Load Problem Questions: Free Movement of Goods Article 34 And 36

Load Problem Questions: Free Movement of Goods Article 34 And 36

Question 1: Advice Free Pork Ltd If It Has Any Grounds under EU Law for Challenging the Two Spanish Laws

Both articles (Article 34 and 36) prohibit measures, which have particular restrictive effects. In majority of the cases, the term ‘measures’ equates to the laws passed directly by the Member State government. However, the ECJ (European Court of Justice), has stated that a measure can be an item wider and less well described. It is worth noting that the course of Conduct for a State intended to induce discriminatory practice among consumers and private individuals can constitute a measure (regardless it having or lacking a binding influence) and be in violation of the Article 34. The aspect of measures can also include the inaction of a State to stop private individuals’ acts, which prevent the free movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p200).

The ECJ described the expression of quantitative restriction as measures that amount to partial or total restraint of, based on the circumstances, exports, imports or goods in transit. There are two laws that apply in this category but in this case, the most applicable law is the outright ban enforced by a Member State (Spain) on imports from another Member State (The College of Law 2012, p201). Free Pork Ltd plans to begin selling its products in Spain have been hampered by the law that requires the sale of sausages produced from humanely reared pigs to be checked by Spanish Sausage Checkers (SSC). If the sausages are not checked by SSC, the law prohibits its sales in Spain. However, the process of verifying whether the sausages have those conditions is usually lengthy. Therefore, Free Pork can challenge this Spanish law. There is also a law that requires the name of the company not to use words that imply health or fitness. Free Pork can also challenge this law because it restricts the importation of goods and can affect the brand image of the company.  

The SSC is a form of a licencing system, which according to the articles, subjects the import of merchandises to the condition of getting an import licence. Even in situations where the application for an import licence is regarded a mere formality; it is a Quantitative Restriction. This is because is simply a mechanism in which imports can be restricted. In practice, it is very rare for the Member States laws to result to quantitative restrictions. The ban on exports or imports between Member States is found only in unusual circumstances (The College of Law 2012, p201). Therefore, failure by Free Pork Ltd to meet the conditions set by the Spanish laws is an outright ban on exporting sausages to this Member State. As stated earlier, the ban only happens in unusual circumstances, and thus, Free Pork can challenge the law because an unusual circumstance lacks, which prohibits it from exporting the goods to Spain.

The directive was important in developing a brief wording of the Article 34 TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and it continues to offer guidance on the measures that can constitute a breach of Article 34 TFEU prohibitions. Article 2(1) of the directive describes a class of measures (for instance, national laws) that treat imported goods and domestic goods differently. They are commonly referred to as distinctly applicable measures. Article 3 of the directive describes a class of national laws that apply equally to imported and domestic products. These laws have a restrictive impact and they are commonly referred to as indistinctly applicable (The College of Law 2012, p202).

Therefore, the directive classifies both indistinctly and distinctly applicable measures as measures that have an impact equivalent to restrictions on imports. From the statement, it can be stated that a national law can become MEQR (Measures having Equivalent effect to a Quantitative Restriction) regardless of whether it “discriminates against imported products or appears to treat them in the same way as domestic products but is in practice restrictive in effect” (The College of Law 2012, p202). It is important to note that a Member State is capable of justifying more easily an indistinctly applicable law. Although Free Pork can challenge the law on imports restriction, Spain can justify its law because it is indistinctly applicable.

There are three categories of national laws capable of being MEQRs. The first category is laws aimed at enforcing standards (generally minimum standards) concerning matters like weight, description, labelling, size, content or price of goods. The second category is laws concerning tests designed to make sure that goods conform or obey standards indicated in the first category of laws. The third category is laws able to influence the behaviour of consumers and traders. Therefore, the emphasis is on the rules that are capable of having an impact, rather than on the rules essentially having an impact (The College of Law 2012, p204). The requirement to change the name of the company to a name that does not imply fitness or health can be challenged because that law has satisfied the requirement of being MEQRs. Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge the law by proving that it is MEQRs.

The Cassis de Djion principles are applicable in the case of Free Pork Ltd and the Spanish laws. The first principle of Cassis de Djion states that where a national law is applicable to imported and domestic products alike, and where Community-wide standards  concerning the products in question lacks, it may be mandatory to accept obstacles to trade caused by the reality that the national law differs from other Member States laws. However, the obstacles can only be acknowledged if the national law leading to the obstacle is essential to satisfy a mandatory necessity, and the law does not go further than it is necessary to accomplish its aim (The College of Law 2012, p204). Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge the law if it is capable of justifying that the law is indistinctly applicable.

The second principle seems to conflict with the first principle but the two can be reconciled if there is a presumption that the goods lawfully produced in one Member State are marketable in another. However, if there is a law that obstructs this, the Member State can invalidate the presumption through Cassis or through Article 36 TFEU (The College of Law 2012, p207). Therefore, Free Pork Ltd can challenge this law. Based on Article 36, Free Pork Ltd can prove to Spain that the sausages it supplies do not pose health risk to people. The article states that a Member State willing to use this derogation has to prove the existence of an actual health risk (The College of Law 2012, p217). Therefore, under this article, Free Pork can challenges the laws by proving that its products do not pose health risk to the people of Spain.

Question 2. Advise Free Pork Ltd if it has any grounds under EU law for challenging the Spanish advertising requirement.

The Spanish laws regarding the broadcast of adverts targeted at consumers below the age of 12 years adopt a protective approach pushing the timing of the broadcast to not earlier than 9 pm. Under such circumstances, Free Pork’s entry into the Spanish market faces the limitation of adverts set by the Spanish national laws. Two important issues emerge in the deliberations of the legal position in which the Free Pork venture finds itself. On one hand, the right of the Spanish consumer protection policies as well as the right of the company under its commercial rights as discussed below. 

In view of the Spanish national agencies position to enforce consumer protection against a backdrop of foreign policies having a negative position on a particular contestable matter, the position of the reprieve is offered to Member States in terms of the protection offered by the European Union. In Konsumentombudsmannen (KO) v De Agostini (Svenska) Förlag AB (C-34/95) and TV-Shop i Sverige AB (C-35/95 and C-36/95), it was held that the right of a Member State to apply advertisement prohibition to a foreign advertiser from a jurisdiction permitting such advertisements should not be contested. The case had particular consumer protection obligations from the Member State and the original intention of the law cannot be overruled.

It therefore implies that the bottom line of the contested interaction between the Free Pork venture into the market through the advertisement is expected to some extent, however debatable it is. However, the application of the law to a foreign market entrant where such a prohibition is not applicable provides a different concept for consideration by Free Pork where the reasons target a particular age group. The Spanish authorities for instance will find it important to invoke the provisions of Article 34 as demonstrated in the Keck formulae adopted in Keck and Mithouard (cases C-267 and C-268/91) [1993] ECR I-6097. Such invocation will involve the enumeration of the specific environment offered to domestic sausage marketers, which would be argued to be fairly reasonable if foreign entrants are subjected to similar treatment.          

In Cassis de Dijon, the ECJ made the observation that a Member State has an opportunity to forward conflicting justifications on policies and laws impacting on prohibition of free movement of goods in the EU. According to the deliberations of the court, a nation implementing a trade policy likely to conflict the free movement of goods regime can forward certain arguments to sustain an argument for prohibition of movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p217). Generally referred to as derogating opportunity from the provisions of the Treaty, it is possible for a Member State to launch a campaign from a legal position of national laws to attempt to control or restrict free movement as negated for all the Member States.  As an illustration, it may be expected that the Spanish authorities will invoke the various derogation provisions under Article 36 to deny Free Pork to freely advertise and penetrate the sausage market. Derogation under Article 36 a) cites public interest, which is not clearly outlined and the Spanish authorities may twist the uncertainty to fit into the protection of public interest through barring adverts of sausages to children below 12 years of age.

Derogation c) also sounds like a possible excuse for reliance to invoke prohibitory opportunity for advertising to children below 12 years of age. The complexity of the burden of proof for the protection of health of the Spanish children may however proof to be an opportunity for Free Pork. In Commission v. UK: Re UHT Milk (case 124/81) [1983] ECR 203, it was held that the Member State must avail substantial detail on the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by the said products (The College of Law 2012, p217). By scrutinizing possible discrimination element in the particular Spanish law prohibiting free advertisement, it is possible to compel the authorities to avoid the prohibition. Section 5.2 of Article 36 dispels any arbitrary implementation of discriminatory laws. As observed in Commission v. UK (Re Imports of Poultry Meat) (case 40/82) [1982] ECR 2793, failure to demonstrate the extent to which a law is not restrictive to free movement of goods leads to infringement on EU laws (The College of Law 2012, p218).         

In Konsumentombudsmannen (KO) v De Agostini (Svenska) Förlag AB (C-34/95) and TV-Shop i Sverige AB (C-35/95 and C-36/95), it also emerged that the Member State cannot prohibit advertisements from a different Member State on grounds of consumer protection to persons under 12 years of age (The College of Law 2012, p213). On this legal concept adopted by the court in the case, the EU offers relief to Member States to enjoy the regime on free movement of goods and their penetration into the market. It would certainly be restrictive to involved business if consumer protection laws selectively designed to a particular age group closes the channel available to free movement of goods to the ultimate market. The available options to Free Pork must therefore include seeking legal intervention against the restrictive Spanish laws targeting unfair advertisement prohibition on the grounds of protection of persons under the age of 12 years. As noted above, however, the Spanish authorities are expected to offer objection to contesting opinion regarding implemented policies targeted towards consumer protection such as freedoms of advertisement.

The spirit of Article 34 TFEU is particularly to offer definition to various selling arrangements that must prevent hindrances to free movement of goods. Under the finer implementation details, the spirit of the Article captures the need to provide non-discriminatory business regimes free goods movement among Member States. In view of the provisions of the article, it is apparent that the jurisdiction of the EC in determination of the restriction concepts experienced at the hands of national policies of a Member State are reasonable o other Member States. Substantial restrictions experienced by Member States in accessing the channels of distribution and free movement of goods must be countered by the EC framework as enumerated under Article 34 TFEU. The level of intervention by the EC as spelt out in Article 34 TFEU extends to the negative impact experienced by the Member States in the implementation of a regime withholding free movement of goods (The College of Law 2012, p213). The protection of inter-state trade perhaps has a far-reaching impact if implemented without discrimination and the EC demonstrates the importance of such consideration across several rulings through the ECJ. Whereas Member States have the general space of access of inter-state markets within the EU, the existence of principles of subsidiarity in the market and the natural limitations guarded by spirit of international community contradicts the principle of free movement of goods.

The College of Law (2012) Unit 21: Free movement of goods, The College of Law.

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Financial Questions


Please note this assignment consists of two separate parts.

The first part gives the cash flows for two mutually exclusive projects and is not related to the second part.

The second part is a capital budgeting scenario

Part 1

Calculate the payback period, IRR, MIRR, NPV, and PI for the following two mutually exclusive projects. The required rate of return is 15% and the target payback is 4 years. Explain which project is preferable under each of the four capital budgeting methods mentioned above:

Table 1

Cash flows for two mutually exclusive projects

YearInvestment AInvestment B

Part 2

Study the following capital budgeting project and then provide explanations for the questions outlined below:

You have been hired as a consultant for Pristine Urban-Tech Zither, Inc. (PUTZ), manufacturers of fine zithers (stringed instruments). The market for zithers is growing quickly. The company bought some land three years ago for $2.1 million in anticipation of using it as a toxic waste dump site but has recently hired another company to handle all toxic materials. Based on a recent appraisal, the company believes it could sell the land for $2.3 million after-tax. In four years, the land could be sold for $2.4 million after taxes. The company also hired a marketing firm to analyze the zither market, at a cost of $125,000. An excerpt of the marketing report is as follows:

The zither industry will have a rapid expansion in the next four years. With the brand name recognition that PUTZ brings to bear, we feel that the company will be able to sell 3,600, 4,300, 5,200, and 3,900 units each year for the next four years, respectively. Again, capitalizing on the name recognition of PUTZ, we feel that a premium price of $750 can be charged for each zither. Because zithers appear to be a fad, we feel at the end of the four-year period, sales should be discontinued. PUTZ believes that fixed costs for the project will be $415,000 per year, and variable costs are 15% of sales. The equipment necessary for production will cost $3.5 million and will be depreciated according to a three-year MACRS schedule. At the end of the project, the equipment can be scrapped for $350,000. Networking capital of $125,000 will be required immediately. PUTZ has a 38% tax rate, and the required rate of return on the project is 13%.

Now provide detailed explanations for the following:

  • Explain how you determine the initial cash flows.
  • Discuss the notion of sunk costs and identify the sunk cost in this project.
  • Verify how you determine the annual operating cash flows.
  • Explain how you determine the terminal cash flows at the end of the project’s life.
  • Calculate the NPV and IRR of the project and decide if the project is acceptable.
  • If the company that is implementing this project is a publicly traded company, explain and justify how this project will impact the market price of the company’s stock.

Provide detailed and precise explanations and definitions. Comment on your findings and provide references for content when necessary. Explain everything in your own words use APA 7th Format, references cited needs to be peer-review articles.

 Turnitin report’s similarity must be less than 20%!!!

[ Don’t use too many tables and numbers which will increase the similarity, focus is not on the calculation process, focus is the detailed explanations and definitions, you must write enough text explanations, which is your original analysis.


Criteria  Performance Indicators  (Observation descriptors indicating extent to which criterion is met.)
  Exemplary 109  Proficient 876  Needs Improvement 54  Unsatisfactory 321  No Submission
Depth   30% of overall gradeContent indicates synthesis of ideas, in depth analysis, and evidence of original thought and support for the topic. Content indicates  original thinking and develops ideas with sufficient and firm evidence. Content indicates thinking and reasoning applied with original thought on a few ideas.Content indicates some thinking and reasoning but most ideas are unoriginal or underdeveloped. 0 points
Resources   25% of overall gradeAll evidence supports arguments and is relevant to the topic. The student uses the required number and type of resources identified in the syllabus to support his/her argument. Most evidence supports arguments and is relevant to the topic. The student uses 75% of the required number and type of resources identified in the syllabus to support his/her argument. Some evidence supports arguments and is relevant to the topic. The student uses 50% of the required number of sources.Limited evidence to support arguments, with few sources relevant to the topic. The student uses less than 50% of the required number of sources.0 points
Organization   15% of overall gradePaper has a high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points. Paper clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. 

Paper is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. Overall unity of ideas is present. Paper is somewhat structured and logically organized. Some points remain misplaced and stray from the topic. Transitions evident but not used throughout. Paper is limited in logical organization with major errors. 0 points
Mechanics   15% of overall gradeFew errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure, and grammar.Occasional errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure and grammar, but meaning is not obscured.Frequent errors of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure and grammar; meaning confused or obscured.Dominated by errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure and grammar; meaning at times unidentifiable.0 points
Formatting   15% of overall gradePaper meets all formatting guidelines and assignment requirements, including page-length and APA formatting requirements.  Paper is correctly assembled with a professional look. The paper follows most formatting guidelines, including page-length and APA formatting requirements.Paper is correctly assembled.  Paper generally follows formatting guidelines and assignment requirements, including page-length and APA formatting requirements. Paper has some assembly errorsPaper does not follow formatting guidelines and assignment requirements, including page -length and APA format requirements. Paper has major assembly errors0 points

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Types of Research Questions

Research Questions

After reviewing the “Types of Research Questions” tutorial, choose a broad area of interest that aligns with your concentration area. Describe your broad area of interest. Then, write three or more research questions that a researcher could use to study this broad topic area. For example, you could write composition, relationship, and causality questions related to that broad topic area. After writing the three research questions, which would be the best to pursue, and why?

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Revising Research Questions

Revising Research Questions

Part 2

Identify one question about the topic that you are curious about.What caused millions of people to die during Mao Zedongs rule over China?   How did lousy government policies contribute to one of the worst famines in human history? (Revised)
Describe why this question matters to you personally.The revision for this question was based on the understanding that it is the government policy that led to millions of people to die during the Zedong’s rule. The Great Leap Forward was a government policy premised on the belief that collectivization would transform Chinese agriculture from small household farming into large-scale mechanized production, thus making China achieve a significant leap in productivity. However, the policy was implemented despite being a fabrication of lies about grain production and disastrous farming methods. The primary sources indicate that government policies play a central role in human lives.  Review of Edgar’s interview with Mao (1965) helped me to understand that government policies impact important aspects of lives such as education, health, religion and how people do business, practice agriculture and interact with others. Subsequently, bad policies have significant negative impacts on the lives of citizens. For instance, in the case of the Great Leap Forward policy, peasants were forced to build backyard blast furnaces to produce iron and steel tools that would make mechanization of agriculture possible production (Wilson Center, 1960).  The policy took labor away from food production, leading a shortfall in food and subsequent famine.  
Describe why this question matters to society.Government policies continue to impact every aspect of citizens’ lives. Citizens are not immune to government policies, but all they are left with is to conform to the policies.  The society continues to be at  the risk of suffering from bad government policies, thus making it necessary to understand the genesis of bad government policies as based on the Great Leap Forward. Bad government judgments are a detriment to the lives of its people.  Therefore, it is vital to understand how ineffective and inefficient policy contributed to the deaths of millions of people.
Identify a second question about the topic you are curious about.What was the Great Leap Forward? What was the Red Guard?   What are the dangers of power concentration around one person? (Revised).
Describe why this question matters to you personally.The revision of this question was informed by the knowledge that the concentration of powers around Zedong was the cause of loss of millions of lives. The deaths in the Great Leap Forward were primarily a result of a systemic failure in central planning. The policy was collectively introduced nationwide without considering the difference between low-output areas and high-output areas. The traditional households were barely ready to implement mechanized farming.   A document from the Wilson center (1959) on Zedong’s comments helped me to understand that the government imposed local cadres to overcome reactionary conservatism. The local machinery helped to create an illusion that China had achieved food self-sufficiency and hence it was reasonable to divert a large amount of the agricultural labor into industry labor thus leading to a decline in food production (Wilson Center, 1960). Estimated 16.4million peasants were relocated to urban areas to support industrialization  
Describe why this question matters to society.The centralization of the policy made the mistakes to be replicated in every part of the country, causing the whole country unnecessary deaths. Effective plans and research were not conducted to establish the viability of the program. Everything was informed by the illusion that collectivism would help China achieve increased food productivity and subsequent industrialization production (Wilson Center, 1959).  Centralized powers meant relevant stakeholders who could provide necessary assistant were not consulted, and any form of resistance was met with punitive reactionary measures from the government.  


Edgar, S. (1965). Interview with Mao. The New Republic, Retrieved from https://newrepublic.com/article/89494/interview-mao-tse-tung-communist-china.

Wilson center (1959). MAO Zedong’s remarks at the March 25, 1959, meeting in Shanghai, Retrieved from, https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/123052.

Wilson Center. (1959). Record of conversation between polish delegation and PRC leader Mao Zedong, Beijing.  Digital Archive, Retrieved from https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117781.

Wilson Center. (1960). Cable from the Chinese foreign ministry, ‘Investiigative’ report on the Korean embassy in Beijing supposedly assuming responsibility for the provision of essential food stuffs to Korean residents of Beijing. Retrieved from https://newrepublic.com/article/89494/interview-mao-tse-tung-communist-china.

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Psychology Questions

Psychology Questions

Question 1

Being of a certain sexual orientation to me means having sexual or romantic emotional state for individuals of the same sex or dissimilar gender or more than one gender (Wilkerson, 2009). Personally, I do not give labels to people unless a person identifies him/herself with certain sexual orientation. Wilkerson (2009) typifies sexual alignment as a lasting justly steady desire concerned with toward a precise gender. Wilkerson (2009) posits that sexual orientation is a choice that is based on someone’s interpretation of his/her sexual desires to a certain gender. I agree with Wilkerson’s definition since a person’s choice of sexual orientation is best informed by how one interprets his sexual desire to a certain gender.  If a person’s feelings are towards a person of the opposite sex, then that is the sexual orientation that person.

On the other hand, individual preferences and emotional, psychological, intellectual experiences can embody relationships. Personally, preferences play a significant role in actual mate choice and relationship formation.  As such, interpersonal attractions particularly qualities and characteristics of that I’m looking in a romantic partner play a vital role in informing the kind of people I establish relationships with (Van Kleef, 2009). The traits that I perceive essential in essential such as physically attractive persons play a vital role when choosing my romantic partner. Past emotional and social experiences   also affect my relationship with other people in a significant way.  When I experience emotions of disgust when interacting with people of a certain character, I tend to perceive that forming relationships with such people would cause me similar disgust emotions in the future. Therefore, past social and emotional experiences help me make good choices when forming relationships with new people.

Question 2

Social-historical considerations regarding sex and gender have significantly impacted reproductive health. Women were social-historically regarded to be in control of childbirth.  However, with the development of contraceptives, birth control plan span across both males and females. Traditionally, the definition of sex and gender was based on social roles and traditionally held customs about males and females. Social-historical male-controlled norms and unequal power associations between men and women may purpose as a barrier to women use of contraceptives for birth control (Higgins & Smith, 2016).  However, changes in societal views about sex and gender, both men and women can now take part in birth controls while traditionally it was perceived to be a woman’s role. Introduction of condoms and vasectomy is helping men to take an active role in birth control.

While the use of contraceptive plays a vital role in preventing unwanted pregnancies, I’m of the opinion that the use of birth control contraceptives can play a significant role in destroying relationships.  Studies have indicated that most women who use contraceptives suffer from low libido and disinterest in sexual relationships (Burrows, Basha, & Goldstein, 2012). Other studies have established that the disinterest could be permanent and continue even after the person has stopped using the contraceptives. Additionally, use of the contraceptives has been found to decrease the frequency and intensity of orgasms, and it is also linked to increased pelvic pain during sex. Moreover, the contraceptives pills are destroying women’s mood so badly that chances of having a good relationship are slim.  Women under contraceptive pills have been established to be two times likely to be miserable, anxious, and have poor self-confidence, feel short-tempered, hostile and numb involvements (Graham et al., 2007).  All those experiences impact negatively on relationships. For instance, bad mood, feeling irritated and destroyed sexual relationships are likely to destroy relationships in a big way.

Question 3

My biggest fear of having children is based on the responsibility involved in bringing up the child. The financial burden and daily work involved in the process of caring for the child makes me feel I’m not settled or ready to have children.  I also fear that I won’t teach my children enough to learn about life, morals, good and bad in a world that is highly affected by permissiveness. I’m afraid that I will not be successful to teach my children to become independent and responsible adults. Additionally, I fear that giving birth will take a toll on my body. Pregnancy and giving birth are excruciating experiences, and they are likely to affect my body negatively.

On the other hand, my biggest fear of not having children is that it might cause a decline in the family line.  It is crucial to have children who will perpetuate the family lineage. I’m also afraid that by not having children the society will look down upon me due to the socially held norms about the importance of having children.

Where do babies come from? That is a question that is mainly asked by children who limited knowledge about sex education. However, babies are a product of copulation between an adult male and female that leads to pregnancy, development and birth of a child.

An environment that would be close to perfect to raise emotionally and spiritually healthy human being is one that is void of competition, rude, judgmental, hostile and insensitive people. In such an environment, people would be accepted the way they are. Hostility between people creates an unpleasant environment to live in.  However, we do not live in such an environment since people are always in competition to serve their self-interests. People are also not given equal chances to live to the best of their abilities due to hostilities that are created by competition.

Question 4

I have grown up in culture the Latino culture that is characterized by the tenets of religion, gender roles and familial. The cultural tenets have played a significant role in influencing my sexual attitudes, beliefs and practices. For instance, religious practices and value attached to religious beliefs have significantly affected my attitude about sex by influencing me to be less permissive to sexual activities and experiences (Deardorff et al., 2010). The importance that is attached to gender roles in the Latino culture has played an imperative role in influencing   a positive view about mothers and their roles I child upbringing.  Additionally, my culture has impacted me with a positive view of pregnancy and childbearing among women. I have also realized that the machismo value that is held in the Latino culture has a significant impact on attitudes towards the use of contraceptives and power to decide about sexual behaviours (Barber, 2011). Familialism in our culture has also played a significant role in decreasing the influence of peers on the risk of being initiated into sexual intercourse during adolescent stage. Parental communication is highly valued in our culture, and it plays a significant role in the transmission of cultural values including those relating to sexual behaviours.  Talking about sex at home was highly restricted and that limited my knowledge regarding sexual activities.

When comparing my culture to the contemporary American culture, there are significant differences. The American culture is saturated with sexual imagery through television programs and commercials.  The society has, therefore, become increasingly permissive to certain kinds of sexual behaviours. Premarital sex, adolescent sex, and same-sex sexual activity have become increasingly acceptable in society (Baams et al., 2015). Having multiple partners is also a normal thing in contemporary American society.

Question 5

The first communication tactic I would use is to build listening skills to be able to understand what my partner is trying to say. I will train myself to seek to understand my partner and then be understood.   I will be asking perceptive questions to enable my partner to express herself more completely (Overall & McNulty, 2017). I will also address my partner in a way that let her know she is has been heard.  Moreover, I will be using “I statements” since “You statements” makes one be perceived as judgmental.  “You statements” tend to invoke defensive and feelings of irritation. I will also avoid comments that arouse defensive and negative emotions.  I will try to use comments that bring pleasure and avoid those that are likely to arouse destructive reactions. I will also avoid criticism, snipping and harshness and employ communication fabrics that indicate intimacy and care.  Relationships are made up of irritants, frustrations and sensitivities hence it is important to use communication and expressions that promote negativity (Brower & Darrington, 2012).  I will strive to use non-verbal communication tactics that promote an attitude of friendliness and congeniality as the everyday fabric our relationship with my partner. I will also select carefully appropriate time to bring up sensitive topics and employ restraint and calmness when discussing the topics.


Barber, B. N. (2011). The impact of Latino family variables on the sexual activity of Latino adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Study.

Baams, L., Overbeek, G., Dubas, J. S., Doornwaard, S. M., Rommes, E., & Van Aken, M. A. (2015). Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents. Archives of Sexual Behavior44(3), 743-754.

Burrows, L. J., Basha, M., & Goldstein, A. T. (2012). The effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexuality: a review. The Journal of Sexual Medicine9(9), 2213-2223.

Brower, N., & Darrington, J. (2012). Effective communication skills: resolving conflicts.

Deardorff, J., Tschann, J. M., Flores, E., & Ozer, E. J. (2010). Sexual values and risky sexual behaviours among Latino youths. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health42(1), 23-32.

Graham, C. A., Bancroft, J., Doll, H. A., Greco, T., & Tanner, A. (2007). Does oral contraceptive-induced reduction in free testosterone adversely affect the sexuality or mood of women? Psychoneuroendocrinology32(3), 246-255.

Higgins, J. A., & Smith, N. K. (2016). The sexual acceptability of contraception: reviewing the literature and building a new concept. The Journal of Sex Research53(4-5), 417-456.

Overall, N. C., & McNulty, J. K. (2017). What type of communication during conflict is beneficial for intimate relationships? Current Opinion in Psychology13, 1-5.

Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science18(3), 184-188.

Wilkerson, W. S. (2009). Is it a choice? Sexual orientation as interpretation. Journal of Social Philosophy40(1), 97-116.

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Write a reflection articulating how Christians should respond to questions of injustice in the world regardless of culture

First Assignment :

Write a reflection articulating how Christians should respond to questions of injustice in the world regardless of culture, creed, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Please. Incorporate the “Letters to a Birmingham Jail.”

**Must be 200-250 words

Second Assignment: 

Assess Christianity’s role in shaping the Emancipation experience, and explain how churches informed the political and economic opportunities available to newly freed slaves.

** Must be 200-250 words

Discussion Resources

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The Book Of Job And The Questions Of Suffering

The Book Of Job And The Questions Of Suffering 


Job’s wealth and faith. 2

From riches to ashes. 3

The suffering. 3

Conclusion. 6



            The religions of the ancient near East were mostly polytheistic. Its history spans from more than two millennia, from the bronze age to the early Iron Age. There are various sub religions that make up these religions of the ancient near east they include; Assyro-Babylonian religion, Canaanite religion, Egyptian religion, Minoan religion and many more. These religions had broad aspects that they share including purification and cleansing rituals, sacrifices, divination, polytheism, sacred prostitution. They were centered on theocracies 1[1]

            This particular paper will take an in-depth look and an exploration of the book of Job in the bible. It will further look at the questions of suffering in the book. The book of Job was written by an unknown author, it is possible that it is the most ancient literary account in the Bible. It is a book that is a mixture of divine and human wisdom that addresses major issues in life. It is also a prime example of Hebrew wisdom literature that is centered with the concept of theodicy that is defense of integrity of justice and righteousness of God in the light of the evil, injustice and underserved suffering in the world. Job is the principal character in the book of job in the Hebrews Bible. Job in the Jewish tradition is the son to Uz, the son of Nahor, the brother of Abraham. In Hebrew the name job was taken to mean the persecuted one. The book focuses on the trials that Job underwent at the hands of God and how he deals with them. The characters in the cook are Job, his wife, God, Satan his three friends and a man called Elihu.

It begins with an Introduction of the character of job; a description of him is that of a blessed man that leads a righteous life. He was praised by God such that Satan was prompted to challenge him in terms of his integrity. He even went ahead to suggest that Job only served God just because he protects him. God removed his protection on Job and allowed Satan to take his wealth, his children and physical wealth in an attempt to make Job curse God. The book is mostly on Jobs conversation with his three friends concerning his condition and the possible reasons.

Job’s wealth and faith

            Job was famous for his riches, he owned sheep, camels, oxen, donkeys and servents.an important of his possessions was his family he had seven sons and three daughters. This wealth made him to be known as the greatest man in the east. He even described the respect that people gave him 2With all this riches and honor job was not proud, he was constantly aware that it is God that was blessing him with all these things. He had great faith and this through his concern on the spiritual welfare of his children who he constantly thought had cursed or sinned against God in their hearts. Through all this wealth and faith no one was able to forestall the tragedies that were about to crash down on him 3.         


From riches to ashes

            The devil was given a free hand by God and he struck Job freely; it just took him a day to smash Job with one disaster after another. The Sabena and Chaldean bandits stole Jobs, camel, oxen and donkeys. There occurred a storm that killed all his sheep, his servants die and worst of all, all his children die in  when a house they were in collapsed in a desert tornado. He also loses his health as he is struck with boils head to toe. He became an outcast in the society with his disease which was a form of leprosy and he was seen sitting alone as he scrapped his scores that were itching with broken pieces of pottery. He sat on a heap of ashes that was symbolic of the deep sorrow and also the tearing of his clothes, wearing of sackcloth, shaving his hair and sprinkling of dust on his head. His wife went ahead and told him to curse God and die 4.



The suffering

            Job went through overwhelming and sudden suffering he suffered financially as the lost all this wealth. He also suffered physically as he lost his health, pyschologocally as he lost his children who he loved so much and finally he suffered socially since he was no longer influential and was even considered an outcast because of his disease. On top of all this he seems to suffer in the hands of everyone and anything; natural disasters wind, fire, his loved ones i.e. his wife and later his friends and even the raiders who were evil people. His reaction to this suffering was the lord is the one who gives and also takes and he continued to praise him 5.his friends tried to find a reason why he is suffering his three friend Eliphaz,Bildad and Zophar all questioned his suffering. They all held that the righteous never suffered but those who were unrighteous were 


[2]Entitled to suffering.Eliphaz told him that if indeed he was innocent why was he being punished, there was no way he was plowing iniquity and mischief he would just reap the same. He convicted Job to his foolish response to his misfortune and urged him to repent and lay his ins before God. His basic message was that Job was suffering due to his sins 7.He therefore wanted Job to see that Gods oppression was a result of his sin.Bildad told him that God is just and only judged those who sinned against him 8.Zophar told him if it is true that he is clean then God himself will deliver him from the situation 9.their proposed solution to his suffering was for him to repent his sins so that his prosperity would be restored. Job was disappointed with his friends and seeks God to reveal to him why he is suffering. Contrary to his expectations God did not answer anything to do with his suffering.

            Job is hence a book that deals with human suffering even though the suffering of the innocent is not the main purpose of the author in the book. It is more than an ancient play that is out to portray the absurdities of life, man’s weakness and Gods prominence to soverenity.this book portrays that some one who is suffering can question and also have doubts but they can also face the hard questions in life with faith still maintain relationship that is not broken with God who is ever loving. The sufferer comes to a resolution that is satisfactory resolution for personal and collective injustice and suffering that is undeserved. This observation is addressed within the context of the suffering man Job who was righteous and also many believers who suffer and can identify with Job. From this book there is the understanding of the overall concept of suffering and how it is essential for the maintenance of a relationship that loves and has meaning with God even when one is undergoing sufferings. The blame of the devil to all suffering is common with everyone but the book explores the cause and effect of suffering. There is also a realization that nothing especially suffering can happen without the knowledge, love, wisdom and power of God10 .while Satan is considered to be the prime mover of sin, evil and suffering there should not be ignoring of the fact that there is a connection between Satan’s desire and the permission that he gets from God to execute his desires. The friction is clearly portrayed in the troubled that were inflicted to job. Though God was also at work on Jobs suffering, it should not be taken that he was not concerned with what his people go through. God therefore inflicts suffering both directly and indirectly to many people for different reasons; discipline, judgement, refining, but Satan is the one behind misery in people.satan challenged Job in three areas; his righteousness, his fear of God and his separation from sin 11the issues of prosperity and its resultant retribution stands out as the main focus in the understanding of suffering in the book.


            Since God is just, it would be a wrong assumption that the fallen world under Satan’s ruler ship is fair.The failure of the traditional wisdom to answer jobs complaint is a revelation that the world operates by plan of the fallen being and only a personal relationship with God can those who suffer find meaning and purpose to the injustices that take place. There are various truths that are presented in the book of Job and include; sin is not always the basis of suffering. The [3]acceptance of the false tenets about suffering cause a blame and challenge on God. Suffering can be faced with faith, trust and a loving gracious God even when there is no immediate satisfying and logic rational to do so. God allows suffering and pain if they serve his purposes. The greatest of saint’s struggle with suffering and the suffering they go through ban have a preventive purpose 10therefore the book of job gives a guideline on how one should deal with suffering through endurance and God will eventually see them through.


Waters, J.l. (1997) Reflections on suffering from the book of job.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/OTeSources/18-Job/Text/Articles/Walters-suffering-BS.pdf

Bible Study Tools (2012). Book of Job.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.biblestudytools.com/job/

Ehlke,C.R .(2004). JOB”FAITH ON TRIAL”.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.zionfriedheim.org/biblestudies/Old%20Testament/job.htm

Seltzer, R. M. (2011). The Book of Job: A Whirlwind of Confusion – My Jewish Learning. Judaism & Jewish Life – My Jewish Learning. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from http://www.myjewishlearning.com/beliefs/Theology/Suffering_and_Evil/Responses/Biblical_and_Rabbinic/Book_of_Job.shtml

Bakon,S. (2011)SUFFERING: THREE BIBLICAL VIEWS.Retrieved October 30,2012 from bq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/303/303_SUFFER30.pdf


Schoenheit, J. (2005).Job: The Righteous Sufferer.Retrieved October 30,2012  from http://www.truthortradition.com/modules.php?file=article&name=News&sid=827


 BibleWise.(2010). Books of the bible.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.biblewise.com/archives/2004/august/overview/overview.htm


Albright,W.F.(2010).The Ancient Near East and Religion of Israel. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3262515?uid=3738336&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101374593407



[1] Albright,W.F.(2010).The Ancient Near East and Religion of Israel. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3262515?uid=3738336&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101374593407

2(Job 29:7-9) 7I would go out to the city gate
and set up my seat in the open space;
8 when young men saw me they would hide themselves,
while the aged arose and stood;
9 leaders refrained from speaking —
they would lay their hands on their mouths;


3Ehlke, C.R. (2004). JOB”FAITH ON TRIAL”.Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://www.zionfriedheim.org/biblestudies/Old%20Testament/job.htm




4Job2-9. His wife asked him, “Why do you still hold on to your integrity? Curse God, and die!”

5Job 1;21 “Naked I came from my mother’s womb,
and naked I will return there.
Adonai gave; Adonai took;
blessed be the name of Adonai”

6Job4:7, 8. Remember, I pray thee, who was ever punished being innocent?

According as I have seen, they that plow iniquity and sow mischief, reap the

same . . . 

7Bakon, S. (2011) SUFFERING: THREE BIBLICAL VIEWS. Retrieved October 30,2012 from bq.jewishbible.org/assets/Uploads/303/303_SUFFER30.pdf

8Job 8:3, 4: Doth God pervert judgment . . . or pervert justice? If thy children

sinned against Him, He delivered them into the hand of transgression . . .


9Job 11:4-Thou hast said: ‘My doctrine is pure and I am clean in Thine eyes.’

. . . Know, therefore, that God exacted of them less than thine iniquity deserves



10Waters, J.l. (1997) Reflections on suffering from the book of job. Retrieved October 30,2012 from http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/OTeSources/18-Job/Text/Articles/Walters-suffering-BS.pdf

11Job1:8-11). 8 Adonai asked the Adversary, “Did you notice my servant Iyov, that there’s no one like him on earth, a blameless and upright man who fears God and shuns evil?” 9 The Adversary answered Adonai, “Is it for nothing that Iyov fears God? 10 You’ve put a protective hedge around him, his house and everything he has. You’ve prospered his work, and his livestock are spread out all over the land. 11 But if you reach out your hand and touch whatever he has, without doubt he’ll curse you to your face!” 







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QM3345 Alabama A & M FedEx Operations Management Case Study Questions

You must select one of the following four case studies, each of which is identified with one of four key chapters in the textbook. You will need to create a formal Word document answering the questions thoroughly, in narrative form, and you must use, at a minimum, the textbook and at least one other source (Internet sites are acceptable). The Word document will need to be submitted in Canvas. Although this is not a formal research paper, please include all references and citations within the Word document. Please note that you WILL be graded on proper use of grammar and sentence structure!

NOTE: ALL papers submitted will be evaluated using “TurnItIn.com”. Any papers that are duplicates of other papers in either this or any previous class will receive an automatic zero. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE! This should be your own original work and every paper must be unique.

Case 1 – Chapter 8 (FedEx)

  1. Provide a high-level overview and history of the company.
  2. How is FedEx’ operations improved by its location?
  3. How does FedEx’ location strategy differ from its competitors?
  4. How has FedEx affected the Memphis, TN area (include positive and negative aspects)?

Case 2 – Chapter 11 (Arnold Palmer Hospital’s Supply Chain)

  1. Provide a high-level overview and history of the company.
  2. How does this supply chain differ from that in a manufacturing firm?
  3. What are the constraints on making decisions based on economics alone at the hospital?
  4. What role do doctors and nurses play in supply chain decisions in a hospital? How is this participation handled at Arnold Palmer Hospital?
  5. Doctor Smith just returned from the Annual Physician’s Orthopedic Conference, where she saw a new hip joint replacement demonstrated. She decides she wants to start using the replacement joint at Arnold Palmer Hospital. What process will Dr. Smith have to go through at the hospital to introduce this new product into the supply chain for future surgical use?

Case 3 – Chapter 12 (Amazon.com)

  1. Provide a high-level overview and history of the company.
  2. What differentiates Amazon from other large box retailers (e.g., Wal-Mart, Best Buy)?
  3. What changes is Amazon planning in the future to improve inventory management and distribution?
  4. Describe Amazon’s global strategy for managing inventory between countries.

Case 4 – Chapter 16 (Toyota Motor Corporation)

  1. Provide a high-level overview and history of the company.
  2. Compare and Contrast the two Lean techniques leveraged by Toyota.
  3. How does Toyota’s San Antonio plant differ from other manufacturing facilities?
  4. How has lean manufacturing affected Toyota’s ability to compete in the automotive industry?
  5. Describe the three components of TPS and their importance.


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Research Questions and Their Significance

Good history projects depend on historians posing clear and meaningful questions.  Reread the two NEH proposals you were assigned earlier in the term.  Pick one of the two sample 2100 proposals.  Can you easily identify the research questions at the heart of all three proposals?  What are they?  How do the historians writing the proposals explain the larger significance of their question and its possible answer?  What advice do you think the two history professor might offer to the student for improving the student’s question or the explanation of its significance?
500 words


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please answer two of the following questions in a 2 3 page essay for each of the two history 1

Use MLA formatting with 12 pt Times New Roman Font, 1 inch margins, and only 1 space after periods. Please include a works cited page for each question. (please make sure it is a plagiarism-free work)
1. How did the New Deal change the role of the national government in Americans’ lives? How did it transform the relationship between the national government and citizens? Cite specific New Deal reforms and past conceptions of government in your answer.
2. Beginning after World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became increasingly hostile towards one another eventually leading to the Cold War. In class we read three articles in which three prominent diplomatic figures – George Kenan, Henry Wallace, and Nikolai Novikov – all gave their diagnosis of the hostility and how best to handle diplomatic relations between the two superpowers. Which one do you think makes the most convincing argument. Why? Who uses the most concrete data to support his claims? Do you think the Cold War could have been avoided or was it inevitable?
3. 1950s America is normally remembered as a golden decade in American history, where the people enjoyed a new level of prosperity and were able to live in happiness and security with their job and their neighborhoods as shown in popular tv shows like Happy Days. Were the 1950s truly “happy days” for Americans? Why or why not? Consider things happening in the country in the 1950s regarding the economy, race, sex, gender, and the larger anxieties about communism.
4. Lyndon B. Johnson was a one term president did not run for a second term and is now held in contempt for America’s involvement Vietnam. Ronald Reagan was a two-term president who is now considered by the public as one of the best American presidents ever. Why is one so venerated and the other so overlooked? Is this perception fair. Compare and contrast their presidencies, their accomplishments, and their fallacies. Do you think both deserve the praise and contempt each has garnered or are their legacies inappropriate? How would you reshape their legacies if you wrote the history?
5. The 1960s were a time of massive protests and reconceptualization the United States domestically and internationally with civil rights, the Vietnam War, and later issues like women’s rights and homosexual rights. What were some of the biggest social movements of the 1960s and whom participated in them? Did these movements feed into one another, or were they separate from each other? What were their goals, who were some of the key figures, what were their accomplishments and failures?
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