PICOT:The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

PICOT:The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest..

PICOT

The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

Select a practice problem of interest to use as the focus of your research.

Start with the patient and identify the clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care.

Following the PICOT format, write a PICOT statement in your selected practice problem area of interest, which is applicable to your proposed capstone project.

The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).

Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on your selected practice problem of interest. This literature search should include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed research articles to support your practice problem.

Select six peer-reviewed research articles which will be utilized through the next 5 weeks as reference sources. Be sure that some of the articles use qualitative research and that some use quantitative research. Create a reference list in which the six articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s abstract. The completed assignment should have a title page and a reference list with abstracts.

Suggestions for locating qualitative and quantitative research articles from credible sources:

  1. Use a library database such as CINAHL Complete for your search.
  2. Using the advanced search page check the box beside “Research Article” in the “Limit Your Results” section.
  3. When setting up the search you can type your topic in the top box, then add quantitative or qualitative as a search term in one of the lower boxes. Research articles often are described as qualitative or quantitative.

To narrow/broaden your search, remove the words qualitative and quantitative and include words that narrow or broaden your main topic. For example: Diabetes and pediatric and dialysis. To determine what research design was used, review the abstract and the methods section of the article. The author will provide a description of data collection using qualitative or quantitative methods.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

PICOT:The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

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How do different personalities affect the conflict resolution process?

Conflict Resolution and Personality Types

Introduction

Conflict is an unavoidable part of the human experience because humans interact daily with people with different ideas and points of view.  The dynamic nature of life dictates that human beings are continuously being pulled into environments that have parallel traits and beliefs. The alterations are the primary cause of conflict, and because human beings are inherently social, conflict cannot be avoided in any scenario (Abdullah, 2016). Conflict indicates that the learning process is taking place because different points of view are being passed along. Thus, conflict is good for the development of any society, especially if society has a particular aim it is trying to reach. On the other hand, conflict can be destructive because it impedes development since folks have to drop everything and solve the dispute before the development process can go on. The resolution process is important because it dictates when the group of people will get back to normal and continue the development process.

Conflict always present motives backed by personal interests and wants. Thus, personality plays a vital role in forming conflict, and eventually, the conflict resolution process. To solve conflicts, it is imperative that one knows the other party’s personality, so that it can be resolved amicably. A person’s Nature has a direct effect on the way a person answers the conflict with some people facing the problem head on, and some avoiding the problem altogether.  The Big Five Personality Types are often used to identify personality types, and they are used to determine the conflict resolution type to be used for particular scenarios and individuals.

Personality can be defined as a person’s behaviour about their, thought process, and attitude (Ayachit, 2014). Ideally, the character is developed when someone is young, and it is hard to change someone’s personality when they are older. The best thing one can do is to learn how to live with people of all personalities. Differences in personalities, thinking style, are factors that can easily because conflict is a group of people.  Reason being, the thought process of different people is not the same, and that is enough grounds for conflict to occur. Social interactions lead to relationships, and for relationships to work, different ideas must be involved. These different ideas are the cause of conflict, and if the people involved have personalities that influence poor behaviour, then the dispute will not be resolved. An unresolved conflict would lead to bad blood between the members, especially if some of them had personalities that influenced good behaviour.

Research Question

  • How do different personalities affect the conflict resolution process?

Literature Review

A study by Fui (2015) aimed to find out the effect personality had on team conflict. The study found out that there is a relationship between character and conflict in a team. Notably, neurotic people were found to give a positive connection with task conflict, while other types of nature had a positive relationship, but it was not significant. In any team, there will be conflict, because it is different people with different ideas working together. Thus, the conflict resolution style should consider the personalities, so that they can be resolved amicably.

People learn how to manage conflicts from their parents, or guardians. They observe the way their seniors solve the conflict and emulate them as they grow older and become independent (Virga et al., 2014).  Therefore, some people end up with good conflict management styles, while some people end up with poor conflict management styles. The value people place on different things dictates how they deal with conflict. The value one places on an object are different from the value another will place on the same object. Thus, in part, a person’s conflict resolution style is dependent on what they see their parents put a value on, and how they solve issues. 

Personality has a significant influence on the way people resolve conflicts. Some folks are confrontational- they face their problems head-on and in the open. On the other hand, some people avoid problems and do not feel comfortable confronting other people (Ayub, 2017). Such people bottle up emotions, and once in a while, the feelings become too much, and they have significant breakdowns.  At the workplace, sentiment can be both good and bad. It is good when it is constrained within the tolerable limits. Conflict ensures productivity and healthy competition. It becomes dysfunctional when the acceptable limits are passed, and people cannot deal with the dispute amicably.  A conflict that has not been solved can result in stress, anxiety and poor, satisfactory rates in any team. Ideally, some personalities develop relationships, while some destroy relationships.

Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann formulated five methods of dealing with conflict. The primary argument in their model was that people often have one way of conflict resolution, and it is often related to a personality. The Thomas- Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument has five styles that are defined as competitive, cooperative, accommodating, collaborative and avoiding (Ayachit, 2014).  Competitive conflict resolution style is for people who are very assertive and are very knowledgeable in what they want. They are selfish too, because they go after what they want, without a care in the world for other people. They are vocal about their needs, and often, they operate from a place of power. This conflict resolution style is best when a decision has to be made on short notice, and there is no time for deliberation. However, it is not good for the team dynamic in the long run, because it bruises egos, has reduced satisfactory rates and cannot work when in a situation where there are many competitive people. Secondly, there is avoiding resolution style whereby folks stay away from conflict entirely. Such people are not firm in their decisions and rarely cooperate. Such a person is wary not to hurt other people’s feelings, and it is best when someone else is in a better position to solve the problem. It is also the best conflict resolution style when there is no best way to solve the problem at hand. People who solve problems using this style will postpone addressing the issue until it is too late. This conflict resolution style is not the best, because it does not solve problems. It is a weak approach that has the potential to lead to more conflicts when not handled early. The collaborative approach is whereby a person aims to meet the needs of everyone.

As such, such people are firm in their decision-making process. Unlike a competitor, other people’s point of views are acknowledged and listened to, and their positions are taken into consideration. It is the best conflict resolution style when different ideas are needed, or the decision affects a whole group. Often, creative solutions are arrived at, because of the contribution of many people. Accommodating style of conflict resolution is similar to collaborative but that the level of assertiveness is lower. In this style, the needs of others are met first, and the person can trade of their needs without a second thought to accommodate other people.  This style is the best when an issue affects the other person more than it affects the accommodator. However, this style is often referred to as weak, because it requires a high level of reciprocity, and some people might not return the favour. That leaves room for more conflict and resentment to arise. The compromising conflict resolution style is whereby folks aim to find an answer that will favour every person, or at least partially. Often, people walk away from a decision-making process unsatisfied, but at least everyone acquired something from the resolution.  This method is best when the conflict is vital to everyone, and no one is willing to lose. It often comes in handy when people of equal strengths meet, and the option of losing ground is not a possibility. It means that everyone has to sacrifice some of their needs, to accommodate other people. It is the best conflict resolution style for big organizations when making decisions that affect most of the workers.

David Antonioni (1998) looked into the effects of personality and conflict resolution styles. Ideally, Conscientious, agreeable and open people take care of disagreements in a positive way. People with the personality mentioned above style rarely used avoidance as a way to solve conflicts, but find ways to confront the problem head-on.  People can either respond assertively, aggressively of passively to conflict (Ayachit, 2014).  Assertive people often aim to make permanent solutions, and it promotes open dialogue and discussion for both parties who are faced with the clash. Aggressive people often bully others to submission. It works for the short term when an important decision has to be made, and there is no time for deliberation. However, aggressive people build resentment from other people, because of the low levels of satisfaction. Passive people are submissive because they avoid conflict whenever they can. Thus, the possibility of the conflict escalating to levels where it is controversial is typical for such people. Often, people who respond to conflict this way talk to their peers about their dissatisfaction, in a bid to influence the decision-making process. However, they might never face the source of the conflict directly to address the issue.

Hypothesis

  • Different personality types influence the conflict resolution process differently.

The Rationale of the Study

The study aims to find out how different personality types affect the conflict resolution process. Thus, it will help team leaders and management teams are aware of how to solve conflict within their organizations. Other studies have looked into personality types, and conflict resolution strategies, but have not combined the two, yet they go hand in hand. Therefore, there is a research gap in finding out the way different personalities opt to solve a conflict, and why they choose the conflict resolution process, they opt for. This study will provide findings that will indicate how the different personality types solve disputes, and if the situation changes when they are in different scenarios. 

Methodology

Study Design

The study will assume a quantitative model.

Participants

The study participants will be accrued from a local service company because occupations in the service industry require a lot of human interaction. The sample size will be 50 participants, and they will be chosen at random. Thus, age, gender, and the race will all be left to chance. The participants must be over eighteen years and have worked at the company for more than six months.

Materials

For this study, both primary and secondary data will be used. Researchers will collect primary data, while secondary data will be accrued from online databases and print media.

Tools for Data Collection

  1. The Thomas and Kilmann (1974) instrument will be used. It has five conflict-handling styles. Moreover, it has 30 styles and two selections. Partakers will be required to indicate a choice that represents their behaviour.
  2. Questionnaires: the questionnaire will have questions to test the conflict resolutions the people will use in different situations. A liker scale will be used to identify how strongly one agrees with a particular conflict resolution strategy.

Procedure

The participants will be contacted at the beginning of the study, and those that meet the inclusion criteria will be given informed consent to sign. Research assistants will then collect data from the study participants, by giving them questionnaires to fill. Quantitative data will be collected from online databases and print media. For online databases, a correlational analysis will be done on the articles found so that only those that have data on personality types and conflict resolution are used. If the findings prove the hypothesis right, then it will determine that personality types affect conflict resolution in organizations.

Anticipated Results

Quantitative data were analyzed using numerous statistical methods.  Frequency distribution was used to analyze the data. Regression analysis and correlation analysis was also used to analyze the data. The tool that will be used to perform the study is SPSS version 15.

Extroversion would score highly with a correlation of about -270 and lowly with accommodating with a correlation of -429. Openness would correlate -290 with collaborating but score lowly with avoiding, at -170. This goes on to prove the hypothesis that personality type does affect the conflict resolution type of people.

Extraverted people will score highly in the collaborating style of conflict resolution, and score lowly n accommodating and compromising style of conflict resolution style. People who are open will score lowly ion avoidance, and score highly in the collaborative style. Moreover, agreeable folks will score lowly on competition style and highly in accommodating style. Conscientious people will score highly in the collaborative form and lowly in avoiding and compromising. Lastly, neurotic individuals will score lowly in collaborative and compromise but score highly in accommodative style.

Discussion

The findings indicate that personality is directly related to conflict resolution strategies, to suggest that in any setting the characters have to be acknowledged, for conflict to be solved amicably.

Strengths and Limitations of the Research

The study chose a sample size from an industry that involves a lot of human interaction, to mean that the results are valid. On the other hand, the sample size was too small, and might not be representative of the whole population.

Directions for Future Research

Future research should examine if personalities are static or people modify them to fit the situation. This would shed light on the theory that people often have more than one character.

References

Abdullah, N. A. (2016). Understanding the association between personality and conflict management style of counselors in Selangor. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 137-145.

Ayachit, D. (2014). Exploring the relationship between personality and conflict resolution style of future managers. Journal of General Management Research, 65-76.

Ayub, N. (2017). Personality traits and conflict management styles in predicting job performance and conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, 671-94.

Fui, L. D. (2015). The relationship between personality and team conflict. International Journal of Accounting and Business Management , 39-49.

Virga et al. (2014). Personality, relationship conflict, and teamwork-related mental models. PLOS ONE, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110223.

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Critique The Theory Of Self-Efficacy Using The Internal And External Criticism Evaluation Process

Title off Discussion of week 2 : ” Making judgement as to whether a theory could be adapted for research is significant.  Describe the internal and external criticism that is used to evaluate middle-range theories. “

Critique, The Theory Of Self-Efficacy, Using The Internal And External Criticism Evaluation Process

 Evaluating middle-range theories is essential to advancing the nursing field of study. It helps ensure that the appropriate concepts are used in research tasks, leading to accurate and useful data gathering and interpretation. This is done by examining the theory’s internal consistency, coherence, and empirical accuracy, as well as its external validity and comparability to other theories and empirical data. Further, it is essential to evaluate the theory’s parsimony.

Internal criticism is essential to evaluating a theory’s logical consistency, coherence, and empirical accuracy. This type of criticism involves examining the internal structure of a theory to determine its logic, consistency, and coherence. Examining the theory’s assumptions, ideas, and hypotheses is part of this process. Examining the conceptual definitions and connections between ideas in a theory is an important part of internal critique. This ensures that any inconsistencies or gray areas inside the idea are identified and addressed (Khoshnood, Rayyani & Tirgari, 2020). A logical contradiction may exist, for instance, if a theory defines a notion in one manner and then utilizes it differently. It can also be challenging to grasp a theory and apply it to empirical evidence if its notions are not well-defined or are too ambiguous.

            External criticism is essential to evaluating a theory’s external validity or how well it applies to other settings or populations. This critique looks at how well a theory generalizes by contrasting it with other ideas and evidence. Evaluation of a theory’s external validity involves testing its assumptions, ideas, and hypotheses in various contexts and with other populations. A key aspect of external criticism is the evaluation of a theory’s assumptions (Smith, 2019). A theory’s assumptions are the basic ideas or beliefs upon which it rests. A theory’s external validity can be compromised, for instance, if it presupposes that all members of a given population act in the same manner. Any further challenge in evaluating the generalizability of a theory arises if its underlying assumptions are either poorly defined or too nebulous.

Conclusion

Nursing theory is always developing, and as a result, evaluation of intermediate ideas is essential. One approach to nursing theory that seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice is “middle-range nursing.” Compared to other types of theories, such as the grand theories of nursing, middle-range theories are simple to put into practice because they are more detailed, have a clearer focus, and have a narrower scope. Both external and internal critique examines the efficacy of midrange ideas.

Reference :

 Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health     promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: a critical perspective. International    journal of adolescent medicine and health32(4).

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

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Written Assignment – The Planning Process

Think about a healthcare organization that you know (or have researched). In a 1-2 page paper, explain why they should devote time to planning. Identify and describe three things the organization can accomplish through the planning process.

Be sure to format your research sources per APA standards and use in-text citations where necessary. Also, be sure to include a reference page. For more information on APA, please visit the Online Library, which is available through the Resources tab.

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Critique, The Theory Of Self-Efficacy, Using The Internal And External Criticism Evaluation Process.

Title off Discussion of week 2: ” Making judgement as to whether a theory could be adapted for research is significant.  Describe the internal and external criticism used to evaluate middle-range theories. “

 Evaluating middle-range theories is essential to advancing the nursing field of study. It helps ensure that the appropriate concepts are used in research tasks, leading to accurate and useful data gathering and interpretation. This is done by examining the theory’s internal consistency, coherence, and empirical accuracy, as well as its external validity and comparability to other theories and empirical data. Further, it is essential to evaluate the theory’s parsimony.

Critique, The Theory Of Self-Efficacy, Using The Internal And External Criticism Evaluation Process.

Internal criticism is essential to evaluating a theory’s logical consistency, coherence, and empirical accuracy. This type of criticism involves examining the internal structure of a theory to determine its logic, consistency, and coherence. Examining the theory’s assumptions, ideas, and hypotheses is part of this process. Examining the conceptual definitions and connections between ideas in a theory is an important part of internal critique. This ensures that any inconsistencies or gray areas inside the idea are identified and addressed (Khoshnood, Rayyani & Tirgari, 2020). A logical contradiction may exist, for instance, if a theory defines a notion in one manner and then utilizes it differently. It can also be challenging to grasp a theory and apply it to empirical evidence if its notions are not well-defined or are too ambiguous.

External criticism is essential to evaluating a theory’s external validity or how well it applies to other settings or populations. This critique looks at how well a theory generalizes by contrasting it with other ideas and evidence. Evaluation of a theory’s external validity involves testing its assumptions, ideas, and hypotheses in various contexts and with other populations. A key aspect of external criticism is the evaluation of a theory’s assumptions (Smith, 2019). A theory’s assumptions are the basic ideas or beliefs upon which it rests. For instance, a theory’s external validity can be compromised if it presupposes that all members of a given population act similarly. Any further challenge in evaluating the generalizability of a theory arises if its underlying assumptions are either poorly defined or too nebulous.

Conclusion

Nursing theory is always developing, and as a result, evaluation of intermediate ideas is essential. One approach to nursing theory that seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice is “middle-range nursing.” Compared to other types of theories, such as the grand theories of nursing, middle-range theories are simple to put into practice because they are more detailed, have a clearer focus, and have a narrower scope. Both external and internal critique examines the efficacy of midrange ideas.

Reference :

 Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: a critical perspective. International journal of adolescent medicine and health32(4).

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

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Lifelong Learning Process

Lifelong Learning Process

Section 1: Introduction

The magnitude of current social and economic change, the demographic pressures stemming from an ageing population, and the rapid transition of a knowledge-based society are all challenges that demand a new perspective to training and education under the realm of lifelong learning. The advent of high-functional systems, rapid technological changes, and information overload has created new challenges and problems for training and education. More advanced knowledge is acquired after the age of formal schooling has passed (10: 43). In a number of institutions, it is attained via educational processes, which do not focus on the traditional schooling.

Lifelong Learning Process

Learning must be examined throughout life because prior notions of a divided lifetime education accompanied by work are no longer tenable. Professional activities have become fluid in content and knowledge-intensive to the extent that learning has become an integral part of adult work activities. Learning has become a new version of labor, and working tends to be a collaborative effort among peers and colleagues (7:56).

In the modern knowledge society, an educated individual is someone who is willing to embrace learning as a lifelong process. Learning has become part of living and a natural outcome of being alive and in contact with the world. Therefore, learners need not only instructions but also access to the world to have an opportunity to play a reasonable part in it. Therefore, workplace learning and school learning ought to be integrated.

Section two: Concepts of Lifelong Learning

Lifelong learning is an all-purpose learning activity, which is undertaken on a progressive basis to improve skills, knowledge, and competence. Higher education helps prepare students to be learners by developing specific skills and dispositions described by lifelong learning. Literature on lifelong learning conveys common themes that articulate characteristics that transform training and education into the concept of lifelong learning (1:24).

Section 3: Self-motivated learning

There is a strong emphasis on the need for people to take responsibility for their own learning. Therefore, lifelong learners are defined not by the form of training or education in which they are involved but their personal characteristics leading to that involvement. Experts have emphasized the value of locus of successful academic performance and control (8:82). Personal characteristics of people who are expected to engage in learning either formally or informally in their entire lives tend to acquire:

  1. The necessary attitudes and skills for learning, particularly numeracy and literacy skills,
  2. The confidence to learn and a feeling of engagement with the training and education system.
  3. Motivation and willingness to learn.

Although training and education might have economic benefits for people, it is acknowledged that economic motivators are not primarily adequate to incentivize individuals to participate in training and education. Some motivational obstacles must be identified and addressed so some individuals can participate in training and education. Although some of these factors are economic and can be tackled with financial aid, most people are deterred from participating in training and education by social and personal factors. While recognizing the factors acting as barriers and motivators to participate in training and education, lifelong learning tends to promote engagement in learning for its sake and not for the purpose of employment. Therefore, the goal of engaging in learning seems to be more significant than the reason itself. This is viewed as a recognition of the factors motivating people to engage in formal and informal learning and instrumental goals (4:20).

Section 4: A mechanical engineering concept

Drafting is a technical concept by which mechanical engineers design products and create instructions for manufacturing parts. Traditionally, the technical drawing was a hand-drawn schema illustrating all the necessary dimensions to produce a part, assemble the notes, a set of required materials and pertinent information. However, with the advent of technology, this concept has been modified and a computer model has replaced the hand-drawn schematic. Mechanical engineers creating technical drawings are often referred to as drafters. Historically, drafting has had two-dimensional process, but currently, computer aided programs enable the designers to create in three dimensions. 

Section 5: Importance of lifelong learning

The past several years have witnessed an increase in interest to lifelong learning mostly because societal changes are triggered by information technology. Technologies are becoming increasingly complex, while knowledge is being produced and transformed at a rapid rate. Fixing a human heart or a car is considerably less complicated currently than it was generations ago. In some instances, employees tend to offer the training required and want employees to participate in the training.

Nevertheless, the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) staff cannot count on abandoning an organization that gave them their first job and training. Career enhancement and job mobility are contingent on progressing upgrade of skills for ASME staff. Therefore, individuals in work-involving skills such as ASME employees recognize that their future relies on their continuing expansion of skills even when their organizations are not offering them training (6:39).

In capitalist countries, former communist countries, and present communist ones, economics is the driving force of education in all levels and lifelong education. This applies to global competitiveness in business whereby the names of competing firms are shifting. However, besides economics, other factors that form the rationale for lifelong learning include enriching of human life. Humanity must enrich and adopt the human culture broadly and deeply. Others may have passed with good grades but have minimal interest in widening their knowledge. A vast majority has taken music appreciation classes but has never attended a symbolic concert even when it is readily accessible. Often, schooling has been seen as a key factor in curtailing instead of stimulating people continuing interest in the sciences and the arts of the culture. This issue has attracted diverse views of politicians and philosophers who argue that the community must desire for each child what the better parent would desire for their children (3:28).

The other rationale for lifelong learning focuses on sustainability in the most profound sense: the ability to sustain life in the world. Until recently, the world was immersed in bloodshed because of wars. Currently, people are peacefully assembled in the same world. The current century cannot lull anyone that the world is ending. Instead, the human race has had to choose between catastrophe and education. The problems of the world are complex. This is because substantial historical lessons can be easily misunderstood, while the cultural and national contexts that encapsulate people can sow the bad seeds of discontent and mistrust among people (9: 36). This justifies the need for continuous learning in a world where ubiquitous information technology has replaced obstacles to global competition. However, it is even more vital for continuous learning to take place so that people could increase their collective level of intelligence and understanding about the issues they face as a human race. This is their best opportunity to get out of the current century alive and successful.

Section 6: Challenges in lifelong learning

There is an assurance that people developing applications and hardware will continue to make progress. The extension of these resources will promote lifelong learning as determined by the ability to overcome various challenges like:

Access – A big number of populations lacks access to Internet resources. This has fallen sharply among people in rural areas, especially impoverished rural zones.

Disposition – The fact that there is greater opportunity for lifelong learning through the Internet should not lead people to presume that the opportunities will be embraced. This demands a major radical change in the instructional programs of schools to affect the student’s continuous learning (2:26).

Capability: For years, people who have thought carefully about education have realized that everyone needs to become his/her own teacher. The disposition of desire to learn must match the capability. Formal learning programs must incorporate explicit focus on the involvement of self-directed learning. The best success indicator is the recognition that students no longer need teachers. The use of the Internet broadens the issue of capability. The Internet is a huge resource filled with the best and the worst information that human beings can acquired. It contains errors, truths, the worthless, and the valuable (5:37).

Section 7: Conclusion

Lifelong learning and training are essential problems for the current and future information worlds. Unfortunately, these issues require complex answers and facts to enumerate successes and failures. To recognize the complexity of the problems associated with lifelong learning requires that individuals reinvent, rethink, and pool resources in the future. The viewpoint of lifelong learning is more than continuing education and training because it forces people to reinvent their schools and universities. People ought to understand the co-evolutionary processes between basic human activities and their interdependencies and relationships with the new media (10: 44).

They need progress and an in-depth understanding of innovative systems, new theories, assessment, and practices. People must also create new physical aspects, intellectual spaces, reward structures, and organizational forms to make lifelong learning a vital component of human life. This requires organizations, groups, and individuals to partake and experience these new forms. For the risk takers, using their imagination and creativity to explore alternative ways of learning is an inevitable practice.

Section 8: References

  1. Andain, Ian, and Murphy Gerard. Creating lifelong learners: Challenges for education in the 21st century. Cardiff: International Baccalaureate. 2008
  2. Chapman, Judith. School, Community and Lifelong Learning. London: Continuum International Pub. Group. 2008
  3. Evans, Karen. Learning, work, and social responsibility: Challenges for lifelong learning in a global age. Dordrecht: Springer. 2009
  4. Field, John. Lifelong learning and the new educational order. Stoke-on-Trent [u.a.: Trentham. 2006
  5. Field, John. Social capital and lifelong learning. Bristol: Policy Press. 2010
  6. Naimpally, Ashok, and Ramachandran Hema. Lifelong learning for engineers and scientists in the information age. London: Elsevier. 2012
  7. Scales, Peter. Teaching in the lifelong learning sector. Maidenhead: Open University Press. 2013
  8. Sharma, Tara C. Meaning of lifelong learning. New Delhi, India: Sarup & Sons. 2011
  9. Wankel, Charles. University and corporate innovations in lifelong learning. Charlotte, N.C: IAP – Information Age Pub. 2008
  10. Williams, Michael. Citizenship education and lifelong learning: Power and place. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers. 2013

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The Effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 in Detecting Fraud during the Audit Process

Introduction

Auditing in this concept means the main activity of the certified public accountant, and entails a separate examination of accounting statements, the interior control system and other proof to support the expression of an impartial expert opinion concerning the financial statements reliability. Financial statement according to this paper will be used to mean the mean through which accountants pass information to users. The financial statements can either be unaudited or audited, depending on what is needed from the corporation, and entail the balance sheet, the income or profit and loss statement, the statement of cash flows, subsidiary notes, and detailed schedules, when necessary (MorBarak, 2005). 

The word fraud will be used to mean the dishonesty intentionally practiced to protected unlawful or unfair gain. It is also considered the deliberate misrepresentation of a material present fact made by an individual to another when in fact he or she is fully aware that the claim is wrong. According to Albrecht 2001, financial statement fraud is regarded as a deliberate attempt by individuals or organizations to mislead or trick users of in print financial statements, particularly creditors and investors, by arranging and propagating materially misstated financial statements. Reports on financial statements or accounting information should always be done with reference to the accounting standard which means that the preparation of an accounting report on the financial status of a company or a firm should be done on the accounting standards that are widely accepted. Accounting standards surround all the factors that are concerned with the authoritative support that is considerable in standards of accounting (Albrecht, 2001). The detection and fraud prevention during the audit process is significant in the financial candle light for most organizations. 

Research questions

The main aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of the Sarbanes-oxley act of 2002 in detecting fraud during the audit process. This would entail numerous aspects of the question one being to address whether or not SOX addresses accounting and auditing revisions by both private and public companies. The other aspects that will be addressed in whether or not SOX should revised t make it more efficient or whether it should be discarded as ineffective. 

The response to the main research question of whether SOX is efficient can be affirmed by the legislative, judicial statistical analysis, and reporting enforcement actions. The research described herein, if completed, would have fully determined the effectiveness of SOX not only to ascertain if or if not the legislation is fulfilling the purpose of preventing and detecting fraud during the audit process, but the research aims also at establishing suppose adjustments are needed or necessary to enhance the usefulness and achievements of SOX (Pettinger, 1999). The lack of information about the effectiveness of the SOX might lead to increase in occurrences of frauds. 

The study will also contribute to answering the question suppose enforcing SOX is worth the other related issues that have arisen since its formation. One of the issues that will be determined is whether the legislation has contributed to the rising costs, and specifically the internal control standards of SOX. 

Through the research, the other question that will be answered is whether SOX affect the legislation of foreign companies. This is in regard to the diminishing number of the foreign companies listed in the stock market from 2003. For example, in 2003, only 19 non-American companies were listed but in 2000, 50 were listed. 

Fraud detection by independent auditors is an important requirement to emerge from the recent corporate scandals. Kramar 2000 agreed that auditors must do more to discover fraud, which is what the public needs, and that audits reduce the probability of occurrence of fraud by a significant value. To detect fraud, Lawrence 2001 says that auditors should practice professional skepticism during an audit, and that the audit personal should be knowledgeable, skilled, and well-trained so that fraud can be recognized and the fraud risk determined. Auditors should also be wary of questionable accounting principles utilized by management, to ensure that the interior control system is adequately effectual to prevent and detect fraud occurrence probability. When fraud is detected, the audit steps should be obtained more reliable audit evidence, and include extra audit closer to the end of the audit year. Kinzel 2005 details some of the keys the auditor can use to detect management of the financial statements manipulations. The keys as he highlights are; the examination of the extent of the changes in account receivable and accounts payable that do not respond with company and industry trends, comparing inventory turnover and trends within the industry, examination of the controls over inventory, and examination of the contingent liabilities for feasibility. 

Statement of problem

  1. Has the legislation contributed to the rising of the internal control standards of SOX?
  2. Does SOX affect the legislation of foreign companies?
  3. Is SOX fulfilling the purpose of preventing and detecting fraud during the audit process?
  4. Are there any adjustments required to enhance the usefulness and achievements of SOX?

Assumptions and strengths 

One of the assumptions that will be made is that the enforcement and financial statement restatement data used in the research enough and of great relevance to the study to answer all the research questions and validate the conclusions. The sampled centers or institutions will be enough to provide all required information. The data that will be obtained during the research will be sufficient to determine the effectiveness of SOX. Due to the high reliability and validity issues in sampling, data collection and data analysis,  the analysis will provide enough and consistent response to point to a single result, and any diverging result will be of no importance as long as majority of the data point to one thing. 

The research is also expected to point out the present outcomes of SOX and suggest various method of improving SOX.  Various viewpoints will also be employed to enhance the accuracy and relevancy of the collected data and this will adds strength to the conclusions made. The other assumption is that the data that will be collected during the research will be valid and the respondents will be as accurate when providing the data as possible and the results that will be obtained will truly reflect the actual case. 

Kabala 2005 points out relevance to fraud auditing which states that the majority of fraud occurrences are either not reported or not discovered.  He placed fraud into three categories. According to him, the first grouped composed of fraud that has been detected and known by the public. The second group is a fraud that has bee detected, but the concerned personal has chosen to hide it for various reasons and so not know by the public. The last group is a fraud that has been detected and is known by the public. Hellmann 2005 gives estimation that about 25% of fraud is a group one fraud, while 42% is a group two fraud. The detection of the financial fraud can be detected through audit process. This is because auditing is more concerned with the transactions that compose the balance in account, and not just the balance itself. He claims that minus the fraud auditing, “internal controls neither are nor effective, especially when two or more perpetrators are involved” (p. 8). 

Proactive fraud is hard since it needs auditors to institute search procedures to detect fraud in circumstances where there is not evidence to show that fraud can exist. However, most auditors are not trained in fraud auditing or fraud detection, and do possess sufficient knowledge of evidence and its collection. Hesketh 2006 assert that proactive fraud auditing is not generally done because no generally accepted auditing standards or accounting principles have been developed to use a guide for the auditors. The contention of the authors is that such standards and principles should be written so that auditors are prepared to prevent and detect fraud through such auditing methods (Hesketh, 2006). In investigating suspected fraud, interviewing of key workers is very essential, as well as efficient note-taking and the recording of written statements, when necessary. Sufficient evidence must also be collected to purse any action taken against the perpetrator(s). 

Importance of the Study 

The examination of SOX is very important, considering that legislation is the most recent of SOX is therefore to this most recent problem. The examination of SOX and determination of its effectiveness in detecting and preventing fraud during the audit process is of utmost importance. Hartmann 1998 suggested that a good economy is normally hiding the problems that companies are experiencing, creating more of an incentive to “cook the books”. He also noted that the use of stock options as earnings for company executives is encouraging the executives to manipulate financial statements to come up with higher stock prices. 

The significance of the research in determining if or not SOX has been effectual in detecting and preventing fraud will be mostly to check whether SOX has been effective. Suppose the SX result are insufficient, then the study would assist in determining if it is to be supplemented, or if an alternative solution needs to be implemented in its place. The study will also examine whether the existing programs supporting SOX like Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC)are capable of regulating the auditing filed effectually through the use of SOX, and suppose the result will show that it has been ineffective, then other method would be recommended base on the analysis of the auditing department of various organizations that will be examined (Nankervis and Compton, 2008).   

The research will also be beneficial to numerous organizations and individuals. Certified Public Accountants will benefit from the study as it will help them in assessing the effectiveness of SOX, and in determining if other steps will be necessary so that they can prevent and detect fraud in the audit process. Companies and corporations will also be beneficiaries of the research outcomes. SOX in the past, has caused extra costs by corporations in order to comply with the internal control standards imposed by SOX. According to Fleetwood 2006, all officers of organizations, whether public or private, may be affected by the new standards of SOX. 

The investor will also benefit from the program. This will be in finding out whether or not SOX is protecting their interests. A poll of investors, done in 2003 by Dowling shows that investors confidence is closely aligned with companies’ compliance with SOX. Three out of five investors believed that SOX assists in protecting their stock investments. However, the rest totally disagreed.  It would behoove the investors to read and study and be informed as to how effective SOX actually are in prevention and detection of fraud in the audit process. 

In accounting, the financial status of a business is a very vital issue that should always be handled carefully since it is the backbone of a business and this means that a business without a strong financial management is not competent in competitive market in the modern world thus effective decision making in the business. Financial accounting should not be done with reference to what a single worker plays his role in a business but it should be done as a combined effort of all the members in the managerial sector of a firm or a company thus it should be decided by all the members. Financial accounting again is not performed without following the principles of accounting that is generally accepted and it should always follow the guidelines of accounting (Jackson, 2003). Working as an accountant is not an easy thing because it requires someone who is professionally trained as an accountant. With this information, it is of great significance to monitor and effectively manage the present SOX.

Strategic human resource management (SHRM) generally refers to a managerial process that is comprised of human resource practices and policies which are linked to the strategic objectives of the alleged organization. The past decades has witnessed human resource practitioners and researchers shifting their attention towards addressing vital issues such as fraud, the factors that determine the kind of strategic approach that an organization should adopt and the ways in which these strategies can be practiced (Aldrich, 1999). Moreover, a lot of Human resource research exercises have been geared towards discovering the impact of Strategic human resource management on the overall organizational performance. The study will be useful as the mangers will be able to detect and determine the magnitude and the extent to which fraud can affect their respective organizations and the possible methods for its detection and prevention. 

Donald 2005 suggest changing audit procedures in order to detect fraud, audits should be conducted using the bigger picture or from a wider view perspectives. Employee fraud is normally for individual gain and does not result in fraudulent financial statements, while management fraud is usually for the purpose of falsely improving the appearance of the financial condition of the organization, which is considered fraudulent financial reporting. Management fraud is very hard to detect and prevent. The three characteristics of fraud that are usually present are

  1. Perpetrators of fraud always have a reason for committing the fraud
  2. The opportunity to commit the fraud presents itself
  3. In the mind of the perpetrators, the perpetrators can justify the crime (Pawan, 2004)

When the client has an effective internal control system, and the auditor can assess the risk of the client, understand the business and industry of the client, utilize analytical procedures, and redesign the workplace of the auditor to help assess the risk of fraud, then the auditor can more effectively prevent and detect fraud in the financial statements of the client. 

Literature review 

Frauds lead to risks in organizations. A risk can be described merely as a hazard. It however can be described in more depth as a deviation of the results received of the future expected results. Risks are a part of activities that humans engage in. Enterprises are more prone to frauds and the managers of these enterprises have to manage these frauds in different ways. Risk management is the process of dealing with the risks that come in hand. Enterprise identity management systems are usually used with information technology based systems and enterprises. According Daniel 2004, this system is used to manage risks in enterprises because of its efficiency and the method that it uses to control the risks. It takes into consideration the costs and the benefits of managing risks in an organization and it also considers the setting of the organization. Identity management is important in managing risks in an enterprise because of its strong variables which include authorization, compliance, and authentication and user management. A viable risk management strategy must therefore include an identity management process because it helps in authorizing the users of any enterprise data and information system to avoid any breaches or hacking (Brewster & Vernon, 2007). The identity management process will validate the identity of the users by either putting codes to be used by the users when accessing the system or giving an authorizing word or phrase when accessing the system. This process also allows the management to issue permission to access the system on a continuous basis and therefore ensure security and reduce risks. The auditing process is therefore effective in managing the risks and reducing chances of more frauds. 

Financial accounting mostly rely on some of the following concepts; Assumptions, Principles and Modifying convections. Under the concept of assumptions, financial accounting relies on assumptions that are related with the stability of the amount of money that the company has, the period in which the company should exist in the market, individual assumption that the business should have and the on going-concern of the business that focuses on how the company is thriving (Clegg, and Sparrow, 2007). It also relies on its own principles that focus on the history of the cost of money that has been incurred and paid in the business, recognizing the revenue that is incurred in the business, its matching principle and the full disclosure of all the underlying principles of the business. Finally, financial accounting relies on modifying conventions that mainly deal with the essential practices that should take in the company, the amount of money that the company has and is willing to invest in, what the company or the business should conserve as part of business management and the cost benefit in the business.

The United nations Congress officially passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), and there was a legislation designed to protect those who had interest in making their investments by reducing the errors and enhancing corporate disclosures reliability made pursuant to the securities laws, and for other reasons. In order to finish the task and make better the investment, the main aim of SOX has been to prevent and detect fraud in financial statements, policed by the Securities and Exchange of whether or not SOX, after functioning for a period, had effectively  and had been actually been efficient in preventing and detecting fraud. The institutions that were affected by Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 were most notably non-private businesses that were obliged to comply with the numerous needs of the law (Burke & Cooper, 2005). The shareholders and investors depend on the financial statements of the complying corporations were found to be positively affected by SOX, to the extent that it satisfied the users by fulfilling its purposes of preventing and detecting fraud in financial statements.

Various factors have contributed to the prior incidences of fraudulent financial reporting, including deficiencies in the audit process, lack of suitable corporate governance, and unethical management practices. For example, after the collapse of Enron in America, the country took upon itself to make a legislation to detect and thwart the kind of fraud that resulted to the downfall of Enron. A committee started the devising a bill to deal with the newsworthy matters that were brought about by filing of bankruptcy by Enron and the subsequent loss of pension suffered by its workforce. The situation would have been prevented suppose the existed a thorough and effective Sarbanes-oxley acts of 2002 in detecting fraud during the audit process. According to Armstrong 2006, the problem must have been caused by the insufficient oversight of accountants, the lack of auditor independence, weak corporate governance procedures, a stock analyst conflict of preferences, and even insufficient provisions of disclosure of which all revolve around the auditing. More specific, most authors, in reacting to the condition have pointed out that one of the major problems that must have led to the problem is the Sarbanes-oxley acts of 2002 in detecting fraud during the audit process (Armstrong, 2006). 

The accounting and auditing professions have been shaken by the Enron collapse and the resulting ban from auditing public companies. There has therefore been a great need to alter the auditing process to enhance the accuracy of the obtained data of change the professional, which has yielded next-to-nothing results (Salaman & Storey, 2005). Congress has reacted to the events with the passage of SOX, aimed at preventing another Enron scandal. To make the stock offerings of the publicly traded corporation a more better investment, various companies that have undergone the same way do develop and use special purpose entities (SPEs) as liability receptacles aimed at removing millions of dollars of debt from the balance sheet. However, SPEs are only meant to operate as trust for the parent company or institution that initiated them. 

SOX’s main functions have been to restore investing public’ confidence, accounting profession regulation, auditing and financial reporting process, and have acted as a directive to raise the standards of corporate accountability and transparency. Presently, many organizations and institutions, more so in US, are subject to SOX, most of which are big companies.  SOX provision entails areas such limiting the services offered by human auditors, documentation and audit of internal controls, corporate governance, personal accountability, enhancing disclosure, protection for whistleblowers, analyst of interest conflicts, and professional conduct for the mangers.  Mandan 2005 says that, “the most sweeping legislation offering accounting, disclosure and corporate governance in the generation has been SOX”. Regarding its importance to the auditors and other bodies, there is a great need to determine the effectiveness of SOX. The legislation, though having numerous merits, has been associated with demerits. In America, as noted by McGrath and Baird 2004, most of the companies are choosing to be private to do away with the SOX regulations. As from the new reporting needs of SOX, there has been a rise in the number of companies announcing privatization. SOX have been for only more than nine years. One assumption that has been made by those who employ SOX has been that it has bee effective in detecting and preventing the fraud in auditing. 

Throughout their studies, subsidiary study questions including if or not the costs to comply with SOX are worth the result, and whether SOX is substantially different from former studies have not been explicitly discussed. Additionally, whether or not the Congress is qualified to give the remedy to the present fraud situation, and if SX will correspondingly lead to the return of investors confidence in the securities market by giving sufficient corporate transparency into the financial status of the target investment. 

Research Methodology

The study will use statistical methodology in order to examine the collected data. The data will be randomly collected from a survey that will be conducted in organizations to evaluate the level of the effectiveness of the Sarbanes-Oxley act of 2002 in detecting fraud during the audit process. Among these factors that were subject of the assessment were the SOX outcomes referring to the period, personal attitude regarding SOX and the balance between the number of companies entering and those leaving SOX. The respondents will be classified into tow categories, as either of private companies and of public companies.  A total of 30 private companies and 30 public companies will be randomly selected and their audit departments will be assessed on the basis of how effective the SOXs are (Dewe and Cooper, 2007). 

Majority of the data that will be analyzed will start from the point where the fraud is detected. The mean number of occurrences of fraud before and after the inaction of SOX will be determined and tested using the unpaired t-test. The chi test will be employed to test the significant difference between the number of fraud occurrences before SOX and after. One advantage of the methods is that they are the most reliable in producing the most accurate data. 

The other method that will be used is the involvement of the financial statements prior to the introduction of SOX and after its introduction and this will only apply to the public companies where SOX is used (Camilla, 2003). The methodology that will be used throughout the study will entail correlation research. Correlations will be examined between numerous statistics and the fraud occurrences in relation to the enactment of SOX. 

Research Hypothesis

For clarification of the research direction, a research hypothesis will be of great significance.  The hypothesis will be a statement that states or describes the expected outcomes of the research. It is also important for it to state the expected differences, relations between any two variables. 

In order to investigate the question further and attempt answering it, the following hypotheses are formulated to aid in answering the question:

H0: SOX is not effective in detecting and preventing fraud in the audit process, that is μ1 – μ2 = 0. This will be the null hypothesis. It is the negative form of the research hypothesis. 

H1: SOX is effective in detecting and preventing fraud in the audit process, that is μ1 – μ2 ≠ 0 will be the alternative hypothesis. 

A very close examination will be provided as in some cases, two types of errors can arise. A type of error can take place when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true. The second type of error occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted when it is in fact incorrect. Type one of error might occur suppose the research reveals that SOX is effective, when it is not or when the results leads to conclusion that SOX is ineffective, when it effective (Caldwell, 2003). 

In the analysis, some assumptions have been made to ease the investigation and curb complications. First, it is assumed that the samples come from a population with a standard normal distribution mean = μ. In addition, in the z-test, it is assumed that the variance for the samples is known with certainty as indicated in the tables below.

Rejection Regions 

Suppose the claim does not give one particular direction it is non-directional and therefore a two- tailed test shall be used to carry out the test. At a significance level of 0.05 the z- value is 1.960 the rejection regions will be indicated by the graph as shown below in the shaded areas.

The p-value on each side of the tails becomes 0.05/2 which is 0.025. At this p- value the z- value is 1.960. our rejection region will be any value exceeding this value meaning that it will be falling within the shaded region and the corresponding p- value will be greater than 0.025. 

Conclusion     

In business management, accounting plays a very essential role since it gives information that is required for effective decision making in any business that wants to thrive well in competitive business environment. Financial accounting is the system that offers all the necessary information about a business through giving reports on how the business is doing and on how it relates with its investors, tax authorities and creditors. 

References

Albrecht, M. (2001). International HRM: managing diversity in the workplace. New York. 

            Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.

Aldrich, H. (1999). Organisations evolving. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources (Australia): Sage Publications 33 (3): 4- 16.

Armstrong, M. (2006). Strategic human resource management: a guide to action. New York. 

            Kogan Page Publishers.

Brewster, C., & Vernon, G. (2007). Global Human Resource Management. 2nd Edition, London. 

            Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Burke, J. & Cooper, L. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: challenges and new 

            Directions. New York. Routledge Publishers. 

Caldwell, E. (2003). Research Designs and their applications: Connecticut, USA. Engage Learning.

Camilla, M. (2003).  Textbook of basic Research Methods. New York, USA. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Clegg, C. & Sparrow, P. (2007). Predicting future proficiency supplies: a three-phase tactic

            Personnel Review, 36 (1): 65-90.

Daniel, J. (2004). Challenges of globalization. New York. Gabler Verlag Publishers.

Dewe, P. & Cooper, C.L. (2007). Managing Research and Measurement of Work Related Stress. 

            Global Review of Organizational Psychology, 22: 141-192.

Donald, S. (2005). Integrated Research designs (IRD). Journal of research, vol. 33, no. 5, pp.

            42-69.                                                                       

Dowling, P. (2008). International human resource management: managing people in a 

            multinational context. New York. Cengage Learning.

Fleetwood, S. (2006). Competent management- recitals research: underprovided instructive 

            Power. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 17(12): 191-195

Hartmann, L.C. (1998). The impact of trends in labour-force participation in Australia. Warriewood, Australia. Woodslane Pty Limited.

Hellmann, C.M. (2005). Job satisfaction and intent to leave. Journal of Social Psychology 137 

            (5), 67-109.

Hesketh, J. (2006). Speculate: Research on the Human Resources. Journal of Critical Realism, 5 

            (2): 228-250.

Jackson, E. (2003). Diversity in the Workplace: Human Resources Initiatives. New York. 

            Guilford Press.

Kabala, M. (2005).  Modern Research Methods and Techniques. New York, USA. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Kinzel, E. (2005). Supporting the expatriate: a survey of Australian management practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources (Australia): 33 (3): 105- 18.

Kramar, R. (2000). Human resource management in Australia. Longman Australia. Macmillan Publishers. 

Lawrence, M. (2001). Human resource management in Australia: Prospects for the twenty-first century. UK journal of forecasting: 14 (5): 443 – 52.

Loosemore, M., Dainty, A., & Helen L., (2003). Human Resource Management in Construction Projects. Nairobi. Rutledge Publishers. 

Mandan, S. (2005). Branding and Marketing: Modern salons. New York, USA. Lippincott 

            Williams & Wilkins.

McGrath, S., & Baird, M. (2004). The mercurial nature of Australian HRM under enterprise bargaining. Nairobi. Sage Publications

MorBarak, E. (2005). Managing diversity: toward a globally inclusive workplace. Washington 

            DC. SAGE Publishers.

Nankervis, A., & Compton. T. (2008). Human resource management: strategies & processes. 6th Edition. South Melbourne. Macmillan publishers.

Pawan S. B. (2004). Managing human resources in Asia-Pacific. New York.  Published by Routledge.

Pettinger, R. (1999). Effective employee relations: a guide to policy and practice in the 

            workplace. New York. Kogan Page Publishers.

Salaman, G. & Storey, J. (2005). Strategic human resource management: theory and practice. 

            New York. SAGE Publishers.

 

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Individuals Involved in the Haber Process

Individuals Involved in the Haber Process

            Densely populated European countries imported the Peru-Island guano and the Chilean-salt petre for use as a natural source for nitrogen provision in the 1800’s. Depletion of these natural avenues crafted the necessity for nitrogen extraction from air, a challenge that was bestowed on scientists (Fullick & Fullick, 2001).
            Fritz Haber developed a mechanism that involved use of high pressure, catalysts and heat to synthesize ammonia. The German company BASF chemicals purchased the idea and tasked Carl Bosch with its up-scaling to fit factory production, a process Bosch saw through by 1913. The two scientists involved in the creation and development of the whole process were therefore Fritz Haber together with Carl Bosch; reasoning for its naming as the Haber-Bosch Process.

History of the Haber Process

            The commercialized Haber process was not an Agricultural invention but was a necessity of war. It was implemented by Germany to meet the shortfalls encountered after the British and Allied forces stopped Nitrate imports from reaching Germany (Joesten, Hogg & Casteleon, 2007).
            Haber had discovered a means for ammonia synthesis through using high pressure and a heating temperature of about 600o Celsius. Catalysts’ addition was gradual and was done a drop at a time. However, Haber’s original idea could only generate a cup after a long period of waiting and could not be of benefit to the nation as it was (Fullick & Fullick, 2001).
            When the idea was bought by the BASF Chemicals, a third party, Carl Bosch, was engaged and commission by the company to improve the idea to achieve a commercial status. It took Carl Bosch nearly four years to develop the Haber idea whilst its blueprints were developed by Haber from 1905 to 1909.
            The process for obtaining the hydrogen used for the ammonia synthesis involved blowing steam over hot coke to separate oxygen from hydrogen. Nitrogen extraction, on the other hand, involved liquid air distillation then the subsequent cooling and compression of air (Smith, Richards & Newton, 2004). The process has been technologized and modernized in the current processes world over.
            The Haber process has helped achieve new realms in Agriculture through; increasing food production, helping in the balance of the Nitrogen Cycle (Fullick & Fullick, 2001). However, it has its repercussions as the process requires a lot of energies to realize and the fertilizer produced cause pollution during runoff. It also has a negative effect on soil together with the soil microbes.

The Mechanism of the Haber Process

            The Haber Process is a combination of Nitrogen obtained from air and methane derived hydrogen to form ammonia. The reversible process is exothermic to imply that it produces a lot of heat. The process can be summed up in the equation:

 N_2(g) + 3H_2(g) \catalyst 2NH_3 (g) \tag{ΔH=-92.4 kJ/mol}

 

                                    Nitrogen extracted from air                        400- 450oC

                                                                                                            200 atm

 

                          natural gas                                                                liquid

Conditions for the Haber Process

Temperature

            The equilibrium should be shifted to the right to enable maximum proportions of ammonia in the mixture of the equilibrium. It is weighty to note that as the forward reaction consumes a lot of energy (endothermic), the backward is exothermic. The equilibrium shift is managed when temperatures are lowered to the range of 400-450 c
            However, low temperatures slow down reactions and there is little relevance in slow production for high proportions. The gases should be in equilibrium within that the short span of catalyst contacts
            The temperature stated above is one of compromise that can be used to produce large enough volumes of ammonia with high proportions.

Pressure

            Increasing pressure results in reactions that favor a few molecules production. The resultant of that is a subsequent drop in pressure. To increase ammonia production, high pressures that are not less than 200 atmospheres should be engaged. High pressures push the molecules together and increase chances of the reaction with the catalysts (Smith, Richards & Newton, 2004).
            200 atmospheres is an economical choice for achieving temperatures above that is costly and would beat the economies of scale.

Catalyst

            The amount of catalyst only serves to increase the reaction rate of the equilibrium but has no impact on the ammonia production amount. However, the exclusion of the catalyst slows up the reaction significantly (Smith, Richards & Newton, 2004).

Ammonia Separation

            Gases leave the reactor at extremely high temperatures and pressure. Ammonia temperatures are lowered to enable its liquefaction under high pressure. Hydrogen and Nitrogen maintain their gaseous states even at this pressure and are subject to recycling.
            Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitric Acid is conducted by its mixing with air at a ratio of one part to nine parts respectively.

Ammonia Uses

            Ammonia aid in various industrial processes that include fertilizer production, chemical synthesis, production of pharmaceuticals, and in refrigeration. Other uses involve cleaning and softening of pulp and paper among others (Joesten, Hogg & Casteleon, 2007).

How Haber Process Affected the Imperial Germany

            Germany had become the world’s leader in chemical technology in the immediate years preceding World War I, Germany. However, with limited resources of her own, Germany relied heavily on imports from other countries, the leading of whom was Chile from which they imported nitrates (Lesch & Conference, 2000). With the tension buildup prior to the world war, Germany felt threatened at the prospect of British Marines and submarines blocking their ships and felt the necessity for the creation of their nitrate. The costs for the long shipping distance were also escalating and were beating Germany’s economy of scale. Moreover, Germany’s large-scale importation was already depleting the resource at Chile as they had consumed a third of Chile’s produced nitrate in 1913 only.
            The factors put together inspired the commissioning for the development of a process through which the abundant atmospheric nitrogen could be extracted for commercial use. The creation of the Haber process lasted from 1905 to 1913; the time when it was officially commercialized (Lesch & Conference, 2000).
            Facing challenges on how to break the allied trench guard during World War I and how to effectively fire explosives at that close range without harming Nazi soldiers, the Imperial Germany developed a strategy. Haber suggested grouped trench mortars to shoot T-stoff bombs which could not be implemented because of resource scarcity. Haber’s following suggestion involved the use of chlorine gas that devastated the allied forces.
            However, the Imperial Germany did not just use the Haber process for weaponry only. It was also used for fertilizer production to facilitate agriculture to ensure security of food during the war. Importation could not serve as a remedy as the British controlled the oceans (Lesch & Conference, 2000).
            Haber Process gave Imperial Germany dominance during the world war, serving them with victories on many fronts.

Conclusion

            The Haber Process is a chemical achievement that has made milestones in setting and changing history. It cut industrial overreliance on depletable resources and changed the whole warfare factor. The Haber process has also changed the global Agricultural sector and ensure food security. The invention has had its pros and cons 

 

References

Fullick, A., & Fullick, P. (2001). Chemistry for AQA: Coordinated award. Oxford: Heinemann.

Joesten, M. D., Hogg, J. L., & Castellion, M. E. (2007). World of chemistry: Essentials.    Australia: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Lesch, J. E., & Conference on the German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century. (2000).   The German chemical industry in the twentieth century […Conference on the German    Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century … on March 20-22, 1997, at the University  of California, Berkeley…]. Dordrecht [u.a.: Kluwer Acad. Publ.

Smith, B. E., Richards, R. L., & Newton, W. E. (2004). 

Catalysts for nitrogen fixation:     Nitrogenases, relevant chemical models, and commercial processes

. Dordrecht: Kluwer  

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The Entrepreneurial Process

The Entrepreneurial Process

            Target market refers to the people that are most likely to become one’s clients. Indeed, upon commencing trade, either offering services or selling products, it is necessary for one to identify the most probable group of people in need of the offered items. Some people assume that they can target everyone; however, narrowing the market size to the preferred and interested parties gives focus to the venture (Evans and Hastings, 2008). 

            A home health care agency provides medical services to people in the comfort of their residences. As such, their main targets are people that lack the luxury of visiting hospitals. Examples of such individuals include the elderly, sick people who are unable to move and those who prefer receiving medical attention while at home. As indicated earlier, it is crucial to determine the target market with an aim of focusing all available resources towards them. Additionally, identifying the target market paves a clear path of luring potential consumers to use the available services or products (Evans and Hastings, 2008). For example, one gets to identify the most appropriate channels of advertising. It is also vital to recognize the target market to determine whether they require the products one is offering or not.

                    The leading points that one needs to consider when selecting the target market include identifying its size, the profit potential it has and its requirements in regard to the services and products one is offering. Consequently, considering all these issues offers the service providers ideas of the resources they need to use to maximize their profits and still deliver quality products to the target market.

            A brand refers to a product or service that can be identified with only a single or group of companies. Branding is essential to a business since it is specific and relates to a company that manufactures or offers it. Therefore, the company linked with a brand has the liberty to operate in the most probable way it prefers. Additionally, branding offers companies the recognition they deserve and help them gain a market target by expressing what they can offer through the brands (Evans and Hastings, 2008).

            Acadia Healthcare Company, Inc. is an example of an institution that has created a service as a brand that serves many people in the United States. The leading thoughts that one relates with Acadia are the inpatient psychiatric facilities. Their branding point relates to services offered in the treatment of people with behavioral disorders in an outpatient environment. Therefore, this form of branding impacts a part of the population that prefers receiving treatment for behavioral disorder while outside the hospitals. Over the years and since its inception, Acadia Healthcare Company, Inc. has had overwhelming success in the medical industry. Studies show that the company’s reputation has grown exponentially over the past few years (Reuters, 2013). Their unique brand, which is offering psychiatric services outside hospitals, has fueled the high growth rate of popularity among the target markets. In turn, increasing the company’s profitability by vast margins over the years it has been operational (Reuters, 2013). If it were my product, I would target more consumers by opening additional branches in the home country as well as beyond the borders. 

 

 

 

 

References

Evans, W. D. & Hastings, G. (Eds.). (2008). Public Health Branding: Applying Marketing for Social Change, Volume 1. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 

Reuters, (2013). Acadia Healthcare Company Inc. (ACHC.OQ). Retrieved on 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=ACHC.OQ

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Alexievich developed a specific process for gathering and shaping her material.

Alexievich developed a specific process for gathering and shaping her material.

Discuss this week’s reading. You can start with the questions below, but don’t feel limited to these. Make an effort to answer a question nobody or few people have tackled yet.

Alexievich developed a specific process for gathering and shaping her material.

  1. Alexievich developed a specific process for gathering and shaping her material. She selects about one-hundred voices from the many people she has interviewed, and of these ten or twenty become “pillars,” whom she will interview many times (Masha Gessen, “The Memory Keeper The New Yorker). Who are the pillars in Voices from Chernobyl?  What are the major thematic threads in their stories?
  2. Look closely at the shorter sections, which, many readers have argued, present a chorus of voices. What is the tone of those voices, and what themes emerge? Although these voices might initially seem disjointed, can you detect a method or logic in how Alexievich has arranged them?
  3. Alexievich juxtaposes the voices of men and women, the old and the young, scientists and laypersons, and humans and animals. Look for examples of such juxtapositions in the book. You might begin by looking closely at how the women’s voices compare to men’s. What are the women concerned with? What do the men emphasize or ignore?
  4. In an interview with The Nation, Alexievich was asked, “How does one write a history of sentiments without being sentimental?” In her answer, the author differentiates between emotion and sentimentality. “For me,” she states, “emotion is a path toward self-knowledge, not just an occasion to cry.” Find at least one story in the book that illustrates this point.

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