Wildlife Management

Wildlife Management

Human being and their activities have endangered the wildlife for many years. Most of the economic activities done by human being destroy the ecosystem and ecological niche of indigenous species of animals. In majority cases, human being destroys the habitat of the animals hence exposing them to predation, starvation, and migration. As a result, some of the species of the animals and birds become extinct. Wildlife in many countries in the world has served as the main source of income that majorly comes from local and international tourism. Human activities such as mining and deforestation they are the main activities that destroy the natural habitat for wildlife due to their massive short-term income. The wildlife such as mule deer and sage grouse should be protected and their population balance to prevent the extinction of the species. The bureau of land management (BLM) restricted Questar from carrying out mining activities in Pinedale Mesa which is habitat for the deer and grouse. This wildlife has great value to the economy of the nation that benefits both the nation as well the local communities.

Questar approached BLM to give it permission to continue digging natural gas wells in Mesa where it could use new technology that could not alter the natural habitat of the wildlife. Several other companies later approached BLM to allow them to drill natural gas in Mesa. On September 2008, the BLM allowed drilling for natural gas in Mesa as proposed by Questar so long as the mining will use new technology which has no negative environmental impact on wildlife. The Bureau required the companies that operate in Mesa to contributes funds used to monitor the wildlife and mitigate the negative environmental impact that results from their mining activities.

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Did the creation of the Dept. of Homeland Security, and the reorganization of emergency response agencies, impact federal emergency management capabilities?  Explain

Task 1: Develop a substantive main thread addressing each part of the prompt in full. Your initial thread should be 2-3 paragraphs in length (200+ words total). Support your points with examples or illustrations from the text. Quotations/citations are not strictly required, but MLA style should be used if quoting or paraphrasing from the literature or outside sources. Review the How-To Guide: MLA Formatting and Citations page (linked in class) as needed.

Discussion Post 1: Americanization – how would you define this? Can you point to specific examples in your life or schooling? How has the internet progressed or stifled Americanization? How about social media specifically? Can you provide examples? Incorporate a credible source (practice with paraphrase). Remember your audience for discussion forums: peers & professor.

Task 1: Your initial post should be at least 200 words.

Discussion Post 2: In your opinion, did the creation of the Dept. of Homeland Security, and the reorganization of emergency response agencies, impact federal emergency management capabilities?  Explain.

Task 1: Create a new discussion topic on or before the due date in the Course Syllabus -> Course Schedule by clicking the ‘**REPLY HERE**’ post below. In your reply, you will post your response to the main topic. Your response should be a minimum of 150 words. 

Discussion Post 3: In your brief overview of computer architecture and digital security, what are your own thoughts and processes in protecting your own digital security? Do you utilize software and services to protect your digital information? If not, what policies do you set for yourself? In what ways do you see needed improvement?

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Managing People And Organisations

Group Assessment: Groups will be set up randomly from within your tutorial group. You cannot change groups. This is a real-life simulation of what it’s like to join a project team in a new company. You don’t get to choose your work colleagues! You will have to use your best consulting skills to make the most of your experience in the group. Your group task is to find a multi-site (large or international) organisation which does not use the HR Business Partner approach. Imagine you are a group of HRM consultants being asked to advise them on developing the HRM function to assist the firm in achieving its mission. Then, assess the current state of that organisation and the HRM function. Finally, draw up your poster as a ‘pitch’ to

the Top Team of the firm indicating why they should implement the HR BusinessPartner approach across the firm. Your arguments should be based on theory taught in the lectures, explored inclass discussion and in tutor groups and applying practical experience(researched if not personal) and should be fully referenced. The assignment consists of three equally assessed elements as follows:1. Poster – infographic. The digital poster should be A4 in size and should contain creative imagery to depict your analysis. It might also include some text and headings to explain diagrams and images. Digital photographs, infographics, models and illustrations should be used to enhance the impact of the poster. All group members should contribute to the poster though some students will have more advanced digital skills than others and will naturally take more responsibility for this element. If you are working physically together, you can use a flipchart and physically draw the poster, then photograph it and then insert in a PDF or worddocument.2. Group poster Narrative. The group are required to draft a narrative to explain their poster. Highlighting the key points of the infographic and explaining what is being depicted. The narrative should be between 750 and 1000 words long, no more and no less. This should be referencedHarvard style and your references will not be included in your wordcount.3. Group Meeting Minutes and Group Contract. The group is required to create a ‘group contract’ on HOW the group will work together to achieve the set task. The group should also record a note of their meetings including who was present, what was discussed and action points agreed upon at the end of the meeting. You can also briefly share any group dynamics issues that emerged and how you tackled them. This should be in note form to provide some evidence of meeting together, relative contributions of individuals in the group, and the effectiveness of the group in tackling the ask of progressing group ideas to the final output. The groups will be randomly assigned from within your Tutorial groups. This may create some challenges with students being in different language groups (and for any remote students, different time zones). However, in todays global context, learning to work in international teams with unfamiliar colleagues is itself a great learning opportunity. These groups are fixed and you will not be allowed to change groups. If there is conflict in the group, members need to work togetherusing good management and HRM skills to navigate this conflict to a productive outcome. Please make every effort to engage and support your fellow students to make their best contribution to the work. Your lecturer and tutors will support you on how to get the best out of this experience. The final work should be uploaded BY ONE GROUP MEMBER on behalf of the whole group as one document by 11:45am on Monday, 03rd April 2023. There will be no presentation of the final poster, it will be assessed from your submission as itemised in the instructions above.I hope that you enjoy this assignment. It should be interesting and fun to work with others on this creative task.

I’m doing the conclusion part, follow my group members idea and do the conclusion, I uploaded their parts.

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Data analytics plays an important role in marketing management.

Data analytics plays an important role in marketing management. There are many types of data to be gathered and studied. Structured data are quantitative data that can be stored in a fixed format, such as a spreadsheet or list. Computers can easily process these data. Examples of structured data are the following:

  • E-mail address
  • Home address
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Credit card number

Unstructured data are not easily put into categories. Examples of unstructured data are the following:

  • Internet search results
  • Body of an e-mail
  • Data from social media sites, such as Facebook or LinkedIn
  • Photos
  • Text messages
  • Voicemails

Semi-structured data are a combination of both structured and unstructured data. An example would be an e-mail. The to and from fields would be considered structured data that are easily categorized, and the body of the e-mail would be unstructured, which is not as easily categorized. All of these data combined, along with other types, contribute to big data.

Watch the following video for more information about big data and analytics in marketing: The Importance of Big Data and Analytics in Marketing

Using what you have learned, use the following questions to guide your response:

  • How do companies use these data? For example, a company that makes video games for Xbox or PlayStation can track their players’ common actions before making an in-game purchase.
  • Describe 2 ethical dilemmas that business organizations face when using big data. For example, sharing private customer information with your best friend without the customer’s consent would be a potential ethical dilemma because the business holds private information.

Part 2 – 400 words

An entrepreneur is someone who decides to either create a new product or an improved product to fill a need in the market that is not being met. The entrepreneur assumes the risk of marketing this new product or service but also benefits from revenues earned. There are other benefits as well. The entrepreneur is their own boss and can embrace creative freedom. Entrepreneurs take pride in what they are doing and are passionate about their venture. They are also responsible for getting the word out about their new product to build brand awareness. Social media platforms are one of the most powerful tools to accomplish this in the digital world.

Watch the following video that introduces the role of social media marketing: What is Social Media Marketing?

As an entrepreneur launching a new brand of snack mix, you have determined that social media is going to be an inexpensive, expansive method to promote your new products and services.

Using what you have learned, use the following questions to guide your response:

  • Which 2 social media platforms are going to provide the most exposure for your brand and why?
  • Which social media platform will not be appropriate for your brand and why?
  • What is 1 way you can optimize your product description?

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McDonald’s Corporation

McDonald’s Corporation

Overview: McDonald’s Corporation is one of the largest American fast food companies. It was founded in 1940 and served as a restaurant plus several other business practices to boost their service deliveries. Maurice and Richard McDonald in California, United States operate the corporation. The fast-food corporation has approximately forty thousand restaurants throughout the United States and worldwide. It celebrates its quality service delivery and customer relations. 

McDonald’s Corporate Mission: The corporation’s mission is to favor its customers away from drinking and eat.  The mission statement highlights customers’ importance as the primary business focus while ensuring that the company significantly influences beverage and food purchase decisions to meet their needs. In the mission statement, McDonald’s Corporation emphasizes being a target customer’s favorite; thus, it considers customers’ preferences as the primary determinant of its success in business terms.

McDonald’s Corporate Vision: The company’s mission is to move with more incredible speed to drive profitable growth. It becomes one of the best organizations in serving many customers with quality and delicious food worldwide.  The statement covers the company’s growth plan introduced in 2017and, maintaining a steady growth in the recent past.  The company’s new vision statement’s principal components were to move with velocity in driving profitable growth and serve more clients with delicious food as much as possible daily around the world to expand its operations (Rajawat et al., 2020). This is associated with opening several locations while improving its operational efficiency to maximize profit margins.

McDonald’s Corporate Values: McDonald’s core values are to place their customer experience based on all they do. They are also committed to their people and believe in the underlying systems. Similarly, the corporation operates its business ethically as it tries to give back to their communities. The growth of business profitability is based on a continual improvement of all their operations. The company encourages respect for people and its brand and a call to always work in a justified manner.

McDonald’s Corporate structure: The corporation has a divisional structure. The firm’s organizational structure defines its system and design through which its major components coordinate to realise and achieve the business objectives. According to Rajawat et al. (2020), the structure facilitates the foodservice market management based on performance levels. Notably, through this structure, McDonald Corporation has managed to roll new products to boost and heighten its performance in ensuring that its customers are satisfied without being limited in access to the necessary services.

McDonald’s Corporate Culture: McDonald’s corporate culture is associated with the numerous shared value systems that maintain standardized quality services to realize similar quality throughout time. The company has a vision of being the best employer across the world. In most cases, the restaurant is run as corporate itself or as a franchise.  McDonald’s employees entail a clean and neat dress code as they demand excellent time management at all aspects of their operations. Overall, the food must be safe for consumption always.

Degree of alignment in MacDonald’s Corporation: The company, through its vision, mission culture, and structure, exhibit exceptional alignment for the realization of outlined goals and objective. The coordination is high and concrete, and all its aspects are geared towards a common goal to create a sound operational system (Vignali, 2016). For instance, in terms of structure, the organization’s division is to handle specific functional areas or outlined objectives, thus limiting clash examples that might realize. Similarly, it is hierarchical to determine how most of its main structures emphasize corporate control in managerial processes and directions. Overall, following its mission and vision statements, most of its parts work in coordination to meet its customers’ needs. 


Rajawat, A., Kee, D. M. H., Malik, M. Z. B. A., Yassin, M. A. Q. B. M., Shaffie, M. S. I. B. A., Fuaat, M. H. B., … & Santoso, M. E. J. (2020). Factors: Responsible for McDonald’s Performance. Journal of the Community Development in Asia3(2), 11-17.

Vignali, C. (2016). McDonald’s: “think global, act locally”–the marketing mix. British Food Journal.

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Portfolio Package

Portfolio Package

Executive Summary

Cook County faces current and future risks of various natural disasters, including extreme heat, floods, earthquakes, and droughts. As a result, I understand that the Cook County Board (CCB) adopted and approved the updated version of the county’s hazard mitigation plan in September 2019. The Cook County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan (MJ-HMP) is the most extensive ever disaster mitigation plan to be completed in the history of the United States (U.S.) (Preckwinkle & Barnes, 2019b). The current mitigation types listed and described under the Cook County MJ-HMP include prevention, property protection, public education, and awareness creation, natural resource protection, structural projects, as well as emergency services.

The plan divides the various mitigation actions into structural and non-structural. In particular, structural mitigation methods comprise dam and levee programs, retrofitting any existing structures to withstand events, and building hazard-resistant systems. Non-structural activities include tax incentives meant to discourage people from occupying or developing high-risk areas, land use plans, and subdivision regulations. While these mitigation measures and recent updates of the MJ-HMP make it useful in addressing a variety of natural hazards in Cook County, there is a need to make specific changes in the plan as a way of highlighting its priority focuses when it comes to risk assessment, mitigation, and management in the long run.

As the new Chief Resiliency Officer (CRO), I would develop a more robust mitigation plan that prioritizes offering solutions to hazards that present the biggest threat to Cook County. In this case and according to recent data provided in the MJ-HMP, the top seven dangers that pose the greatest threat to Cook County include severe weather, severe winter weather, flood, earthquake, tornado, dam failure, and drought (Mitigation Guide Organization, n.d.). The risk ranking score for each of these natural hazards is determined by their probability of occurrence and potential impact, with severe weather, severe winter weather, flood, and tornado scoring 54, 54, 36, and 28, respectively.

My new plan would be detailed but to the point, capturing and presenting realistic best practices to address the current plan’s weaknesses, such as conflicting mitigation programs. In particular, I plan to modify and implement proactive training and coordination of the county’s incident management team to cater to all mitigation needs, including the vulnerable population. Moreover, the plan would revolve around enhancing post-disaster action plans and strengthening their continuity to ensure effective mitigation of similar disasters in the future, reviewing and updating current debris management plans, addressing the pivotal role played by climate change in informing decision-making and suitable mitigation actions and expanding the county’s emergency response centers (ERCs) capabilities. Through these elements, I would be able to change risk management operations and associated activities in the CRO office.

Significant Components of New Mitigation Plan

Incident Management Team (IMT) training. The CRO is one of the key players in the IMT. As Fischer et al. (2019) put it, I am one of the leaders tasked with ensuring the continuous improvement of the team members’ competency in hazard mitigation. I would focus on expanding these and related programs by including county-wide emergency managers, individual elected officials, and other emergency department personnel.  To achieve this, I plan to integrate the various response plans, responsibilities, and roles into the training and coordination program to ensure harmony and consistency in the disaster mitigation process.

Through enhanced IMT training, the new plan would be both change-driven and goal-oriented because of clarity in every stakeholder’s roles and responsibilities. I would particularly have team members to become active participants in the revised Community Rating System (CRS). By participating in the CRS and similar training and coordination plans, the Floodplain administrators and players from the public and private sectors would evaluate and familiarize themselves with what constitutes a no-adverse impact mitigation activity. Given my firsthand experience with existing training programs, I can attest that First Responders do not receive adequate information regarding mitigating unprecedented and expected natural hazards. As a result, I intend to adopt and oversee the most progressive or up-to-date programs that offer mock exercises for the team members, including the Floodplain Administrator and fire brigades. Concisely, a simulated exercise gives individual stakeholders the rare opportunity to engage in contingency planning as it helps with replicating flood, tornado, and fire alerts.

Vulnerable population. I would ensure the new plan emphasises vulnerable populations because this group of residents is most likely to live in various high-risk places. Besides their likelihood to reside in physically weak areas, these people have difficulty accessing flood insurance and other forms of post-disaster covers (Mitigation Guide Organization, n.d.). Moreover, the location makes it considerably challenging to enjoy the stable infrastructure necessary for appropriate and early warning information (Horney et al., 2013). I would utilize my position as the CRO to include mitigation actions that target the county’s vulnerable population’s needs. One of these mitigation measures would comprise the identification of lead contacts that serve vulnerable people while at the same time, coordinating actions aimed at maximizing the information sharing process and their safety. Another mitigation strategy involves prioritizing and increasing public housing retrofitting and resiliency in any designated high-risk areas.

Proactive practices. Apart from developing a plan that focuses on the IMT training and coordination and vulnerable members of Cook County, I would select multiple best practices, especially those that address the significant hazards. Some of these proactive measures would include aggressive support to every homeowner education and awareness creation about disaster programs and a properly funded and closely monitored notification system for potential hazards, such as placing warning signage at outdoor events and locations, including local parks. Additional strategies would involve channeling more resources to the county emergency operations centers (EOC), adopting specific no-adverse impact natural disaster mitigation and mitigation policies, incorporating new funding sources (Chairman et al., 2014). For example, I would introduce stringent hazard mitigation fines and fees for developers who ignore regulations on publically –and privately-owned land. I understand that these specific actions, processes, projects, initiatives, and activities would eliminate long-term risk hazards for Cook County residents. Concisely, their implementation would allow my office to achieve the already-set mission of protecting life, property, the environment, and health.

Harmonious mitigation programs. While the Cook County MJ-HMP is considered one of the best practices, it is no exception when it comes to conflicts, which, in turn, lowers its effectiveness and efficiency score. In particular, the county has up to 130 different municipalities, with each city implementing various mitigation activities. Most importantly, these municipalities face other hazards at different times of the year. On the same note, the various natural hazards manifesting in varying degrees, which makes coordination efforts and associated activities considerably difficult (National Association of Counties, NAC, 2017). As a result, the plan fails to provide an integrated approach to preventing conflicts that result from the differences in the mitigation actions of local jurisdictions.

Some of the conflicts associated with mitigation programs include the following: while the zoning officers in different local jurisdictions discourage people from developing the floodplains, several estate developers are encouraging new subdivisions and development of these areas. Second, the newly adopted floodplain regulations under the plan require the elevation of any new building. These rules still fail to suggest provisions that would protect these new structures from swaying during high winds and earthquakes. Another conflict that the MJ-HMP fails to capture and address involve the different approaches taken by environmental groups and the various public works departments in local jurisdictions. In particular, the former want greenways, while the latter uses concrete to straighten and line ditches. Additionally, the leadership of Cook County and residents are increasingly complaining about hazard mitigation approaches to protect them. Unfortunately, the plan is yet to include proactive and fully funded awareness creation programs, which would educate locals on what to do at the individual level to protect themselves.

In response to the shortcoming of the current Cook County MJ-HMP, I would ensure that the new plan’s drafters take a comprehensive approach to review the FEMA guide on local hazard mitigation planning to incorporate complete program activities to tackle the conflicting aspects. I intend to have an inclusive plan that enhances each mitigation activity’s coordination with other community activities to achieve the desired short –and long-term goals. A typical case in point would involve benchmarking with more successful counties, such as the New Hanover County (NHC). According to Weber et al. (2018), the county in question boasts a wide range of best practices involving clear guidelines and measures for reducing development in floodplains.

Additional actions that I plan to incorporate into the new mitigation plan involve robust and localized education and multi-level coordination. In essence, the program would provide a clear and concise guideline on educating locals on climate change and the various natural hazards, including their effects and mitigation actions they can take to minimize their impact on health, property, and the environment. For instance, residents would be reminded of the importance of floodplains and swamps. Regarding coordination, the plan would present information about a need for emergency managers at the local, federal, regional, and state levels to coordinate and utilize effective communication as a way of ensuring consistency across their plans and achieving public support for proposed mitigation projects. If considered for the Cook County CRO position, I would engage every player in the adoption and implementation of the highlighted mitigation strategies. Ultimately, by doing so, the new hazard mitigation plan would go a long way in ensuring improved risk assessment and reduction while at the same time minimizing incidences of conflicts in municipal mitigation plans.


Chairman, W., Clemmens, B., Halverson, B. (2014). United States Army Corps of Engineers Chicago District. https://www.lrc.usace.army.mil/Portals/36/docs/divacct/technical/LK%20Michigan%20Seventh%20TC%20FINAL.pdf

Fischer, R., Halibozek, E., & Walters, D. (2019). Contingency planning emergency response and safety. Introduction to Security, 249-268. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-805310-2.00011-1

Horney, J., Nguyen, M., Cooper, Jr., J., & Simon, M. (2013). Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: Results of a survey of emergency managers. Journal of Emergency Management, 11(3), 201-11.

Mitigation Guide Organization. (n.d.). Best practices in local mitigation planning: Types of mitigation actions. http://mitigationguide.org/task-6/mitigation-actions/ Best practices in local mitigation planning

NAC. (2017). Managing disasters at the county level: A focus on flooding. http://raritan.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Literature-Review.3.28.2019_sjm_rev.pdf

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Prof. Doust, Afshin

12th Feb 2023

Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary: 3 2. Project Overview: 3 3. Network Diagrams: 3 4. Task Dependencies: 3 5. Resource Allocation: 3 6. Project Crashing: 3 7. Project Closure Report: 3 8. Conclusion: 3 9. Recommendations: 3 10. Appendix: 3

1. Executive Summary:

The executive summary provides a brief overview of the entire project report, including the project’s objectives, scope, and outcomes.

2. Project Overview:

The project overview provides a detailed explanation of the project, including its purpose, goals, and the benefits it will provide.

3. Network Diagrams:

This section includes a link to the exc

el sheet that shows the forward pass, backward pass, and critical path.

4. Task Dependencies:

Without Leveling

5. Resource Allocation:

This section includes links to two separate Projectlibre files; one file with resource overallocation and the second file showing after resources have been leveled.

6. Project Crashing:

The main motive behind crashing a project is to shorten the overall time taken to complete the project. It is done by reducing the time taken to complete individual task within the project by deploying additional resources. However, the project manager has to be varied of the deployment of additional resources and has to meticulously allocate the resources to the designated task in way that the cost of crashing the project is kept to the bare minimum.

In the project of Memory Caster, the owner has demanded us to complete the project within 30 days as she is very eager to start the business in the new location owing to increasing demand and overwhelming response from her clients.

In keeping with the demand from the owner of the Memory Caster, our team as the project managers have very meticulously calculated the possible ways the duration of the project can be shortened by crashing the project all the while containing the cost of crashing to the bare minimum, by following the below mentioned steps:

a) Identifying the Critical Task: The critical task in the project can be identified by drawing network diagram by applying the activity node method which uses arrows to identify the dependency of every task with each other. Then the Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start and Late Finish time is determined with the help of network diagram with help of the forward pass and back ward pass by using the duration allocated to each task. This will help us to determine the slack and the task which has zero slack time are the once that are identified as critical. The critical task are the tasks whose duration has to be shortened in order to efficiently crash the project. The below mentioned images identify the critical task in the network diagram:

Image: Network Diagram With all the Dependencies and Critical Task

The above image demonstrates the preparation of the network diagram using the activities on node method to identify the critical task in the project we are working on. All the activities in the blue box have a slack time of zero and hence they are identified as the critical task. The below mentioned tables highlights the activities and the slack time:

Activity CodeActivityPredecessorSlack TimeCritical Path
1.1Permits and Licenses for Business Incorporation 0Critical
1.2Acquiring of the Business Premises1.1 FS0Critical
1.3Permits and License for the Renovatioon of the Business1.2 FS0Critical
1.4Ceiling1.3 FS0Critical
1.5Structural Changes to the Premises1.4 SS2
1.6Electrical Fitting1.5 SS0Critical
1.7Plumbing1.6 SS2
1.8Painiting1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 FS0Critical
1.9Carpeting1.8 FS0Critical
1.10Furnitures and Fixture1.9 FS0Critical
1.11Digital Platform1.1 SS25

Thus, the critical path identified in the first stage are 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10.

b) Determining the cost of crashing and the maximum crashing duration for each task:

After identify the critical path we have identified cost of crashing and the maximum crashing duration for each activity. The same has been calculated as per the below mentioned table:

ActivityCritical PathNormal TimeCrash TimeMaximum Days that can be CrashedNormal CostCrash CostCrash Cost Per DayCost Incurred If the Project is Crashed to the Maximum Limit
Total 7568108481853.34288

In the above table the crash time denotes the minimum time required to complete a given task, with help of this number we have calculated the maximum number of days, a given task can be crashed. We have considered 150% of the normal cost while calculating the crash cost.

c) Calculating the impacting of crashing each critical path:

We have calculated the impact of crashing each critical task by one day in order to determine the task that can be crashed without baring on the cost of the project. Given below is the summarized table of Appendix_____ calculating the impact of crashing each critical task for a day:

Normal1.41.61.4 and
Project Cost45573456214570145901456694562145621
Project Duration33333331323232
% Increase in the Cost0.11%0.28%0.72%0.21%0.11%0.11%


i. Task 1.4: The normal duration of the project is 33 days1.4., crashing the critical task 1.4 does not have any impact on the duration of the project, this is because of its dependency with the task 1.6 which starts together.

ii. Task 1.6: Again, critical task 1.6 does not have any impact on the duration of the project as its starts along with the 1.4.

iii. Task 1.4 and 1.6: When both the task 1.4 and 1.6 are crashed by 1 day the duration of the entire project moves up by 1 day however the cost of the increases by 0.72%.

iv. Task 1.8: On crashing the critical task 1.8 the duration of the entire project gets crashed by 1 day and the cost of the project increases by 0.21%.

v. Task 1.9: On crashing the critical task 1.9 by one day the duration of the project gets reduced by one day and the cost of the project increases by just 0.11%.

vi. Task 1.10: Similar to the critical task 1.9, task 1.10 reduces the duration of the project 1 day and the cost increases by just 0.11%.

Thus, we came to the conclusion that crashing the critical task 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10 will be the best option to crash the project without having severe impact on the cost of the project.

d) Implementing the best option for crashing the project:

Thus after meticulously calculating all the prospects of crashing the project following is the calculation of the crashing after choosing the best possible options:

ActivityNormal TimeCrash TimeCrash Cost Per DayTFDays SavedDurTF
Cost   0 800 
Saving   0 152 
Project Cost   45573 46221 
Project Duration   33 29 
% Total increase in the cost 1.42% 

On crashing the task 1.8 by 2 days, 1.9 by one day and 1.10 by one day we were able to crash the project to 29 days with a increase of just 1.42% in the cost of project.

The Network Diagra after crahing of the project is given below:

7. Project Closure Report:

This section includes the project closure report, which outlines the project’s successes, challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations for future projects.

8. Conclusion:

The conclusion summarizes the key findings and outcomes of the project.

9. Recommendations:

The recommendations section provides actionable suggestions for future projects based on the lessons learned from the current project.

10. Appendix:

10.1. Crashing:

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Leadership Training

Every organization needs to have leaders who will be overseeing the general operations of the company. Usually, leaders have different strategies that they apply so that there set targets have been met. Therefore, as the manager of my organization, I decided to choose the two best theories that will help me in overseeing and controlling the operations of the company. The leadership theories that will work best in my organization are participative theory and contingency theory. 

Participative is a theory that involves a leadership style in which a leader takes the contribution of workers into account. The manager who possesses this kind of method enhances input and participation from the employees, and this makes them be involved. Thus, they will be motivated to conduct their tasks well (Alloubani & Akhu-Zaheya, 2018, p. 98). The theory makes members work together rather than competing with each other.  For instance, employees will be competing on the effective rate or the quantity of the output, and this does not encourage cooperation.

The contingency theory suggests that various situations can lend a manager into using a particular style in leadership and thus the reason why there is no leadership theory that is specific at all times. Most of the time, success is determined by several factors that include leadership style and the qualities that the members of the team possess. I, therefore, agree with this theory because I have applied it during my management period, and it has worked very well.

I think these theories will work most practical in my new organization because from past experiences in various organizations, and they have been fruitful. The two methods can interact with each other in multiple ways. For instance, in the case of participative theory in which all the members of the staff are included in contributing to decision making, can be related to the contingency theory in which the members of the team will get an opportunity to suggest various ways to solve the organization’s issues.

I can anticipate the need for different leadership styles in the future. As a manager, I believe that one leadership style is not effective in dealing with various issues of the organization. This is because of the application of contingency theory that does give a specific style to manage the problems of the organization (Baker, 2013, p. 65). This is due to the fact that different circumstances and issues require the application of different approaches and solutions. Therefore, as a manager, I practice to be flexible and to be able to adapt different leadership methods. The three best practices that emerge from the two theories are employer collaboration, commitment, and determination.

Leadership styles need to be adapted so that various problems that may involve the staff and the service users can be solved. The participative theory works best when the team involved is small. When issues arise between the members of staff, solving the problem will require a less individual approach in hearing the views of both sides and not applying personal emotions.

In the organization that I work in, we have established the sale strategies, and it is my duty as the manager of the organization to ensure that all of them have been achieved. If the plans are falling behind, it is also my role to look for the ways that can help them improve their skills of selling and identify their opportunities. I have also implemented a training program that has worked very well. The program is done every week, and it entails product information training in which the employees know the kind of products they are dealing with and how to market them. Therefore, I have chosen the participative theory that will be used by the working staff of my organization. The vision of the organization is to ensure the employees are equipped with the best skills that will help them become determined in their work and increase the sales of the organization.

I believe that the participative theory is the best approach to increase the output of the company. This is because the procedure will allow all the employees to participate in the establishment of specific goals for themselves and for the organization in general. The suggestions of the employees are implemented, and thus they get applauded for their work of integrity and participation in the organization’s promotions (“Why are There so Many Different Theories of Leadership?” n.d., p. 107). There are various factors in my organization that make this theory to be most applicable. The elements are the existing collaboration of the employees, the employees’ commitment and the average number of employees in the organization, which makes it easier to apply the theory. 

The theory will positively affect the manager’s behaviour towards the subordinate staff because the active participation in the company will make the manager develop a close relationship. Having an open relationship with the manager will make the subordinates positively give great views on the company without fear, and this leads to improvement of the company’s performance. Participation in decision making makes the employees to feel motivated. The group and team behaviour are improved because the employers are allowed to have discussions with their management staff, and they are equipped with good behavioural traits. Through participative theory, the culture will be embraced since people learn how to appreciate different kinds of cultures.





























Alloubani, A., & Akhu-Zaheya, L. (2018). Leadership styles and theories. Leadership Styles and Nursing Care Management, 1-23.

Baker, J. P. (2013). Leadership Theories and Approaches. Leadership in Psychiatry, 49-62.

Why are There so Many Different Theories of Leadership? (n.d.). Rethinking Leadership.




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Global HR Strategies for a 21st-Century Workplace

Global HR Strategies for a 21st-Century Workplace

1       Introduction

In the past few years, Human Resources (HR) department was only charged with recruiting employees to fill available organisational vacancies. However, in the current globalized market, HR has shifted from just filling vacancies in the organization to looking for ways to gain a competitive advantage. Increased globalization has brought significant changes to the way HR functions. Cui et al. (2016) opine that the current HRM is facing complex problems that are aggravated by rapid changes in the nature of work, managing a multicultural workforce, changing customer needs, globalization, changing technology and increased competition. Therefore, HRM needs to be strategic to provide solutions to the broad range of problems facing organizations in the 21st century. Organizations attain a competitive advantage by adapting faster to changes that occur in their environment. Strategic HRM needs to develop and change based on the changes in the environment to develop competent human resource management (HRM) with the ability to enhance organizational capabilities by accommodating employees’ needs and creating an environment that influences determination, dedication, loyalty and productivity of the employees. This research task will focus on the case study of Lenovo to explore its HR situation and develop a program of HR strategies that will assist Lenovo to overcome HR challenges in the 21st century workplace. This paper proposes that Lenovo’s HR should adopt an HR program that attracts and selects the best talents and promote employee’s career development to overcome talent shortage in the global phenomenon.

1.1       Research Objectives

            Lenovo is one of the multinational corporations that operate in a globalized market that is characterized by increased competition, changes in consumer needs, changes in organizational structure, management of diverse workforce, and others. The objectives of this research are to determine

  • The HR challenges facing Lenovo when operating in a globalized market.
  • How Lenovo managers should be responsive to the HR changes in the 21st century.
  • The HR programs that Lenovo HR should use to overcome the HR challenges they are facing.

1.2       Research Questions

  • What are the current challenges in managing people, and how can strategic HRM assist in overcoming the challenges?
  • What is the contribution of HRM in achieving organizational goals?
  • What specific strategies help an organization overcome the 21st century HR challenges?

1.3       Theoretical Framework

            The rapid changes in the nature of work in the 21st century have a significant impact on the employees’ feelings and motivation. The strategic HRM has to create an environment that responds to employees’ needs effectively to create an environment that enhances employees’ determination, commitment, loyalty, and satisfaction. Therefore, motivation is one of the most critical factors that strategic HRM has to consider in the context of globalized 21st century to keep a highly positive and competent workforce.  While there is no motivation theory that explains effectively employees’ behavior at work, this paper chooses Maslow’s hierarchy of need as the theoretical framework for this study.

1.3.1        Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

            The theory posits that people are motivated by in-built intrinsic motivators that are arranged in hierarchical order. At the bottom of the pyramid of needs are physiological needs, followed by safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. An organization has to satisfy each level of the needs to ensure that employees remain motivated.

2       Literature Review

            Multinational companies are intensifying their efforts in the international market with a view of capitalizing a wide range of benefits that come with operating in a global business environment. However, going international is a strategy that requires significant changes to address challenges that come with internationalization. There exists significant literature that addresses the Human Resources issues that organizations are facing in the 21st century in the context of globalization. It is essential to underpin the specific strategic HRM practices that face organizations operating in a globalized market.

            Bal (2011) conducted a study with the aim of addressing human resource management issues that organizations face in the 21st century and how organizations can develop a strategic view of addressing. The Bal (2011) study employed an exploratory approach organizations when operating in a globalized context are predisposed to increased competition for top talents, rapid changes in the work environment thus impacting on skills and knowledge, changes in customers and employee retention challenges. Bal (2011) identifies that human capital is a unique factor for an organization to gain a competitive advantage. Therefore, he proposes an HR strategic approach that involves enhancing the employee’s capacity for change through empowerment, ensuring the significance of the human capital to the organizational success and evolving organizational decision-making to align with changes in the business environment.

            Similarly, Hashim and Hameed (2012) conducted a study on HR issues and challenges facing organizations in the 21st century and their possible solutions. The study employed a content analysis approach and established that workforce diversity, changes in management, technological change, compensation, employee retention, and motivation are the most significant HR challenges that organizations are facing when operating the globalized 21st century context. Hashim and Hameed (2012) underscores in an attempt for organizations to overcome these challenges they need to employ a strategic reward and motivation program to promote employees commitment and loyalty to the organization, provide training and development program to enhance human resource skills and competency to adapt effectively to changes in the environment and to recruit the right talent.

Moore (2016) identifies that effective human resource coaching is the most effective strategy for overcoming the 21st HR challenges for organizations. Moore (2016) recognizes that organizations face uncertainity and complexity when operating the 21st century context and it is vital to employ practical coaching approaches such collaborative management and a highly dispersed system of information and team management to overcome HR challenges.

            In another study, Nasir (2017) studied the most dominant HRM challenges facing organizations in the 21st century. The study identified recruitment and selection, career development, employee promotion, conflict resolution, employee motivation, and industrial relations as the main HRM challenges that organizations face in the 21st century. The study identifies that organizations need to be proactive rather than reactive to the rapid changes in the business environment to ensure positive outcomes. Nasir (2017) affirmed that strategic HRM in the 21st century need to adopt strategic recruitment and selection program to attract and retain the best talents, reshape organizational expectations to align with changes in the business environment, develop competency framework to identify the skills and competency that the organization require in the context of globalization and invest in the right technology.

            Papiano (2015) conducted a study to establish what it is like to operate in the 21st century HRM environment. Papiano (2015) used an exploratory research approach and identified that for HR managers to be successful, they need to employ a forward thinking strategy to help them identify what is new and what works in the 21st century context. Additionally, his study identified training and development as the most effective strategy for ensuring effective HRM in 21st century by empowering and providing employees with the skills, competency, knowledge, and capabilities that align with changes in the business environment.

            Yadav and Singh (2014) also studied the paradigm shifts in HRM in the present. They opined that while organizations face multiple challenges in the 21st century context, paying focus on attracting, nurturing and retaining the best talents should be the main HRM strategic objective to help the organization gain a competitive advantage in the face of challenges.

2.1       Lenovo

            Lenovo is a Chinese owned personal computer manufacturing company that was established in 1988 (Zhou & Huang, 2014). The company experienced significant success in the Chinese market, and this prompted the company to expand its business by going international with a view of venturing into the global large market base. It was in 2005 when Lenovo went international for the first time through acquisition IBM’s PC division. While it is Lenovo had never been into the international market, IBM was a sophisticated multinational company that was active in more than 160 markets across the globe (Zhou & Huang, 2014). It is only of the Chinese of the group that went to negotiate the acquisition of IBM who could speak English. Zhai & Qi (2014) asserts that Lenovo established two headquarters, one in China and the other in the USA to streamline its internationalization strategy. Subsequently, Lenovo has succeeded to become on leading PC manufacturers in the world. This study intends to explore the HRM challenges that Lenovo experiences when operating in the global market to develop a program that would help Lenovo overcome the challenges.

3       Methodology

            This study employed an exploratory case study approach using the case study of Lenovo to establish the HRM challenges Lenovo experiences while operating in the international market and determine how it can overcome the challenges. Review of the literature review was used to complement the exploratory case study to confirm and identify the most effective strategic HRM practices that Lenovo should adopt to overcome the challenges. The results were analyzed based on the intended objectives of the study.

4       Results

            As abovementioned, the Lenovo began its internationalization strategy in 2005 through the acquisition of IBM PC division.  Since then, Lenovo has expended to other areas in Asia, including Singapore and Malaysia and Western Europe. While Lenovo had grown very successful in China since its inception in 1988 it had minimal contact with the global market given that it was an offshoot of a Chinese government research institute. Subsequently, expansion to the global market was marred with significant cultural and managerial chaos that impact significantly on Lenovo’s HRM practices.

4.1       Talent Shortage

            Increased competition for talents and difficulties in recruiting, developing, and retaining top talents in the global phenomenon is one of the biggest HR challenges facing Lenovo in the 21st century. Lenovo serves customers in more than 160 customers. Therefore, Lenovo has to compete for staff in a tight labor market and an environment that is increasingly resource-constrained as demonstrated by (Stahl & Köster, 2013). The global labor market is facing significant demographic shifts which are making employees less predictive. For instance, millennials are easily bored, and Lenovo faces significant challenges trying to provide for them a flexible work environment to ensure their satisfaction.

4.2       Dealing with a cross-cultural workforce

            As abovementioned, Lenovo has customers in more than 160 countries, and therefore, it has a cross-cultural workforce that is increasingly diverse. The diverse workforce has different needs meaning that Lenovo HR has to address all of their needs due to differences in culture, religion, gender, education, race, and others. The diverse workforce is essential in meeting the diverse needs of the customers across the globe. Meeting the needs of a diverse workforce is a challenging issue for Lenovo.

4.3       Cultural Difference

            Lenovo operates in a culturally diverse environment, thus raising a challenge to cope with the different cultural needs of its customers.   Lenovo experiences challenges when trying to adopt a global cultural approach in the different markets it operates. Lenovo has to localize essential elements such as management, staff and decision-making processes to ensure that they align with the local market needs.

5       Discussion

            It is evident from the analysis of Lenovo that the organization experiences significant HR strategies when operating in the global market in the 21st century. The HR Challenges that Lenovo experiences are consistent with those that have been highlighted in the literature. The biggest HR challenge facing Lenovo in the global phenomenon is talent shortage and difficulties in recruiting, developing, and retaining top talents. The increased competition for top talents and resource constraints are making it challenging for Lenovo to attract and retain the best talents. Shifts in demographics, high employee turnover, and increasingly less predictable employees are giving Lenovo HR significant challenges.  Human capital is a unique factor that contributes significantly to the competitive advantage of a business. Therefore, finding the right talent is an essential factor in achieving improved organizational performance. It is essential for Lenovo to increase investment in the selection, management, and retention of the best talents.

            The analysis also established that cross-cultural management is a severe HR challenge for Lenovo. Given that Lenovo has customers in more than 160 countries, meeting all the needs of the diverse labor in these countries is a challenge. Cultural barriers in the different markets are the other challenge impacting Lenovo HR in the global phenomenon.  Customers’ needs in different markets must be met to ensure continuous sales. 

6       Recommendation

            Given that the talent shortage is one of the biggest challenges facing Lenovo HR in the global phenomenon, the following program was recommended to offer solutions.

Strategic talent recruitment and selection strategy

With the fierce challenge of the talent competition in today’s world, it is imperative for Lenovo to follow the following program.

6.1       Establish a stable and high quality talent recruitment policy

Lenovo should adopt a recruitment and selection policy that picks the most suitable talents that are loyal to the organization and corporate values. It is vital for Lenovo to observe the following principles

  • Recruit based on evaluation of the needs of external recruitment.
  • Prepare a thorough action plan before selection through things such as job description and specifications, the examination on professional knowledge and contingency ability that is based on professional ability tests, IQ tests, and others.

6.2       Strategic human resource training and development strategy

Other than selection, retention is another critical factor. Training and development is an essential strategy for improving employee retention by empowering them and providing them with the skills and competency needed to deal with the changes in the business environment.  Training improves quality and competitiveness of the employees, thus giving Lenovo a competitive advantage over its competitors.

  • Lenovo should offer continuous practical training programs to strength quality of the newly acquired talents, inject corporate values, and culture.
  • Offer management training programs to the managerial level employees to align them with current organizational needs.

7       Conclusion

In conclusion, operating in a globalized market comes with significant cross-cultural management issues, talent recruitment and retention, changes in technology, and managing organization merger and acquisitions. Lenovo is a Chinese multinational company that experienced significant challenges during its initial years of internationalization. However, through effective utilization of HR strategies of the 21st century, such as strategic recruitment, effective communication, and human capital management, Lenovo has become the leading PC maker in the globe.

8       References

Bal, Y. (2011). The new human resources management in the 21st century: A strategic view. In Annual Conference on Innovations in Business & Management, London, UK.

Cui, M., Dong, C., Liu, Y., & Wang, S. (2016). A cultural integration path for cross-border mergers and            acquisitions from the perspective of acculturation: A double case study. Nankai Business Review International7(3), 395-422.

Hashim, M., & Hameed, F. (2012). Human resource management in the 21st century: Issues & challenges & possible solutions to attain competitiveness. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(9), 44.

Moore, A. (2016). Coaching for the 21st Century.  The Journal for Quality and Participation 39(1), 18–22.

Nasir, S. Z. (2017). Emerging challenges of HRM in the 21st century: A Theoretical Analysis. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(3), 216-223

Papiano, J. (2015). Welcome to the new world of work. People and Strategy, 38(3), 6.

Stahl, G., and Köster, K. (2013). Lenovo-IBM: Bridging Cultures, Languages, and Time Zones Integration Challenges (B).

Yadav, P., & Singh, J. (2014). A paradigm shifts in human resource management in present scenario – emerging trends. Sumedha Journal of Management, 3(3), 59-72.

Zhai, M., & Qi, Y. (2014). Research on Human Resource Matching Problems in Mergers and Acquisitions. In 3rd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR 2014). Atlantis Press.

Zhou, S., & Huang, X. (2014). How Chinese “snake” Swallows Western “elephant”: a case study of Lenovo’s acquisition of the IBM PC division. Journal of International Business and Economy15(1), 23-50.

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Supply Chain Management Assessment for Compretudo

Supply Chain Management Assessment for Compretudo

Security is an essential element for all businesses in the international supply chain. Failure by a business to take security seriously at the international supply chain leaves them vulnerable to devastating attacks. Operating in the international market provides businesses with access to vital merchandise and amenities that are essential to the running of a profitable occupational. The report will begin with exploring the benefits accrued by Compretudo from sourcing goods from the Qatar and Oman and strategies for mitigating risks, how Compretudo should organize and manage its supply chain administration roles and actions in undertaking of goods. Finally, the report will address the probable risks to the safety of Compretudo’s end to end supply chain. This report aims to develop an appraisal of the supply chain security issues for a Brazilian Supermarket chain Compretudo that is sourcing goods from Qatar and Oman.   

Benefits of Outsourcing from Oman and Qatar

Compretudo is the decision to outsource its goods from Oman and Qatar comes with a wide range of benefits. Through outsourcing from Oman and Qatar, Compretudo stands a chance to locate scarce resources not available in Brazil and thereby, increase the manufacturing capacity and technical capabilities of its business. The economies of scale that comes with accessing the rare resources would translate to a competitive advantage for Compretudo (Alexandrova, 2009).  Additionally, outsourcing of goods and services, the company will be able to focus on its core competencies and develop a more efficient internal capacity which will result in low prices for goods and services even with the additional transport cost (Tayauova, 2012). The Compretudo in Brazil is also likely to benefit from low-cost manufacturing in Qatar and Oman and offer quality goods to customers at a reduced cost. Compretudo also stands to benefit from the efficient supply chain management systems in Qatar and Oman. The efficient supply chain management comes with significantly reduced time-to-the-market for goods sourced from Oman and Qatar to Brazil (Somjai, 2017). Subsequently, Compretudo is able to meet competition prudently and efficiently in the Brazilian market.

Outsourcing goods from Qatar and Oman and then consolidating them in Qatar for shipment to Brazil creates a complex supply chain for Compretudo with a wide range of security risks. The outsourcing of the goods from Oman and Qatar and then shipping them to Brazil is subject to natural disasters including earthquakes and hurricanes which can cause significant disruptions to the entire supply chain (Urciuoli, 2010). Compretudo needs to develop a prudent risk organization strategy that can help the business to identify, analyze and implement effective risk management technique to curb potential disruptions across the supply chain involving Qatar, Oman, and Brazil (Colicchia & Strozzi, 2012).  Uncertainties in the supply chain affect the business’s logistical and strategic operational levels. Situations of political instability in Qatar and Oman can impact the business negatively thus derailing the Compretudo business objectives.

Similarly, compliance with local laws in the Oman and Qatar relating to export and import of goods is vital to the supply chain’s effectiveness. Failure to adequately comply with the local laws in Oman and Qatar can affect the lead times negatively thus impacting negatively on the time-to-the-market for goods sourced from Oman and Qatar (Speier et al., 2011). Ensuring compliance with the local laws will play a critical role in decreasing the lead times and minimizing unnecessary uncertainties in the supply chain. 

Conducting qualitative and quantitative risk assessment can play a perilous role in the mitigating the majority of the hazards experienced in the supply chain (Thomas, 2010). The assessment can help establish the components both quantitative and qualitative that may impact negatively on the supply chain.

How Fast and Lose would Co-ordinate and Manage the various Supply Chain Management Roles

 Hiring Fast and Lose to co-ordinate various supply chain management roles can help Compretudo enjoy a tailored supply chain solution menu. Fast and Lose will play a critical role in advising Compretudo on export costs   including essential freight costs, port expenses, original documentation costs, insurance and merchandise costs (Popovych, Shyriaieva & Selivanova, 2016). Additionally, the Fast and Lose will help the Compretudo to establish the most suitable course for consignment and taking justification of the nature of goods under transport, cost, transport time and care.  Fast and Lose also can play a critical role in making a reservation and contracting necessary cargo space on the ship, train, aircraft, train or truck when the goods are being moved from Qatar and Oman and later to Qatar for consolidation before shipment to Qatar (Perlman, Raz & Moshka, 2009).  The Fast and Lose will act as an intermediary in customs in negotiations around the Qatar, Oman and Brazil borders to ensure efficiency in movement of the goods.  Compretudo also stands to benefit from Fast and Loose with advice on the legislation affecting trade, political and social situation in the borders between Oman, Qatar, and Brazil (Gil-Saura, Berenguer-Contri & Ruiz-Molina, 2018). Since Fast and Lose has significant knowledge regarding the local business environment can play an important role in handling customs agents in Oman and Qatar to ensure that goods and documents used in the shipment of goods as per the customs regulations.

Fast and Lose and Rápido e Apertado working together will play a critical role in performing the shipping operation on behalf of the Compretudo. Fast And Lose and Rápido e Apertado relation will play a critical role in ensuring that the freight shipping is under control and goods are safe while in transit. Compretudo will be eased the burden of ensuring the security of the goods and put more emphasis on ensuring the efficiency of its business (Gil-Saura, Berenguer-Contri & Ruiz-Molina, 2018).  Lead times are one of the significant challenges that affect businesses negatively when outsourcing goods and services from the international market. However, with the help of Fast and Lose, Compretudo can be saved from the burden of determining the size and type of container needed for packaging, a number of packages, and booking for shipment and special consideration for the port destination in Brazil (Perlman, Raz & Moshka, 2009).  Additionally, the Fast and Lose will send the documents for collection to Compretudo to help streamline the efficiency in access to goods thus increasing the competiveness of the business.

Potential Supply Chain Security Risks

As aforementioned, operating in a supply chain that involves several countries presents significant security challenges to the transport of goods between Qatar and Oman borders.  Losses, thefts, tampering, and replacement of goods are the major security threats that impact consolidation and shipment of goods from Oman and Qatar to Brazil (Ekwall, 2012). Losses and thefts account for significant losses for businesses. Tempering and unauthorized replacement of products can lead to dangerous and unsatisfactory goods for customers. Goods are at the risk of tampering and theft when they are being consolidated in Qatar for shipment to Brazil. Involvement of third parties in the supply of goods from Qatar and Oman and later to Qatar for consolidation and shipment to Brazil presents the challenge of cargo diversion, hijacking, and piracy which are serious security threats.

Smuggling of dangerous goods such as explosive weapons, contraband goods and stowaways is the serious security threat that faces Compretudo in its outsourcing of goods from Qatar and Oman. A wide range of transport modes including planes, trucks, and trains are targets for transport of smuggled goods. There is a wide range of third parties that are involved in the transport of goods before they are consolidated in Qatar for shipment to Brazil. The various third parties involved in the process of transporting the goods increase the risk of smuggled and dangerous goods being shipped to Brazil (Urciuoli & Ekwall, 2012). The criminal gangs may go a long way in having one of their own being employed in the supply chain and thus creating a backdoor for smuggled goods to gain access to the shipment.

Terrorism is the other risk that poses a significant security threat to Compretudo shipments from Qatar and Oman. Qatar and Oman are easy targets for Islamic terrorism, and it is possible for the terrorists to attack the shipment. The terrorists can also hijack the shipment and use it transport explosives and other dangerous weapons to the port of destination (Manuj & Mentzer, 2008). The terrorists can go further to stage armed attacks and bombing in Brazil.

Observing the international standards for ensuring the safety of the international supply chain is essential towards overcoming the security risks experienced in the Oman, Qatar and Brazil supply chains (Rao & Goldsby, 2009). The various players involved in the supply chain including freight attendants, freight forwarders, truck, and train transporters and a wide range of others have a significant role to play in safeguarding goods at the international supply chain.  

Briefly, the international supply chain provides a complex environment to ensure security. The vulnerability of the shipment of goods between Qatar, Oman, and Brazil is increased by the full range of parties involved in the transport of goods before they are consolidated for shipment to Brazil. The multiple parties involved makes smuggling of dangerous and contraband goods possible. Additionally, it increases the risk of theft, losses, tampering, and replacement of goods. Terrorism is another major challenge that faces the movement of goods along the supply chain. The Fast and Lose freight forwarders have an essential role in ensuring safety and compliance of Compretudo’s shipment with the customs regulations in the three countries.


Alexandrova, M. (2009). International outsourcing: incentives, benefits, and risks for the companies in SEE countries. In a 4th international conference of ASECU development cooperation and competitiveness, The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (pp. 11-16).

Colicchia, C., & Strozzi, F. (2012). Supply chain risk management: a new methodology for a systematic literature review. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal17(4), 403-418.

Ekwall, D. (2012). Supply Chain Security–Threats and Solutions. In Risk Management-Current Issues and Challenges. IntechOpen.

Gil-Saura, I., Berenguer-Contri, G., & Ruiz-Molina, E. (2018). Satisfaction and loyalty in B2B relationships in the freight forwarding industry: adding perceived value and service quality into the equation. Transport33(5), 1184-1195.

Manuj, I., & Mentzer, J. T. (2008). Global supply chain risk management strategies. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management38(3), 192-223.

Popovych, P., Shyriaieva, S., & Selivanova, N. (2016). Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system. Journal of Sustainable Development of Transport and Logistics1(1), 16-22.

Perlman, Y., Raz, T., & Moshka, L. (2009). Key factors in selecting an international freight forwarding company. The open transportation journal3(1).

Rao, S., & Goldsby, T. J. (2009). Supply chain risks: a review and typology. The International Journal of Logistics Management20(1), 97-123.

Somjai, S. (2017). Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing. Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Bangkok, Thailand. Business and Management Review9(1).

Speier, C., Whipple, J. M., Closs, D. J., & Voss, M. D. (2011). Global supply chain design considerations: Mitigating product safety and security risks. Journal of Operations Management29(7-8), 721-736.

Tayauova, G. (2012). Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing: analysis of outsourcing practices of Kazakhstan banks. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences41, 188-195.

Thomas, A. R. (2010). Supply chain security: International practices and innovations in moving goods safely and efficiently. ABC-CLIO.

Urciuoli, L. (2010). Supply chain security—mitigation measures and a logistics multi-layered framework. Journal of Transportation Security3(1), 1-28.

Urciuoli, L., & Ekwall, D. (2012). Possible impacts of supply chain security on efficiency: a survey study about the possible impacts of AEO security certifications on supply chain efficiency. 24th NOFOMA Conference, 7-8 June 2012, Turku, Finland.

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