LUCRĂRI ŞTIINŢIFICE, SERIA I, VOL. XI (3) KANBAN SYSTEM USED TO OPTIMIZE INVENTORY LEVELS SISTEMUL KANBAN FOLOSIT PENTRU OPTIMIZAREA MĂRIMII STOCURILOR DIANA TĂGĂDUAN* The Kanban System introduced in this paper was developed by the VicePresident of Toyota Motor Company, Mr. Taiiohi Ohnos. Kanban is the production control system that “pulls” production JIT allowing smaller stocks to be produced. Kanban is a method to control the material flow by a JIT production system by using cards to authorize a work station to transfer or produce materials. Key words: inventory system, materials flow, cards Toyota is, according to Fortune’s 2007 Magazine, the third most admired company in the world. This is partially due to its reputation as “super-efficient” producer with “eco-consciousness”. When one talks about Toyota, one cannot ignore the Just In Time (JIT) stocks control system. But despite all the stories related to this sophisticated system used to control stocks implemented for the first time by Toyota, the company actually is based upon a basic practice, the Kanban method. Kanban is a signaling system developed by Toyota in the early ‘50s to be sure that materials arrive just in time in the production process, not later, not earlier than needed. At Toyota, Tauchi Ohno and Shiega Shingo began to combine Ford techniques with other techniques in order to implement the Toyota production system. Unlike their forerunners, they dealt with stocks. As space was limited, the land being very expensive in Japan, Japanese companies faced a real problem with stocks storing. Before 1950, this had been considered as a disadvantage and it had forced companies to produce in small and very small quantities. Toyota had seen the opportunity of this situation and tried to change this system into a flexible system, good for production of several range of vehicles. The Ford system was perfect when they produced just one type of product. Thus, by standardizing tools, * „Aurel Vlaicu”University Arad, Romania FACULTATEA DE MANAGEMENT AGRICOL devices and elements of different vehicles, overhead costs diminished considerably. Concerning the Just In Time system, in a simple manner one can say that the plant worked with small lots of products to save storage space. When the raw material stock was reduced at a certain level, an order was placed with the supplier to start the production of the next lot (Kan cards). When the second level was reached, the supplier received the order for the delivery of semi-fabricates (Ban cards). Thus we have the KanBan card. All these happened between 1949 abd 1975 and the Just In Time system of Toyota was taken by other Japanese companies. When productivity raise and qualitative benefits were obvious worldwide, American entrepreneurs began to travel to Japan in order to study this system. They came back to the USA with superficial issues, such as Kanban cards and quality circles. Most of the attempts to copy the Toyota system failed, because the concepts were not integrated within a complete system and few were to understand the fundamental principles There is a funny story related to the implementation of the Kanban system. In an article published by Fred Harriman.com, the ex-manager of Toyota Group, Chihiro Nakao relates the experience he had with Taichi Ohno who had introduced this sytems together with Shiego Shingo. Taichi Ohno, in his continuous concern to obtain an ideal JIT model among the companies within Toyota Group, one of the problems he faced was to prevent people from ordering too much and too soon from suppliers as they did not want to be run of raw materials. Chihiro Nakao remembers about an incident. Mr. Ohno identified a person who was about to receive materials too soon and told him: “Who are you and where do you come from? What makes you think you have the right to use this material? Let me see your kanban.” (which meant “show me your authority”). Such incidents proved the necessity “to show the kanban”, when a material was acquired, to demonstrate the need of the respective material and the proof that the previous material had been consumed. A modality to prove that all the application rules of the JIT method were followed was needed. As Mr. Ohno’s request to see the “kanban” left quite a strong impression, the cards that were issued to limit the stocks were named “kanbans”. LUCRĂRI ŞTIINŢIFICE, SERIA I, VOL. XI (3) Worldwide producers currently use this system to control stocks based on the still competitive card system implemented by Toyota. The principle that governs the Kanban model is explained as it follows: the previous ring of the chain places orders according to the needs of the next ring of the chain. The Kanban method introduces a new philosophy of stocks management. While by traditional methods the work force is specialized at fixed periods of time, directed from upstream to downstream by a managing plan, by the Kanban method the demand imposes and places orders upstream. Kanban had meant a physical notification by a card (kanban in Japanese actually means card). Kanban cards look like a cardboard ticket, that may be covered by a plastic layer (for protection) and contain information like: unit name and code, number of units per products, process, supplier, etc.) Kanban cards have two major functions within the production processes: Ø They issue signals from the previous ring to the next ring in the production chain to begin the production of necessary pieces Ø They notify workers to dispatch pieces to the next processing position so that they reach where needed in the moment when they can be processed. Ø Kanban is the production control system that “pulls” production JIT allowing smaller stocks to be produced. Kanban is a method to control the material flow by a JIT production system by using cards to authorize a work station to transfer or produce materials. There are two types of Kanban systems: with one and with two cards. Two card Kanban. In the production system of Toyota, for instance, stock is strictly controlled at lower levels by the use of a manual kanban system with two cards. The two cards are attached to the standardized containers used to move pieces from one work cell to another. A kanban circulation card is similar to an order and allows the transfer of the materials from a supply work center to a work center that use them. The second production kanban card authorizes the materials production to replace materials previously transferred. Materials are transferred and FACULTATEA DE MANAGEMENT AGRICOL produced in boxes, and a certain number of boxes in circulation in a particular moment correspond to each item of the production process. Besides, each box contains a stable quantity of materials. By choosing the number of boxes and the quantities contained, stocks are carefully and visibly controlled at the production level. By reducing the number of cards in use between two work centers that interact, process stocks tends to be null and necessary parts arrive precisely in time. As a result, there are no raw material stocks, composing parts stocks or final products stocks. Production without stocks is the main feature of the pull planning and control system. The card flow between two working centers is simple. When an assembly center begins to use X piece, a worker takes the circulation card (kanban) and goes to the storage area of that working center where he finds a container full with X pieces. He replaces the production card with the circulation card which allows him to move the container. The production card released is introduced in a panel (the succession of cards in the panel will indicate priorities for production centers). No additional piece is made if not authorized by card. When a container is complete, the production card is introduced inside it and the contained is moved to a storage area. The result is actually a “pull” production system. Each action of the assembly section will determine a series of actions that need to be fulfilled in the working centers. If a working center has no production cards, no piece will be produced. As long as there is no piece produced in advance, stocks are maintained at a low level. A standard container is used to keep and transport pieces. No piece is moved or produced without a circulation or production card. The system can similarly be used for systems with fixed command and re-supply point. In such a case, the fixed amount is the quantity in the container, and the reorder point is the point where the card gives the signal concerning the need of a new supply. Controlling the number of circulation cards, stocks of products in course of production is strictly controlled. Generally, when a system is introduced for the first time, several cards are issued in case they should be needed. Their number is gradually reduced, and the problems can be identified, analyzed and corrected. A safety stock usually represent one percent of daily demand, but its ideal value is zero. LUCRĂRI ŞTIINŢIFICE, SERIA I, VOL. XI (3) A “pull” production system uses physical withdrawals as an authorizing system for the production. The signal may be a card, a metal plate, an empty container, a free space on the floor or an electronic signal. It is not important how the signal looks, as long as its function is understood. Kanban is a manual “pull” system. Orders are determined by current consumption more than by planed consumption so that planning errors ale eliminated. By contrast, MRP (material needs planning system) is a “push” computerized system where material resource quantities introduced in production were calculated by planed consumption rather than current consumption One card Kanban. By contrast with the two card system, a single card kanban system uses a transport (or moving) kanban and does not use a production kanban. While Toyota and other companies use the two card system, the single card kanban system is more often used. Although the kanban system has a simple design, it implies a strict control on the production system: Ø No part of the stock is moved if not allowed to move a circulation card; Ø Each box contains nor more and no less than a fixed exact stock quantity; Ø For each box there is a single kanban card; Ø As soon as materials are taken from a box, the kanban card is removed from the box and placed in the box of the circulation card; Ø If all boxes of a station contain the physical quantity of the stock, the operator stops the production until it receives another kanban card; Ø All boxes as well as the entire equipment are placed in standard locations. As far as Kanban method is concerned, we can also talk about Kanban measure. There are two methods of measuring out-turn of a production process: the levels of the flow time and work in course. Flow time (WIP) represents the period of time necessary for a unit to pass through the whole process, from the beginning to the end (in average). By the application of the Kanban method, many companies registered substantial improvements. They reduced the level of their stocks and their production time. This is why they are able to offer better services FACULTATEA DE MANAGEMENT AGRICOL to their customers (shorter preparation time) and make reduced investments in stocks by comparison to their competitors. REFERENCES 1. JEFFREY LIKER, 2003, The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World’s Greatest Manufacturer, First edition, McGraw-Hill; 2. MALMBORG, CHARLES J., 1986, Kanban and Just In time at Toyota, Industrial Management, sept-oct.1986, vol.28; 3. OHNO, TAIICHI 1995, Toyota Production System: Beyond Largescale Production, Productivity Press Inc; 4. OHNO,K.,NAKASHIMA,K. AND KOJIMA,M., 1995, Optimal numbers of two kinds of kanbans in a JIT production system. International Journal of Production Research, 33; 5. SHINGO, SHIGEO,1989, A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint (Produce What Is Needed, When It’s Needed), Productivity Press, 6. SHIGEO SHINGO, ANDREW P. DILLON, 1998, A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint, Ed. Hardcover; 7. YASUHIRO MONDEN, 1998, Toyota Production System, An Integrated Approach to Just-In-Time, Third edition, Norcross, GA: Engineering & Management Press. Copyright of Agricultural Management / Lucrari Stiintifice Seria I, Management Agricol is the property of Banat University of Agricultural Sciences & Veterinary Medicine Timisoara and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
ECO 372 Week 2 Discussion Question Worksheet
Reference: Mankiw, N. Gregory (2015). Principles of Macroeconomics (7th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Instructions: Minimum of 150 words for each question with in-text citation and reference
Principles of Macroeconomics, Ch. 13: Saving, Investment, and the Financial System
The economy is moving into a period with higher nominal interest rates. How is this likely to affect bond prices? Based on this, is having an undiversified portfolio 100% in bonds a wise move?
Principles of Macroeconomics, Ch. 14: The Basic Tools of Finance
Your company is considering a project which would generate revenue in future years. To finance the project you would need to borrow funds today. To determine if the project is worthwhile you compare the present value of the future stream of revenue (or more precisely net profits), to the current cost of the project. In calculating the present value, you use the interest rate that you would need to pay for borrowed money.
Will a higher or lower interest rate make the project more likely to be worthwhile?
If you were a policymaker and wanted to encourage businesses to make investments in new projects, would you want to increase or decrease the interest rate for borrowed funds?
If you put $1000 into an account paying 8 percent interest (compounded annually), you would have $1000 x 1.08 = $1,080 in one year and $1000 x 1.08 x 1.08 = $1,000 x 1.082 = $1,166.40 in two years.
If you were to receive $1,166.40 in two years and the appropriate discount rate was 8 percent, the present value would be $1,166.40/(1.082) = $1000.
Using your own numbers, provide some examples showing the calculation of the present value of a future payment.
Principles of Macroeconomics, Ch. 15: Unemployment
From roughly 2009 through 2015 the labor force participation rate fell. See the graph at: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/CIVPART for the civilian labor force participation rate. In the upper-right of that web page you can search for other data. Type in labor force participation and take a look at a few of the data series and graphs available. Try to find ones that have been ‘seasonally adjusted.’ Share your findings for a particular age group or demographic. You can share your graph by copying the URL for a page.
Why might people in the 20-24 age group have dropped out of, or stayed out of, the labor market between the years of 2009-2015?
EVIDENCE-BASED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR OLDER ADULTS PAPER The older adult population is unique and each member deserves to receive healthcare encompassed by dignity and respect. This assignment strives to enhance the philosophy of caring for aging individuals..
? Read “The Five Elements of QAPI” which are government guidelines for quality improvement in long term care facilities, found under the Week 1 Reading tab
? Conduct a review of current evidence-based literature related to quality improvement and measurement
? Analyze what the literature says in relation to the elements of QAPI document and other quality improvement measures related to the older population
? Compose a paper discussing both the QAPI document and the evidence-based literature on quality improvement for the older population
? Express a personal reflection on your experience of quality improvement in your place of work as it relates to older patients or if you do not work with an older population, express ideas and opinions on the subject
? Identify ways in which this review will impact your care for the older adult population in the future
This paper is about improving the care of the elderly. Think of programs that improve the care of the elderly, such as fall programs, skin care programs, early ambulation, adult day care, Silver Sneakers, ACE units and senior programs.
Please use the following headings in the paper.
? Title of paper (goes on the second page top of paper). Then your introduction paragraph below
? Age Related Challenges – Consider what are the general changes that the elderly goes through as they age.
? Literature Review – Review 5 articles –Briefly give the general overview of the article and citation and reference. Identify how the QAPI five elements are used in the articles.
? Physical and Emotional Changes in elderly that Make Quality Improvement a Challenge – Now look at the above challenges and relate these to a quality improvement project. How do these physical and emotional changes make the implementation of the project more difficult?
? Barriers and Solutions to Quality Improvement Programs – Besides physical changes what are barriers and solutions for implementing a quality improvement unit.
NRSE 4560: MODULE 1: ASSESSMENT 4: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – EVIDENCED BASED PRACTICE FOR QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT – DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS
Last updated: 08/06/2015 ©2015 School of Nursing – Ohio University Page 2 of 2
? Future Impact on Care of the quality of care of the elderly – Now that you researched the elderly, what does the quality of care look like for the elderly in the future.
? A conclusion is at the end but not a heading. Start paragraph with In conclusion
The paper should:
? Be written in the APA style format; neatly typed and without errors.
? Contain a Title Page and Reference Page.
? Consist of a maximum of 5 pages, EXCLUDING the Title Page and Reference Page.
? Include a minimum of 5 credible and refereed resources from literature such as scholarly nursing journals or textbooks published within the last five years (Wikipedia is not a professional reference).
EVIDENCE-BASED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR OLDER ADULTS PAPER The older adult population is unique and each member deserves to receive healthcare encompassed by dignity and respect. This assignment strives to enhance the philosophy of caring for aging individuals.
English 101 Composition I Essay #3
Annotated Bibliography (a list of sources with notes) due Monday, Nov. 19th Rough draft due Wednesday, Nov. 21st Final draft plus reflection letter due Monday, December 3rd Optional revised final drafts will be due Wednesday, December 12th. No exceptions. Final draft revisions will only be allowed for papers submitted on time. What is it?
• A researched op-ed (opinion essay) responding to a current social problem that results from inequalities in race, class or gender. (Or, the problem might involve overlaps between two or more of these identity categories).
• Minimum of 1000 words •
It will have one primary source which helps you to specify the problem. This could include a published source, an interview with someone, or your own personal experience.
• It will have at least three secondary sources which help you to learn more about the problem and identify possible solutions. o It should identify at least two different viewpoints: either different perspectives on the problem or different solutions
• All information taken from these sources should be cited using MLA style. All quotes should be clearly marked and follow the five rules of quoting.
• Include a Works Cited list, using MLA citation style Assignment Topic: We have been discussing misperceptions surrounding three key aspects of identity in America: race, gender and class. Now you will identify a current social problem that results from inequalities people face due to one or more of these identity categories. You will write an opinion piece, or op-ed, which defines the problem AND makes a specific argument about what steps we can take to solve it, or at least begin to solve it. Who is this for? You should identify what kind of publication you think would be most interested in publishing your opinion piece, based on your topic. That might include a national, city or local newspaper, LaGuardia’s newspaper The Bridge, or perhaps the online newsletter of an organization or group you are familiar with. You will identify your target publication at the top of your paper, and that will impact how you introduce your problem and how you try to persuade the readers of your argument. If you decide to send your work to that publication at the end of the semester, which I encourage, I will work with you on additional revisions. Plagiarism As with the previous papers, this paper will be scanned by plagiarism detection software. Any facts, ideas or quotes which are not properly cited will be considered plagiarism. Papers which plagiarize will receive an “F” grade and may be referred to the college’s Academic Integrity officer. Structure of the Paper: Your paper should have:
• An introduction which introduces the problem and your own argument. It should attempt to catch the attention of your intended reader and show him/her why this problem is worth paying attention to.
• No more than two body paragraphs describing the problem and any relevant historical information, such as the causes of the problem, laws or policies which have tried to fix it in the past, etc.
• At least two body paragraphs describing different perspectives on how to deal with this issue and your own ideas about what should be done
• A conclusion which sums up the key points and tells the reader why your argument is important Why are we doing this?
This paper involves all of the course objectives, but particularly objective #4: “Demonstrate research skills using appropriate technology, including gathering, evaluating, and synthesizing primary and secondary sources. Essays will include quotation, summation, paraphrase, and citation and will avoid plagiarism”. Our goal here is to continue to carefully analyze source texts, to continue to create an argument and organize it, while adding on the new skill of finding sources and balancing multiple perspectives in a paper. How will I be graded? All of the things we have been working on this semester still matter here. You should still have: a clear argument, evidence to back it up, analysis of all quotes, examples or other information used as evidence, and organized paragraphs with clear transitions between them. In addition, since this is a research paper, you will be graded on your ability to accurately and correctly cite your sources and create a Works Cited list. See the grading rubric for details. Tips for Identifying a Topic and Finding Sources Identifying a topic Your topic should be focused enough that you can describe, analyze and propose solutions to it in around 1000 words. It should also be something concrete or measurable. So for example, “racial discrimination” is real, but it is difficult to measure or to solve in the abstract and you cannot write an effective paper solving all of racial discrimination in 1000 words (you probably can’t even cover it all over several books). You should narrow the focus to something like racial discrimination in AirBnb rentals, because that’s something where we can prove its existence, identify causes, look at different perspectives for how to solve it, and identify solutions without getting lost in a maze of subtopics. If you need to broaden the focus from a more narrow starting place to fully understand the issue, that’s fine, but if you start too broad you will have a hard time finding sources that connect to each other in specific ways. Other tips for choosing a topic:
• Make sure your topic reflects a broad social issue, not an instance of discrimination coming from an individual or group of individuals, because you want to propose concrete solutions, not just “re-education” or “diversity awareness”.
• Do NOT choose an issue which has a strong “pro” and “con” camp but is debated on moral grounds, such as “abortion” or “gay marriage.” These are not problems which we can propose solutions to; the debate about them can only result in opinions.
• Do NOT choose something vague like “police brutality”. Papers on this topic in the past have mainly involved a long list of well-known cases, but the causes of the problem are different for each case, making a single argument about solutions almost impossible. Focus instead on a particular reason for tensions between the police and the community, such as the use of stop-and-frisk, “broken windows” police tactics, lack of racial diversity among some police forces, the use of military tactics by the police, the misuse or lack of body camera footage to accurately record encounters between police and citizens, and so on.
• Make sure to state your topic as a problem. For example, instead of saying that your topic is “bail reform” you would say that your problem is “the negative impact of cash bail on low-income communities”. Finding a primary source Refer to my list of suggested primary sources to help you identify a topic. If you choose your own topic, you should find a primary source that either discusses a personal, individual experience with the problem or that provides data demonstrating the problem. Either way, the primary source should prove that the problem exists. If you choose to use yourself as a primary source, you will describe your experience in the paper as evidence. If you choose to use a family member/friend/neighbor/classmate as your primary source, you will interview that person and cite the interview. Finding secondary sources The secondary sources (at least three) will serve two purposes:
1) they will give you background information to help you understand the problem better and
2) they will give you multiple perspectives on how to deal with the problem. Your job in looking through and identifying sources is to educate yourself on this topic, so you can make a clear argument about a possible response to it. You may read more than three sources, so make sure to keep track of everything that you read, in case you decide later that you want to use something from a source. Keep an eye out for sources which provide a broad overview and/or which provide multiple points of view about the topic. Try to get a range of ideas on how to solve it. Here are the types of sources you might look at:
• Encyclopedia entries on the issue (see the library’s encyclopedia databases like Gale Virtual Reference library)
• Historical or scholarly books, films, or TV
• Feature stories or opinion articles in newspapers, magazines or online that give context, interview experts and analyze the issue (try Lexis Uni database)
• Information from the website of a nonprofit (.org) or educational (.edu) source which has expertise in the issue (you must verify the reliability of such sources)
• Viewpoint articles from the database Opposing Viewpoints in Context
• Scholarly articles (see the database Academic Search Complete) I am happy to suggest one or more possible sources to you once you have decided on a topic, if you choose one of the suggested topics. Whatever topic you choose, you are also encouraged to visit the library reference desk for help finding sources. We will discuss how to decide whether you should use a source in class, and you will explain your reasoning to me in the Annotated Bibliography assignment.
Reflection Letter Guidelines for Paper 3 (Research Paper) Due: December 3, with final draft of paper NOTE: Unlike Paper 1 and Paper 2, the reflection letter for this paper will be worth 10% of the total grade on the paper. In order to get full credit, you need to
• write at least 400 words, in paragraph form
• reflect on all three of the key areas mentioned in an organized fashion, and
• make the letter relatively free of grammatical errors (proofread carefully). These are the areas your letter should discuss:
1. Your approach to the assignment:
• How do you understand the goals of this assignment, based on our conversations in class and the section called “Why are we doing this?” on the assignment sheet? Has this understanding changed at all as you started to write?
• What additional goals did you have for yourself on this paper? What did you do to meet them?
• What is the problem you addressed, and what do you see as your argument for how to address this problem?
• What type of publication were you targeting your opinion article for? How were you thinking of your audience while writing?
• How have you used ethos, logos or pathos to persuade your audience of your argument? 2. Your writing process:
• What skills or strategies for the writing process did you use for this paper? Did you try anything new this time around?
• Identify at least two things you did between the rough drafts and this final draft to improve your paper and discuss how you went about making those changes.
• What were your biggest challenges while writing this paper?
• What do you think you did well on in this paper?
3. Your growth overall during the semester:
• Thinking back to Paper 1, where do you think you made the most improvement in your writing this semester?
• What were some of the biggest things you learned about yourself as a writer? What do you still need to remember or keep working on in the future?
• How do you see yourself applying what you learning in this class to your future classes or to life and work outside of school?
Submission Instructions (for all take-home essays)
Disadvantaged patients may seek care in emergency rooms because they have nowhere else to receive services..
US Health Care
- Identify a health problem in the US Health Care sector from the list below.
- Prepare a summary document using the required format.
- The table should be single spaced and total no more than 2.5 pages in 11 to 12 point font. Except in the case of titles, use complete sentences, i.e. write using narrative format. Include a cover page and a list of references in APA Format. No more than 15% of direct quotes or paraphrasing are permitted in the document.
- Select from the following health problems. Note only three (3) to four (4) students may select each topic area. The Instructor will establish a conference to sign up these topics. First-come. First-served:
- Tobacco dependency threatens the health of many Americans and it poses a preventable burden to the healthcare system.
- It is not unusual for patients in US hospitals to acquire preventable diseases infections and conditions during their stay in the hospital.
- A growing pool of patients is unable to read and write in the English language. Language is a barrier to effective care delivery as well as patient compliance.
- Elderly and disabled patients with multiple medications are at risk of medication interactions and potential drug safety concerns.
- Veterans may suffer from service-related injuries, both physical and mental health are concerns for the VA.
- Not all medical devices are constructed safely. Patients and providers rely on their safety.
- Health care providers are scarce in certain low-income and rural underserved areas in the US, including Native American territories.
- Disadvantaged patients may seek care in emergency rooms because they have nowhere else to receive services.
- Disadvantaged children often do not have health insurance and do not receive the preventive care (such as vaccines and well-baby check-ups) that can avoid long-term health problems.