and defend” (IFSW, 2012) the human rights of clients. In addition, they present international human rights conventions as key to “social work practice and action” (IFSW, 2012). Although NASW (2015a) does not explicitly use the term “human rights” in its Code of Ethics, many of the concepts within the national document are derived from the human rights philosophy. For example, the code requires social workers within the United States to respect “the dignity and worth of the person” (NASW, 2015a, p. 5), “facilitate informed participation by the public in shaping social policies and institutions” (NASW, 2015a, p. 27), and work to “ensure that all people have equal access to the resources, employ- ment, services, and opportunities they require to

meet their basic human needs” (NASW, 2015a, p. 27). These responsibilities align with the types of human rights classified as integrity of the body, polit- ical rights, and social and economic rights (Steen, 2006).

Although social work professional organizations on the national and international levels embrace the human rights philosophy (Healy, 2008; Reichert, 2011; Steen, 2006; Wronka, 2008), questions remain regarding the definition and application of human rights in social work settings. Answers to these ques- tions are particularly important as schools of social work seek to meet accreditation standards that require student mastery of a human rights competency (Council on Social Work Education [CSWE], 2008, 2015). Although human rights content may be easily infused into the curriculum, the field place- ment remains an unexplored venue for human rights education. The field placement is perhaps the most important aspect of social work education, as this is the setting in which social work students directly witness human rights violations and are given oppor- tunities to take a human rights practice approach. Social work educators and the profession as a whole could build a stronger foundation for practice through a greater understanding of the nature of human rights

doi: 10.1093/sw/sww075 © 2016 National Association of Social Workers 9

issues that confront social workers and the ways in which social workers can take a human rights practice approach. To address this gap, we sought to examine the perspectives of field supervisors and social work interns regarding the meaning of human rights and human rights practice in social work field settings.

LITERATURE REVIEW Meaning of Human Rights Foundational to this discussion is the meaning one assigns to the concept of human rights. Many rely on theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) for guidance in defining the scope of the concept (Reichert, 2011; Wronka, 2008). Wronka (2008) divided the articles of UDHR into the following five dimensions: dignity; nondiscrimination; civil and political rights; economic, social, and cultural rights; and solidarity rights. This definition of human rights has found its way into social work in- stitutions. In fact, several of the dimensions listed byWronka are represented in CSWE’s (2008) human rights competency, which includes attention to the client’s right to “freedom, safety, privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education” (p. 5).

The meaning of human rights has gradually expanded beyond UDHR with the creation and adoption of population-specific conventions, de- clarations, and principles. Examples include the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrim- ination Against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and Principles for the Older Person. Many of these documents reaffirm a specific population’s rights to the entitlements outlined in UDHR, but they also extend beyond this foundation by addressing the unique situations faced by the population. For example, CRC establishes a child’s right to be free from military service with the aim of preventing the use of child soldiers (Reichert, 2011). This realm of population-specific rights is one of the most fre- quently featured in the social work literature with authors directing their attention toward the human rights of various populations, such as women (Choi, Brownell, & Moldovan, 2015; Morgaine, 2006) and children (Doek, 2009; Munro et al., 2011; Scherrer, 2012; Viviers & Lombard, 2012; Watkinson & Rock, 2016).

The meanings described previously are largely derived from legal thought within Western demo- cratic countries, leading some to call for an alternative

means for defining the concept of human rights. Use of Western-derived meanings imposes limitations that contribute to colonialism and racism (Ife, 2010). One solution suggested by Ife (2010) involves the “reflexive definition of human rights,”which “occurs when people address the idea themselves and, rather than accept the dominant discursive construction uncritically, think about and define what human rights mean in their own context” (p. 135). Ife emphasized experience and context as being key parts of this making of meaning. “Human rights are constantly being defined and redefined, constructed and reconstructed, in people’s daily lives and their interactions with others, and also in their conscious reflection of what ‘human rights’ mean in context” (p. 135).

This discussion begs the question of what social workers in the field make of the concept of human rights. This leads us to our first research question: What meanings do social work students and their field supervisors attribute to the concept of human rights as it relates to their work in field settings?

Practice of Human Rights Another important question focuses on the actions social workers can take to make human rights a real- ity. In other words, the focus shifts from the concept of human rights to the practice of human rights. Most literature regarding the social worker’s role in human rights presents human rights practice as tak- ing the form of advocacy. In the words of Reichert (2011), this form of practice involves “challenging oppression.” Examples of both case-based and cause- based advocacy within a human rights framework abound. Case-based advocacy, in which social workers campaign for environmental changes that enable a client’s rights to be realized, has been oper- ationalized in a wide variety of fields. In the area of women’s rights, case-based human rights practice has been framed as “interven[ing] to protect [a client] against physical abuse from her partner” (Reichert, 2011, p. 240) and supporting client submissions of individual petitions to the complaint mechanism within the Women’s Convention (Tang, 2004). Cause-based advocacy is also described within the literature. Staub-Bernasconi (2012) listed tasks that fall within this category of cause-based advocacy, including “resource mobilization, consciousness raising, mediation, and empowerment. More spe- cific methods include . . . monitoring, lobbying, and, more and more, also whistle blowing” (p. 35).

10 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

Specific examples of cause-based advocacy in the field of women’s rights can be found in the work of Tang (2004), who urged social workers to “work together with women’s groups and progres- sive NGOs to advocate for and support the imple- mentation of the Women’s Convention in their country” (p. 1183).

Another option was advanced by Ife (2010), who presented a mezzo-level model of human rights practice. He argued that community devel- opment is a means through which human rights can be practiced and achieved. Participatory democ- racy is central to his model. Community members come together to dialogue, build, educate, and advocate. Human rights education is one compo- nent of Ife’s model, though he believed that this task should be carried out in a bottom-up fashion. As such, he cited Freire’s (2014) philosophy and pointed to works of creative expression (for example, drama, art, and music) that provide community members with outlets to share their experiences as survivors of human rights violations. Social workers wishing to engage in human rights practice using this model would support community development through facilitation of community member engagement. An example of this form of human rights practice is described in the literature within the context of Middle East peace efforts (Grodofsky, 2012).

Whereas Ife (2010) emphasized the role of the social worker in the community, some authors have discussed ways in which social workers can integrate human rights into case management and clinical practice. Reichert (2011) described this method as being characterized by client empower- ment, the strengths perspective, ethnic-sensitive practice, feminist practice, and cultural compe- tence. Additional details are offered by Wronka (2008), who presented the following elements as being essential to micro-level human rights prac- tice: “creating a human rights culture,” respecting human dignity, practicing nondiscrimination, using a “nonhierarchical approach,” considering and respecting the client’s cultural context, integrating community- and client-driven interventions, using a “systems-oriented approach,” and respecting self- determination. Berthold (2015) provided the most comprehensive description to date of this approach. Her model of human rights–based clinical practice consists of “reframing needs as entitlements or rights, operating from a stance of cultural humility and intersectionality, fostering a therapeutic relationship

and reconstructing safety, providing trauma-informed care, and drawing from the recovery-model and a strengths and resilience orientation” (p. 2).

This literature provides a foundation on which to ask our second research question: How do social work students and their field supervisors describe human rights practice in their own agency settings?

METHOD Design To attain a greater understanding of the meaning and practice of human rights within social work field settings, a phenomenological approach was taken within the qualitative portion of a mixed- methods study. Field supervisors and field students in a social work department with accredited BSW and MSW programs were contacted by e-mail and invited to participate in the study. The e-mail pro- vided field supervisors and field students with a link to an online survey. The online survey was administered through Qualtrics (2016) and re- mained open for survey completion from February 2013 to April 2013. The survey system was entirely anonymous, limiting the researcher’s influence in survey responses and allowed partici- pants to freely report their perspectives. No incen- tives were given to participate in this research, financial or otherwise.

Survey participants received a summary expla- nation of research and a survey. When participants clicked on the survey link in the recruitment e-mail, the link first directed them to the summary explanation of research, which is an abbreviated consent form approved for use in research posing less than minimal risk to participants. Participants were then directed to the online survey items. A portion of the survey included questions regarding the application of the policy competency in field settings; however, this article focuses exclusively on the results from the human rights section of the survey, which included both open-ended items and a structured scale.

The open-ended items focused on respondents’ view of the human rights competency as they experienced it in the field setting. The survey included the human rights competency as outlined in the CSWE (2008) Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards:

Each person, regardless of position in society, has basic human rights, such as freedom, safety,

11Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education. Social workers recognize the global interconnections of oppression and are knowledgeable about theories of justice and strategies to promote human rights and civil rights. Social work incorporates social justice practices in organizations, institutions, and society to ensure that these basic human rights are dis- tributed equitably and without prejudice. (p. 5)

The survey asked field supervisors to respond to two open-ended items regarding this competency: (1) What (if any) are the major human rights issues in your agency’s field of practice? (2) Please list the tasks that a student could complete in the intern- ship that might demonstrate mastery of this human rights competency. Field students were presented with two nearly identical items: (1) What (if any) are the major human rights issues in your intern- ship agency’s field of practice? (2) Please list the tasks that a student could complete in your intern- ship that might demonstrate mastery of this human rights competency.

In addition to the open-ended items, partici- pants were presented with McPherson and Abell’s (2012) Human Rights Exposure in Social Work scale. This instrument is composed of 11 items de- signed to assess the respondent’s degree of familiarity with human rights. The response set includes seven points on a spectrum ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. The instrument has been tested, and results indicate acceptable factorial validity and reliability levels.

Sample, The final sample for the qualitative portion of the study, consisted of 35 field students and 48 field supervisors. The average age within the student sam- ple was 29 years. The majority of the field students were female (77 percent), with the remainder being male (20 percent) or transgender (3 percent). The student sample included representation from multi- ple ethnicities: biracial (3 percent), black (9 percent), Latino (23 percent), multiracial (3 percent), and white (60 percent). Thirty-one percent of the students were enrolled in the BSW program, and 69 percent were enrolled in the MSW program. The field supervisor sample had similar demographics, with the majority being female (88 percent) and white (60 percent). The sample included supervisors who were biracial (6 percent), black (10 percent), Latino (15 percent),

and multiracial (2 percent). The average age of the supervisor sample was 45 years. In regard to human rights exposure, the average Human Rights Expo- sure in Social Work (McPherson & Abell, 2012) scores were at the higher end of the spectrum for both the student sample (M = 5.15) and the supervi- sor sample (M = 5.28). Note that the score is repre- sentative of the degree of exposure, with seven representing the highest possible exposure and one representing the lowest possible exposure.

Analysis We analyzed the data with attention toward two key concepts: human rights and human rights prac- tice. Responses were sorted so that those with similar conceptualizations were placed together. These groupings were labeled with themes based on key terms in the respondents’ comments. To identify any differences across the two samples, we compared the percentages of supervisors and students issuing comments related to each theme.

RESULTS Meaning of Human Rights Seven themes arose from respondents’ conceptua- lizations regarding the human rights issues encoun- tered in the field of practice associated with their employing agencies or their internship settings. These themes include poverty; discrimination; par- ticipation, self-determination, autonomy; violence; dignity, respect; privacy; and freedom and liberty. Significant statements that exemplify each of these seven themes are presented in the following sections. Poverty. Poverty was the most frequently men-

tioned human rights issue. Forty-four percent of the field students and 37 percent of the field super- visors referred to poverty in response to the first question regarding human rights issues in their field of practice. Supervisors and students found that this human rights violation was closely inter- twined with their work and interfered with their clients’ abilities to meet their physical and psychological needs. Responses focused on the ways in which poverty affects access to housing, health care, and substance abuse treatment. One student stated, “The majority of the clients served are living well below national poverty levels so safety, health care are compromised.”Other students referred to clients being “booted [from treatment] as soon as insurance is up” and the inability to “reunite families because [of a] lack of a place to live.” Field

12 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

supervisors mentioned similar problems, such as “patients without health insurance having issues with obtaining needed medical services.”

Discrimination. Supervisors and students served clients from diverse backgrounds who face discrimi- nation at the societal and organizational levels. Both supervisors and students made statements that re- flected a concern regarding discrimination, though there was a difference between these two groups in the types of discrimination mentioned. Students tended to focus on discrimination against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) population and listed concerns related to the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (P.L. 104-199), “hate crimes,” and “access to safe and appropriate bath- rooms.” They also mentioned “employment dis- crimination” and “housing discrimination.” On the other hand, field supervisors listed “cultural compe- tency,” “equal access to care,” and “discrimination from medical providers” against women placing their children for adoption and “patients who secure treatment throughMedicaid.”

Participation, Self-Determination, and Autonomy. Responses conveyed the idea that clients’ human rights include the right to be treated as autono- mous individuals who participate in the decision- making processes that affect their lives. This theme was mentioned more frequently by field supervi- sors than by students. One field supervisor summa- rized this theme with the following phrase: “the right to self-determination when choices are seen as less than healthy by various members of the interdisciplinary team.” Another supervisor framed this idea as the “right to determine their own des- tiny.” This theme was often mentioned in the con- text of mental health and hospice and included references to “restraints” and dying “in comfort.” Students had similar concerns, such as “clients hav- ing a voice in their treatment plan,” the lack of “an individualized treatment plan,” and a client’s “right to choose how he or she dies.”

Violence. The responses of supervisors and stu- dents also conveyed the idea that the right to be free from violence is a human right. Various forms of violence were listed by both supervisors and stu- dents alike. Students referred to “elder abuse” and “hate crimes.” Supervisors noted “maltreatment,” “domestic violence,” “child abuse,” and “sexual assault.” One supervisor also mentioned “refugees that are fleeing oppression.”

Dignity and Respect. Another human right pre- sented by the respondents is the right to be treated as a being worthy of dignity and respect. This theme was referenced within the context of health systems, schools, hospices, and mental health and substance abuse treatment. Students mentioned “preserving dignity of clients within the health care team and among hospital personnel” and “treating each student as an individual and with respect regardless of your opinion of them.” One field supervisor issued a concern for “devaluation in treatment and perception of those labeled as ‘liabilities’ rather than ‘assets.’”

Privacy. A few supervisors and one student men- tioned either “privacy” or “confidentiality,” though none of these respondents elaborated on this issue.

Freedom and Liberty. A few supervisors and one student used the terms “freedom” or “liberty” in their responses, with little detail regarding the type of freedom.

Practice of Human Rights An analysis of responses to the question regarding human rights practice yielded five themes: advo- cacy, service provision, assessment, relationship, and awareness. Advocacy. Supervisors and students presented

advocacy as one form of human rights practice and defined this in numerous ways (for example, efforts to change policy, systems, organizations, or these structures’ effect on a single client). Many of the respondents (40 percent of field supervisors and 50 percent of field students) made statements reflecting the advocacy theme. These statements were further categorized into the following three subthemes: general advocacy, case advocacy, and cause advocacy. The theme of general advocacy refers to nonspecific statements that include the term “advocacy.” Specific statements regarding advocacy for individual clients were coded under the case advocacy theme. Examples include “advocacy for children’s human rights (as recommendations in as- sessments/staffings)” and “advocating on patient’s behalf to government agencies to obtain services.” This was the most frequently used advocacy code for both supervisor and student responses. Cause advocacy was mentioned by a greater percentage of students than supervisors (18 percent of students compared with 2 percent of supervisors). Examples of cause advocacy within student responses include

13Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

“policy advocacy at the agency level aimed at delivering quality care to marginalized populations” and “having the clinic accept all insurances and Medicaid.”

Service Provision. Supervisors and students in the sample presented human rights practice as stretching beyond advocacy on behalf of the client to include micro-level practice directly with a cli- ent. Service provision, whether direct provision or referral to another provider, was a frequently men- tioned practice that respondents believed to be reflective of human rights practice. Supervisors provided examples across a broad range of fields, such as disability, mental health, homelessness, family violence, and health care. Specific tasks listed by supervisors included “psychoeducation and support services,” “assisting a client in accessing . . . Medicaid services,” “matching birth mothers with adoptive families,” and “participating in outreach efforts to underserved communities.” Student responses reflec- tive of this category included tasks related to discharge planning, psychoeducation, case management, and hospice.

Assessment. Respondents included the accurate identification of clients’ needs and wishes as a form of human rights practice, because assessment is a necessary step before needs and wishes can be met. Statements regarding assessment were prominent in the responses of field supervisors, but not stu- dents. Supervisors viewed assessments as a method for justifying client access to a particular resource. Therefore, a small number listed assessments as a form of human rights practice with people who have disabilities, clients who “have been given a terminal diagnosis,” and “older adults and people who are affected by dementia.”

Relationship. Respondents presented human rights practice as being embodied in the worker– client relationship, specifically in the ways that this relationship is responsive to the human rights issues of dignity and respect, privacy, and nondiscrimination. Students mentioned consent forms and protection of confidentiality as key aspects of human rights practice. Supervisors also mentioned confidentiality but broadened their treatment of this topic by including “fair and equal treatment of each patient” and stating that “all patients are treated with dignity and respect.”

Awareness. According to the respondents, an important element of human rights practice is the

perspective one brings to the work, in particular, a perspective that incorporates an understanding of the possible threats to client rights. This theme of awareness received a small amount of attention from students and supervisors. Students mentioned “being aware of signs of elderly abuse,” “learning more about religious-based organizations, how that can impact what you can and cannot do or say,” and “understanding mental health laws and policy.” Supervisors listed similar items, such as “notice any discrimination that marginalized clients face.” They also suggested activities that could increase student awareness, such as taking a “cultural competency and ethics course” and spending the “night in a homeless shelter or on the street in teams.”

DISCUSSION The results provide rich descriptions of the human rights issues encountered by supervisors and stu- dents in field placement sites. The frequency of re- sponses regarding poverty as a human rights issue was noteworthy, because this problem relates to economic rights that traditionally are not embraced in capitalist countries. This frequency may be an indicator that the profession of social work can expand beyond the Western confines of the human rights definition. The responses also re- vealed the embedded nature of human rights in domestic applications across a wide variety of social work practice fields. The supervisors and students occasionally used abstract or philosophical lan- guage when defining human rights issues, but the majority of comments addressed practical, real- world concerns in the local community. Although their responses were locally embedded, their con- ceptualizations were similar to those found in the literature. The themes that arose closely mirrored the human rights dimensions listed by Wronka (2008). Significant statements included the types of population-specific applications found in Reich- ert’s (2011) classic text.

Although their responses regarding human rights practice were aligned with the literature in the endorsement of advocacy and respect for client rights within the worker–client relationship (Reich- ert, 2011; Wronka, 2008), the supervisors and stu- dents diverged from the establishment on other dimensions of human rights practice. Ife’s (2010) mezzo-level model of human rights practice was not mentioned by respondents. In place of this

14 Social Work Volume 62, Number 1 January 2017

model, supervisors and students emphasized service provision with multiple examples of tasks that con- stitute case management. This conceptualization is unique in that the respondents are emphasizing the actual tasks as opposed to how the tasks are per- formed (that is, what is done versus how it is done). Human rights theorists in social work have long argued that social workers can practice human rights through the way in which they interact with clients (for example, respect for and empowerment of cli- ents) (Reichert, 2011; Wronka, 2008). However, these supervisors and students asserted that the tasks of social work, specifically the tasks of case manage- ment, are a form of human rights practice. Essentially, this argument may be translated into the idea that the core of social work itself is human rights practice.

Discussion of the language that was absent from the results is also warranted. Though students and supervisors mentioned issues, such as discrimina- tion and poverty, that are often related to race, none of the responses addressed race or racism. This lack of attention to race could be due to the absence of this term from the CSWE (2008) human rights competency, which was part of the question prompt. On the other hand, students referred to discrimination against LGBTQ indivi- duals, despite the fact that the human rights com- petency is missing any mention of the LGBTQ population. The supervisors used terms, such as cultural competency, that might indicate a consid- eration of race, but they did not specify a particular dimension of cultural diversity. The absolute absence of race from the responses is significant and may pro- vide justification for Ife’s (2010) concern regarding the racist implications of Western definitions of human rights.

Implications for Social Work Practice These results have implications for the social work profession. Both practitioners and students are rec- ognizing the connection between human rights and social work. Leaders of the profession can strengthen this connection by incorporating human rights lan- guage into the mainstream dialogue, specifically the declarations and publications of professional associa- tions, the subject matter of professional journals, and the framing of conference themes and tracks. When the institutions of the social work profession rein- force the emerging recognition of human rights within the field, the profession can more clearly focus its intention on the realization of human rights.

Results point to specific areas of concern that can be addressed by the profession. One of these concerns is the negative impact that poverty has on the human rights of clients. Poverty is rarely a direct focus of social workers in the United States, where the emphasis primarily lies with aging, child welfare, mental health, and substance abuse. The respondents repeatedly noted the implications of poverty in these practice fields. Professional leaders can respond to this human rights issue by including content regarding poverty at social work confer- ences; addressing the relationship between poverty and the various practice fields; and increasing awareness of the intersections of poverty, race, gender, and age. A second issue of concern noted by respondents is the way in which organizations and providers treat and serve marginalized clients. The profession can provide more education and sup- port for frontline workers on organizational change efforts. Continuing education could equip them with the tools they need to shape their organizations into more respectful environments for clients.

Implications for Social Work Education This study also has implications for social work education. The results may indicate that the human rights competency could be expanded beyond its current state. The current definition of the human rights competency (CSWE, 2015), which has chan- ged only slightly since the 2008 version of accredita- tion standards for social work education, contains a heavy emphasis on advocacy. Although advocacy is an important component of human rights practice, field supervisors and students in this sample reported a conceptualization with a wider scope. Specifically, they incorporated practice tasks related to direct ser- vice provision and case management.

Social work education can respond to this wid- ening definition by integrating human rights into practice courses. As the field of human rights edu- cation has expanded, social work educators now have a wealth of material for use across the curricu- lum. Educators can go beyond the advocacy-based conceptualizations by including textbooks on the human rights approach to practice. The most recent examples include Berthold’s (2015) text on human rights in clinical practice; Libal and Harding’s (2015) text on human rights in community practice; and Androff’s (2016) text on the application of human rights in a wide variety of fields, including child welfare, poverty, and mental health. Furthermore,

15Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

course content regarding human rights should be presented within the context of multiple dimen- sions of diversity, including race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, and religion.

Field educators can also play an important role in guiding student application of human rights concepts in real-world practice. As social work students strive to apply what they learned in the classroom, they often encounter resistance to the full realization of social work ideals. In fact, one student respondent stated, “It’s a hospital. These standards are written into policy. There are chances to advocate for an individual patient, but that’s all.” Field seminar in- structors can bring this issue to the forefront of semi- nar discussions and explore the ways in which students can advance human rights to the greatest extent possible. Dodd and Jansson (2004) provided an excellent model for these types of discussions with an emphasis on preparing students to overcome barriers in organizational change efforts. In addition to seminar discussions, field educators can use the learning contract as an opportunity to more fully integrate human rights practice concepts into the field experience and explicitly label social work activities as human rights practice.

CONCLUSION Although theorists and researchers have made sub- stantial contributions to the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice, the voice of the frontline social worker is an important one to consider. This study was conducted in an effort to bring this voice into the professional dialogue and deepen our understanding of the connection between human rights and social work. With this understanding, the profession can begin to create a clearer roadmap for strengthening this connection and protecting client rights. SW

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Julie A. Steen, PhD, MSW, is associate professor, Mary Mann, MSW, is instructor, Nichole Restivo, MSW, is research assistant, Shellene Mazany, MSW, LCSW, is online MSW coordinator and instructor, and Reshawna Chapple, PhD, LCSW, is assistant professor, School of Social Work, University of Central Florida, Orlando. Address correspondence to Julie Steen, School of Social Work, University of Central Florida, 12805 Pegasus Drive, Orlando, FL 32816; e-mail: julie.steen@ucf.edu.

Original manuscript received October 27, 2015 Final revision receivedMay 4, 2016 Editorial decision May 18, 2016 Accepted May 20, 2016 Advance Access Publication November 17, 2016

17Steen, Mann, Restivo, Mazany, and Chapple /Human Rights

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