The FASB And Accounting For Economic Reality

The FASB And Accounting For Economic Reality

            The article examines a proposal to produce Principle-based Accounting Standards (PBAS) by FASB. It recognizes the errors involved in the proposal and the main concern is the lack of economic reality, which is an extension of social reality. During the examination, the author does find a number of connected consequences of the proposal. They include the fact that should explain the epistemology and ontology of PBAS if its intentions are to be true. FASB has to make institutional facts to define elements of accounting representation, and such institutional facts lack direct referents apart from other similar facts (Lee, 2006). The fourth consequence is that FASB has to explore truthful notion. There also exists evidence, from the post-PBAS comments of FASB,  that it has more concerns of consistency and comparability than qualities that will instigate changes in financial reporting. 

            These points indicate that FASB faces the difficulty of actualizing its proposals. Accountants are indicating confusion over the proposal, and most of them believe that the organization is introducing fictional elements in the design of financial statements (Lee, 2006). The message that the article is passing is that of understanding social reality. Like FASB, many educators fail to address this issue and concentrate on the problems of constructing it. According to Lee (2006), if this trend continues PBAS proposed by FASB in 2002 will end up being just another empty gesture and will not solve the puzzle of financial reports. Its failure will be international given its integration with the IASB.


Lee, T. A. (2006). The FASB and Accounting for Economic Reality. Accounting and the Public Interest (6).

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DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING BY APPLYING THE CONCEPT TO AN ASSESSMENT OF AN IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM.Federal policy created Medicare and Medicaid. Neither of these policies would be a reality if not for which of the following? (Points

DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING BY APPLYING THE CONCEPT TO AN ASSESSMENT OF AN IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM.Federal policy created Medicare and Medicaid. Neither of these policies would be a reality if not for which of the following? (Points.

1. Briefly describe cost-benefit analysis. Demonstrate
understanding by applying the concept to an assessment of an immunization
program. (Points : 20)

2. Describe a national model of universal healthcare
coverage. Compare the model’s methods of funding for
healthcare in the United States. Identify which one you think is best by
discussing access and quality detail. (Points : 20)

3. Federal policy created Medicare and Medicaid. Neither of
these policies would be a reality if not for which of the following? (Points

Managed Care


Social Security

Relevant tax

Health and
Human Services Department

4. You are asked to speak at a conference on
population health (as a national system). Most have not heard of the
concept. Provide the key points that will be in your presentation; begin
with defining the output, various key inputs, and the economics
and policy considerations relevant to achieving (production)a population
health system.

(Points : 40)

5. Identify the three primary methods of funding
(direct pay and reimbursement) healthcare in the United States. Describe
(in detail) the projected impact a government-operated and -funded
insurance option would have on the identified methods of
payment. Discuss the likely impact (defend your views) this change
will have on the existing payment methods. Include the following: the
impact this change will have on the overall cost of healthcare (and why), the
impact the change will likely have on taxpayers, the likely impact the
change will have on those who presently do not have insurance coverage, and the
impact the change will have on those who have insurance
coverge. (Points : 40)

6. You have been asked to lecture healthcare management
students on the role and value of government regulations in healthcare.
You have been asked to focus on the objectives of regulation by discussing the
adverse impact monopolies have in healthcare. Key points for the
lecture are the problems with conventional supply and demand laws and the
role of regulatory policy.

(Points : 40)

7. Explain why the thee task of economics are connected to
the concept of production. Next, describe how this understanding applies
to healthcare; provide one example to demonstrate your point.
(Points : 40)

8. You work for a freshman congressman who is
interested in healthcare. He wants a briefing paper on the role of
nonprofit healthcare delivery organizations;specifically, how to make them more
profecient and efficient. Your briefing should begin with discussion of
the role of nonprofit organizations, their costs to operate, how to improve
their efficiency, and how to integrate them with profit healthcare
organizations that will enhance efficiency and effectiveness of both.
(Points : 40)

DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING BY APPLYING THE CONCEPT TO AN ASSESSMENT OF AN IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM.Federal policy created Medicare and Medicaid. Neither of these policies would be a reality if not for which of the following? (Points

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Essay – The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System

Essay – The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System.


The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System
This assignment will help you explore how nursing leaders provide services while at the same time rationing services.
One of the areas that must be considered in the field of fiscal and resource management is the issue of rationing services to patients.
. Based on your research and understanding, create a 3- page paper that answers the following:
• How would you as a nursing leader balance the clinical needs of the patients with the fiscal sustainability of the healthcare facility? Essay – The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System.
• What are the ethical issues faced by nursing leaders in a healthcare rationing environment?
• What are the internal and external forces impacting your decision making in this environment?
• How can evidence-based care help you make fiscal decisions in this environment?
• How can evidence-based leadership be used in decision making? Essay – The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System

Essay – The Reality of Providing Nursing Services in a Healthcare Rationing System

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Cosmopolis: a World of Subjective Reality Essay

Cosmopolis: a World of Subjective Reality Essay.

Cosmopolis, written in the spirit of post modernity, rejects the idea of an ordered universe with one objective reality. This novel asserts that reality is instead subjective, and as human beings while we all experience the same one world ,but we each perceive this experience differently, and therefore we all live in different worlds. In this paper using quotes from Cosmopolis, I will explain how Don DeLillo uses dialogue and the actions of characters to construct his argument for subjective reality, and how his theory of subjective reality relates to the real world.

Before I begin quoting Cosmopolis, I will briefly explain the modern definition of subjective reality. The idea of subjective reality asserts that reality and of the “truths” in the universe changes between individuals. Meaning, although there may be objective truths in the universe, each person perceives these truths and experiences them differently, and because of everyone’s own unique perspective of the world, each lives in their own world existing in an altered state of objective reality.

Cosmopolis is littered with dialogue where the characters are talking about subjective reality.

You could almost randomly flip to any page in the novel and find that someone is talking about subjective reality. It was obvious to me that Don DeLillo purposefully wrote this dialogue adding an argument for the existence of subjective reality. Although one could argue I read the novel looking for people talking about subjective reality and that in reality it is all in my head, for the purposes of this paper I am going to assume Don DeLillo purposely wrote Cosmopolis as an argument for subjective reality.

One of the first lines of dialogue which I encountered that got me to thinking about subjective reality is near the very beginning of the novel when Eric is in the limo talking with Shiner. Shiner asks Eric why they were in the car instead of the office to which Eric replies, “how do you know we’re in the car instead of the office” (15). This quote is a perfect example of one of the aspects of subjective reality: that a person can never truly be sure of where they are, and that no matter where they actually are, they can choose to be somewhere else.

Eric is in a way challenging Shiner to prove both that they are in a car and that they are not in an office. However, these are impossible things to prove, because a person can chose to be wherever they want to be regardless of actual physical position. Ideal to subjective reality, Shiner doesn’t even attempt to answer Eric’s question, because he knows he can’t prove either arguments. Plus, the fact that Eric chooses to turn his limo into an office shows that even though Eric knows his car is not an office, he makes it into an office merely just by acting as if it is an office.

Like Eric, Beeno Levin is another character in Cosmopolis who understands the nature of subjective reality. As he is writing he beings to talk about what he sees in other people and what that means, saying “it is what people think they see in another person that makes his reality. If they think he walks at a slant, then he walks at a slant, uncoordinated, because this is his role in the lives around him” (57). Beeno is making two assertions on the nature of people in reality. Firstly, Beeno is asserting that no matter what a person actually does, it is what you think they do that is reality.

Meaning, in his example, whether a man walks with a slant or not, if you think he walks with a slant, then he walks with a slant. Secondly, when he says, about the man, that “this is his role in the lives around him”, he means that to him the man who walks with a slant is nothing but the man who walks with the slant. In Beeno’s life the role of the man is to do nothing but walk around with a slant. Whether the man does anything other than walking with a slant, such as being an accountant or having children, to Beeno he can never be any of those things, because he is merely the man who walks with a slant.

The man can never be anything else unless Beeno chooses to see him that way. Near the end of Beeno’s monologue he also thinks that “world is supposed to mean something that’s self-contained. But nothing is self-contained. Everything enters something else. My small days spill into light years” (60). Here he is making another assertion on the nature of reality and how it relates to the world. When he says the world is self-contained he is challenging the idea that the “truths” in the world can be separated and neatly pushed into categories.

He asserts that in reality the elements of the world cannot be separated and everything is melting into everything else. There are actually no boundaries because one can perceive the world and anything could be anything else, for example, a limo can be an office. Here in this next quote the characters actually start to directly discuss reality. At this point in the story Eric and one of his advisors, Kinski, are chatting in the limo during the protest. Kinski baits Eric, asking him what the flaw of human rationality is.

When he asks what, she answers replying that “it pretends not to see the horror and death at the end of the schemes it builds” (91). Ironically, she is asserting that human rationality isn’t even concerned with being accurate to reality. Human rationality strives to create its own deluded reality outside of what might actually be happening, such as in this example the evils of capitalism. It is deluded, ignoring the facts and believing whatever it wants to believe, such as the disparity between the rich and poor in the United States.

Although Kinski, in this context, is only commenting on humans as a whole, this idea can be applied to human rationality on an individual basis. An individual may delude themselves in the same way, for example Eric continues to lose money on the Yen even though all evidence is telling him he should cut his losses and pull out. He is deluded in ignoring the facts, rejecting what he sees, and formulating his own new reality where he doesn’t pull out and makes a lot of money off the Yen. Some of my favorite moments in Cosmopolis are during the last scene when Beeno shoots Eric.

The two of them seem to understand each other, and even hold some of the same beliefs, such as the subjective nature of reality. At one point, Beeno is convinced that his penis is shrinking and receding into his body, while Eric tries to convince him that is not true. Beeno says, “whether I imagine a thing or not, it’s real to me” (192). Eric asks been to prove it is true by showing him, and Beeno refuses saying, “I don’t have to look. There are folk beliefs. There are epidemics that happen. Men in the thousands, in real fear and pain” (192). Beeno is asserting something new this time.

He has already asserted that a person can look at something, such as the man with the slant, and see anything they want to see (a man walking with a slant), whether that is actually what they are looking at. But now, he is asserting a man can look at nothing and see something that isn’t even visibly there. This is even further into subjective reality, it is one thing to say something can be something that is not, but it is entirely different to say that nothing can be something. Beeno even tries to support his belief that his sex organ is receding into his body with two different arguments.

The first is that other men have experienced it, and therefore it is a real thing. The second one is that thousands of other men also fear it, and that it is a “real” fear. This argument is based on the idea that the very fear itself of something happening is just as real as if it were actually happening. This is another element of subjective reality. Beeno fears that something is happening to his body, even though he knows he can’t see it, but this very fear itself makes it real to him whether or not it is actually happening.

During the climax of the novel, Eric begins to belittle Beeno by telling him that he doesn’t even have a good, admirable reason to kill him, that Beeno is just another whack job killing someone just because; “No. Your crime had no conscience. You haven’t been driven to do it by some oppressive social force. How I hate to be reasonable. You’re not against the rich. Nobody’s against the rich. Everybody’s ten seconds from being rich. Or so everybody thought . No. Your crime is in your head” (196). Here Eric is trying to tear down Beeno’s righteous justification for killing Eric.

Eric is saying that Beeno isn’t killing Eric for the greater good of society, getting rid of a bad power-driven rich person, Beeno is just killing Eric just because. Eric asserts Beeno’s own motives are all in his head, that Beeno is deluded and doesn’t actually know why he is killing Eric, he is just doing it. This is a very odd turn. At the beginning of this novel Eric has been a perfect spokesperson for subjective reality, but here he seems to be playing devil’s advocate by trying to tear down Beeno’s arguments.

I wondered why Eric would make such a sudden change, but after finishing the book I believe it is clear Eric isn’t actually trying to tear down subjective reality, he is just saying whatever he can to buy time and possibly not die. One of my good friends from primary school used to say that when he died the world would end. His names is Martin, and he is a genius. I am not a genius, but I enjoyed a lot of philosophical conversations with Martin nevertheless. I was really surprised when I came across exactly the same thing in this novel.

It is right at the beginning when Eric first gets up and is getting ready to leave. He is lamenting his insomnia and thinks “when he died he would not end, the world would end” (6). I believe this quote embodies the spirit of subjective reality. If reality exists on an individual basis, and is only inside the mind of every person, then logically it would follow that when that person dies their reality, their world would end too. Possibly the most perfect aspect of this novel is the way Don DeLillo parallels this quote with the structure of the story.

When Eric is about to be shot, it is obvious that he is going to die, however the novel ends with just his thoughts right before Beeno kills him. Nothing follows, that is the end of the story. How perfect that the novel ends with the very last thought of Eric! It makes absolute sense that the novel would end when Eric dies, because as already stated he wouldn’t end when he died, the world would end. Postmodernism encourages experiment in literature, and Don DeLillo takes full advantage of this.

As an American I was always taught there were rules and truths that ruled the Universe. That reality was always objective and one merely has to interpret it correctly. Objective reality is the idea crucial to the success of religious and political systems. Every religion claims to be the one true religion, and without the claim of objective reality these religions would fail. This is also very much true in political, ethnocentricity being a perfect example of the effects of people believing there is an objective reality to the universe.

In conclusion, Don DeLillo argues for the existence of subjective reality in his novel Cosmopolis. He utilizes the dialogue and the actions of the main characters to debate this idea and highlight crucial elements of the theory. In this paper I have analyzed several quotations from different scenes in the novel, explaining how each quotation represents an aspect of subjective reality. Subjective reality may have sounded like a crazy idea in the past, but now as we live in post modernity, subjective reality is quickly gaining acceptance.

Cosmopolis: a World of Subjective Reality Essay

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English 0990 Reality tv Essay

English 0990 Reality tv Essay.

In “The Distorting Mirror of Reality TV” written by Sarah Coleman, says that the producers have a distorting mirror to us as viewers. All producers distort all stereotypes and want the viewers to know what life is really like because of human diversity. Coleman states that the producers choose particular contestants, and the producers are making the chosen contestants are playing particular characters that the producers want them to be Coleman states “For ethnic minorities, old people, the unbeautiful, and the disabled, the message is harsh even in “reality” you don’t exist.

”(pg 207) In addition to reality TV shows having all villains also helps the producers find exotic locations. “In reality TV, every character is a villain. ”(pg 207), Coleman states. Reality TV according to Coleman is viewed as “One man for themselves” and she says this well when she writes “ By eliminating one contestant each week, the show offers us a symbolic form of public execution. ”(pg208)This is distorting because it shows once again human diversity.

After all its not us that is being eliminated so it does not really matter who gets eliminated because we are still able to see the show and this is what keeps the viewers watching the reality shows, which offers us the symbolic form of public execution. On the contrary is the mirror of reality TV showing us the viewers what real life is about because of what reality TV shows people in society.

The producers of Reality TV shows society that anyone will do anything for money and fame no matter how ugly and nasty they have to be to get it, they are determined to do whatever it takes. Coleman says this best when she says “Not are the shows’ producers the only cynics in this game. With winners appearing everywhere from playboy to lip-salve commercials, and sore losers suing producers for alleged results-fixing, it seems everyone is exploiting everyone here. ” (pg208)

English 0990 Reality tv Essay

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Effects of Reality Tv on Society Essay

Effects of Reality Tv on Society Essay.

There are many discussions about the effects of reality TV on society. Positive and negative effects of reality TV are two parts of a coin. Unfortunately the coin mostly falls on the negative side. Many reality TV shows are created purely for profit without thinking about its consequences on the mindsets of viewers, especially young viewers . Media companies accept that they make these shows for profit and they do not care about the effects on people.

They say that they just show us what we want.

Is it right not to care about the viewers mental health just to make more money? Most of these shows do not portray reality and this weakens the ability of critical thinking, causes to depict a ”false image of life”, develops wrong notions, erodes some ethical and moral practices. Reality TV shows give a false image of reality, since the people watching them are under the impression that everything happening in the show is real.

According to a Time magazine article, some reality TV shows are edited to be dramatic and some quotes may actually be manufactured. Clashes and ugly feuds between the reality stars may be constructed and some parts of the shows may also be completely edited and cut out so they don’t make the final show that people see on TV. Some critics actually charge that reality TV is not so real and that these shows may be far more manipulative than we think.

When all is said and done, some people on the reality shows say that they were unfairly represented and the reality taken out of the show therefore making the show pure entertainment. In some ways, this gives the audience that the characters in these shows are real and acting normal. Some viewers empathize with the show’s stars. Viewers tend to behave, feel, think like the stars and during this process they lose their critical thinking skills. A great example can be seen in John Cheveer’s article ‘’The Enormous Radio’’.

In the article a woman has a radio that is capable of playing the neighbor’s conversations. The woman has created an apished public self, and when she hears the neighbor’s private conversations she is witnessed to the nakedness of their misery. She asks her husband ‘’We’re happy, aren’t we, darling? We are happy, aren’t we? ’’ (Cheever, pg. 83) . So she lost her ability to judge her own happiness by being witnessing other people’s life’s, just like some reality TV shows .

Certain shows are filled with glamour, filtrations, indecent acts, promiscuity, greed, jealousy, conflict and other sensitive issues. These create a controversy in the society where this society begins to support unethical and immoral practices. Humans take the negative parts of these shows causing increased rates in murder, corruption in society and antisocial behaviors. As Salman Rushdie claims, ‘’ The television set once so idealistically thought of as our window on the world , has become a dime-store mirror instead. ’ (2001, pg. 63) . Values such as being successful, smart, educated, acting polite has less value nowadays. A glaring example on mental effects ‘’ When the sister of a woman who appeared on ABC’s Extreme Makeover committed suicide in 2004, the contestant sued the network for wrongful death and other charges . The contestant, who was competing to win free plastic surgery but lost, claimed that her sister had felt so guilty about mocking her appearance on the program that she killed herself.

ABC settled the case for an undisclosed amount last year. ‘’ (W. Peters, 2010, pg. 74) . This example also shows producers of reality shows do not care about the consequences on society as long as they are making money. As Jeremy W. Peters claims ‘’In recent years producers and networks have increasingly pushed the boundaries of television voyeurism in search of another ratings hit’’ (2007, pg. 73) . Since there is not a law against producers to harming people, they do not be careful on what they show on programmes.

Therefore there are social organizations which want to make a law against reality TV or completely ban reality shows. Many programmes insult and degrade moral values. ‘‘It ? s hard to defend the deception of Joe Millionaire which set up twenty women to court construction worker Evan Marriott by telling them he was a multimillionaire’’(Poniewozik, 2003, pg. 69) . This example shows us how the show degrades women . Also on some shows great portion of the African American contestants are shown as bad.

For example the show ‘’Love Cruise’’ is where singles pair up on cruise ships and get married. The women were told to hook up with whomever they want, but every woman chose a white man. The one guy left standing was the black man. Of course we cannot claim that reality shows effect every human in a negative way . In fact there are people who claim reality TV has positive effects on the society .

Such as James Poniewozik ‘’It has given the networks water-cooler buzz again; it has reminded viewers jaded by sitcoms and dramas why TV can be exciting; and at its best, its teaching TV a new way to tell involving human stories. ’’ ( 2003, pg. 67) . Also these shows are a place where people could show their talents and get rewarded for it. On the show American Idol, a woman had two children but she did not have enough money to raise them. She had a great voice, so she won the money prize and now the family has a great life.

Unfortunately these kinds of positive effects are only a small part of the pie . By considering all of the points made above the effects of reality shows on people may not be crucial, but it is definitely taken in great importance. The ignorance of producers and effects on mental health and social talents are unjust and corruptive. Maybe strict laws could put a stop to all of it but until that time comes the community will still get effected by reality TV.

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Effects of Reality Tv on Society Essay

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