Punishments that attempt to restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense are known as:a.restitutive.c.repressive.b.rehabilitative.d.recidivist..
ccording to Durkheim’s research, what is the primary reason that Protestants are more likely to kill themselves than Catholics and Jews?a.Protestantism is premised on the collective conscience.b.Protestantism is premised on the individual, which creates less social integration.c.Protestants are the poorest of religious groups.d.Protestants are the most politically oppressed of religious groups.
Punishments that attempt to restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense are known as:a.restitutive.c.repressive.b.rehabilitative.d.recidivist.
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?a.Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight to, the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave.b.Sociologists believe humans are born as blank slates, and that the social environment trumps nature.c.Sociologists believe that our genetic makeup really has very little to do with who we become in life.d.Sociologists believe there is a complex relationship between heredity and the environment, and that we need to give equal weight to both.
A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect “American Dream” lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this, is known by Merton as a(n):a.ritualist.c.rebel.b.conformist.d.innovator.
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?a.a Boy Scout troopc.a sports teamb.a political partyd.a convent
After mental illness became “medicalized,” what was one major change that occurred?a.Medication replaced counseling.b.Insurance companies started paying for face-to-face treatment.c.Therapy and medications went hand in hand.d.Mental illness decreased with the use of medications.
The sociological significance of roles is that they:a.dictate the reality of a situation.b.lay out what is expected of people.c.come with clearly defined expectations.d.are identical from one setting to the next.
Using Durkheim’s definitions, early feminists (in the 1950s) would say that stay-at-home mothers were more likely to commit ____________ type of suicide.a.fatalisticc.organicb.anomicd.egoistic
From Émile Durkheim’s functional perspective, deviance in a society:a.must be eliminated through radical social policies.b.is necessary for a society’s survival.c.doesn’t exist with enough agents of social control.d.is functional for the lower class but not for all parts of society.
Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. Which of the following is NOT one of these forces?a.economic institutionsc.political orderb.social orderd.military order
Charles is a 41-year-old man who recently got caught committing a crime after serving a long prison sentence. This is an example of:a.specific deterrence.c.anomie.b.general deterrence.d.recidivism.
Which of the following crimes has the most financial impact in the United States today?a.assaultc.white-collar crimeb.robberyd.victimless crime
Each society has a type of social stratification. How does the United States justify its type of stratification system?a.The class a person is in has nothing to do with ability; one is born into it.b.A person is in complete control over the class he or she is in. Hard work (or lack of it) determines class.c.One’s relatives are responsible for one’s social class.d.Luck determines class.
Physician prestige has been on the decline since the 1980s. Which of the following might be a reason?a.More people in the medical community are being allowed to prescribe.b.More Asians are being allowed in medical schools.c.Requirements for medical schools are being lowered due to affirmative action.d.More physicians are becoming surgeons.
Weak ties are valuable parts of a social network because:a.it is easier to sever them if a friendship doesn’t blossom smoothly.b.it is easier to exert power over those to which we have such ties.c.they are more likely to introduce us to new information and ideas.d.we do not have to invest as much energy in maintaining them.
According to Annette Lareau (2003), working-class and poor parents focus on the “accomplishment of natural growth,” while middle-class parents are more likely to engage in “concerted cultivation.” In the “accomplishment of natural growth,” children experience:a.learning how to interact with adult authority figures, how to talk to strangers, and how to manage schedules