I have always felt the urge to walk away from every relationship that feels real due to a conflict that left me feeling broken and devastated. I once loved this boy who ended up breaking my heart and ended up dating my best friend in a bid to make me jealous while all I did was go for a camp with my cousins who he allegedly argued that were cover ups for my secret boyfriend.
This conflict stemmed out of the fact that we culturally have a family gathering once every month. My boyfriend felt that I went into the country too many times and maybe it was because I secretly saw each other. He supported his argument with the fact that I posted several pictures on social media sharing a traditional meal with one cousin in particular where we sit on stools and eat together. My boyfriend thought that this was a romantic meal which he further supported with other pictures where we were caught on camera playing with the hard of a sheep we had just finished slaughtering. Our customs allow us to slaughter together, wash hands, and eat together without using forks or spoons, just our bare hands.
Most people do not understand each other’s cultural norms, and they tend to misinterpret them or to look at them wrongly. If he had understood our customs, he could not have felt threatened and insecure. However, my boyfriend was ignorant of the fact that he did not even try to understand that this was my cousin and incest is culturally unacceptable. He merely thought I was lying to him about him being a part of our family. He held the notion that our culture was misguided and it presented people with a platform to be unfaithful. However, our culture believes in the values of family and aims to strengthen that bond. This is what most people fail to understand.
Cultural practices such as goat slaughtering, holding family gatherings, and sharing a meal, are what make our culture what it is. People come together in the big occasion and still meet up in small occasions. Our culture allows us to pray together and perform certain rituals such as cleansing of the family together. Therefore, this was the reason I was so much engraved in family activities from time to time that my boyfriend thought I was cheating.
This proved some theoretical arguments about feminism whereby people find it acceptable when a man does something and unacceptable when it is a woman. My boyfriend did not think my alleged boyfriend was in the wrong because he felt that meant were justified to go for what they loved. He even once blamed me for asking him whether he was seeing another girl whom he argued was a family member. In my situation, he was totally convinced that I was in the wrong, regardless of the situation.
Feminist theories aim at understanding the nature of gender inequality which was clearly shown when my boyfriend ultimately chose to date my best friend after breaking up with me. If I had reacted in the same way, I could have been painted as a slut or a cheap person while when he did it, he just gained more fame and popularity. This serves to show how the community is still misguided on the aspect of equality.
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Mafic Dikes of NE Kaapvaal craton, geochemistry and cross-cutting relationship ages.
Swarms in the dykes may be further defined as the large geological feature that consists of major groups of linear and parallel dikes that create an overlying intrusion within the continental crust with a radial orientation. Several to hundreds of dikes are emplaced marginally during the intrusive event that occurs once, and they are magmatic and stratigraphic. When such dike swarms form a large igneous state, they might be at one time the cause or origin of a volcanic state. In some areas such as the Archean and paleoproterozoic terrains, mafic dike swarm occurrence is often referenced as pure evidence. This is because of the activity in the mantle plume, which is associated with abnormal temperatures.
Mafic Dikes of NE Kaapvaal craton, geochemistry and cross-cutting relationship ages.
Dike swarms may have a wide extension of over 400 km (249 mi) in both width and length. The Mackenzie dike swarm located half in the Canadian shields in the west is well known as the largest dike swarm in the whole world. It is more than 500 km (311 mi) wide and 3,000 km (1,864 mi) long. However the numbers of huge dike swarms on earth are at a lower level of about 25 only, yet the primary bisection of the huge swarms is at a poor recognition all over the world. The reasons for this are the age factor and various tectonic activities (Vel\’Azquez and Riccomini et al. 18). Different swarms were established and developed at different times and on different reasons and current trends of the world. The evidence viable in this sect show the differences.
Swarm is collectively referring to a certain behavior shown by different animals, insects, people or any other group of the same kind that puts them together, for example, migrating together or milling about a very same point (O’loan and Evans 99). In this text, we deal with the trends or patterns of different swarms of dikes in different countries relating them to age, cross-cutting relationships, and geochemistry.
Specifically, we narrow down to the Mafic Dikes of NE Kaapvaal craton in South Africa.
Field evidence is one of the methods used in determining the age approximations of the complex array of the mafic dykes across the Eastern Kaapvaal craton in South Africa while the analysis of these trends in the dikes and also the character of the petrology of some dyke samples forming the other (Klausen and S\”Oderlund et al. 501–522). 2010-01-01
Facts deploy that xenoliths at the basement of the dikes are contained in the dikes with some elements of calc-alkaline, andesitic and quartz-oversaturated character. On the other side of it, Proterozoic dykes are aero magnetically prominent tholeiitic basalts which have high modal oxide elements. A positive indication states that geochemical there is a clear distinction observed between the two swarms that is Archean high and Proterozoic low and La/Yb dyke swarms, and the calc-alkaline nature of the swarms is expanded by LILE-enhanced spider-element designs as contrasted to the Proterozoic swarm (Klausen and S\”Oderlund et al. 501–522).
Roughly the geochemical similarities may be consistent with the dykes with values ∼2.95 and ∼2.65 Ga with the coeval lava being the feeders to the system. These lavas are located within the Nsuze Group and Allan ridge Formation, respectively. The coeval sills are found mostly in Zimbabwe, and the Kaapvaal cratons have a close relationship with each other. These sills are however the feeders to the south pans berg group of lavas at presumable facts (Olsson and S\”Oderlund et al. 490–500). The dated feeder dyke systems are the source of the new information thus being the source code to the cause of Medtronic setting re-evaluation, where the range is from the state back-arc to either radiating swarms or vice versa originating from igneous centres.
When we organize an overview towards the Kaapvaal craton origin eliminating some form of the plate tectonics to have been operative, the Kaapvaal craton nucleus formation formed by approximately 3.1 Ga can be related to the first value of thin-skin thrusting within the ocean and arc settings and subsequent merging of the displaced oceanic and arc terrains, in conjunction with the significant granitoid magmatism suggestions states that the bulk of the terrain accretion which formed the Kaapvaal craton, occurred along two prominent ENE-WSW suture zones, the Barberton lineament (BL) and the Thabazimbi-Murchison lineament (TML) between 3.23 and 2.9 Ga (Anhaeusser 193–210).
Kaapvaal craton is composed of a minimum of four distinct terranes (Barberton-North [BN] and Barberton-South [BS] on either side of the BL; Murchison-Northern Kaapvaal [MNK] north of the TML, and Limpopo Central Zone [LCZ] Recent U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope which underwent several crustal evolutions and they had success accretion at c.3.23 (BN and BS), 2.9 (assembled BN-BS and MNK) and 2.65-2.7 Ga (three existing terranes and LCZ) (Zeh and Gerdes et al. 215–223).
The Murchison greenstone belt is another feature that accreted from approximately N to S through the set margin on the northeast of the Kaapvaal nucleus and was characterized by c. 3.1 – 2.9 Ga mafic and granitic magmatism that was within an arc-subduction system; thus, it formed part of the MNK composite terrane, non-exclusive of the Pietersburg greenstone belt. Between c. with value 2.7Ga and value 2.6 Ga, this is where further accretion took place from the opposite side of the north, with an exotic terrane placed at a juxtaposition, the Central layer of the Limpopo mobile belt (LMB), along a ENE-WSW trending, inward dipping, strike-slip shear zone, the Palala-Zoetfontain shear zone (Zeh and Gerdes et al. 215–223). Rocks of the Southern Marginal zone (SMZ) of this mobile belt, which represent high-grade equivalents of the granite-greenstone cratonic successions, were thrust onto the Kaapvaal craton along the Hout River shear zone at 2691-2620 Ma (Van Reenen).
The accretion that occurred western side onto the Kaapvaal nucleus took place at c. 2-8-2.72 Ga and along a suture point presently preserved as the Coles burg magnetic lineament (De Wit and Tinker 185–206).
The contents of some elements experimented and a vertical analysis was put across for several shale elements that is about 100 from the ten formations mostly in the eastern central and some parts of the craton in South Africa. The shale found in the Kaapvaal has characters of components which are at a low value, atomic ratios in kerogens from the shales created an indication that the loss of the Kaapvaal shales at considerable amounts of the elements during diagenesis and regional metamorphism (Watanabe and Naraoka et al. 3441–3459).
From relationships between the H/C ratios of kerogen contents of shales formed theoretically, the actual contents of the shales from the Kaapvaal Craton (Archean and Proterozoic) are approximated to be on an average of ˜2 wt.%. These values and the average organic of modern marine sediments are similar. This is a suggestion to mean that the organic elements preserved and the organic productivity in an ocean during a specified duration was the same as to those in the earlier era, so long as there was a close relationship in the elasticity of the sediments. Additionally, this will implicate that the rate of oxygen accumulation in the system of atmosphere-ocean, which has an equal value to the burial rate of sediments containing organic matter, has been at the same level since ˜3.0 Ga (Watanabe and Naraoka et al. 3441–3459).
There are values that are very consistent In that the higher amount of the crystals coming from pyrite in the shales of the archean was formed due to the bacterial activity on seawater sulfate where the 34S component has values between +2% and +10‰, and this seawater was sulfate-rich (Watanabe and Naraoka et al. 3441–3459).
Changes spotted in values related to the 13Corg during the process of kerogen development underwent evaluation with non-practical examinations from the experimental facts on natural samples. The 13Corg levels rise depicted are more or less than the values of estimation. These facts creates an awareness that some of the elements decrease only if other factors are present(Peters and Rohrback et al.).
Recent geophysical and mantle-xenoliths geochemistry studies of the Kaapvaal Craton most results, which appear, at times, to provide disparate views of the physical structure, chemical and thermal structure of the lithosphere. However, the models from our recent SAMTEX magnetotelluric (MT) research across the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa pose a resistive, 220-240 km thick lithosphere that the central core has within the craton. One published S-wave receiver function (SRF) study amongst other surface-wave studies suggests that a smaller lithosphere characterized by a ~160 km solid high-velocity “top” underlain by a low-velocity stripe (LVZ) of range 65-150 km in width. Additional seismic research implies that the lithosphere is dense, with a margin of 220 km. Mantle xenolith pressure-temperature patterns from Mesozoic kimberlites expect that the foundation of the “thermal” lithosphere (i.e., the deepness above which a conductive geotherm is stated – the t LAB) is at a minimal 220 km under, to consider for mantle geotherms in the series 35-38 mWm-2 (Jones and Evans et al. 03).
A short description on the geology and evolution of the cover sequences on the Kaapvaal craton from c. 3.1 – 2.05 Ga presented in this paper gives a suggestion that mantle thermal
Processes, mainly in plumes and superplume form events, might have predominantly resided over plate tectonics, however, influencing this period, and there is an exception of unequivocal support for Kaapvaal that formed part of any super continental merging before c. 2.0 Ga.
The deformation of the Godwan proto-basinal fill, related to the Black Reef Formation, or removal of chemical sediments along the Southern TB is one of the evidence among others, all appear to have been local events, and concomitantly all in the general area of the paleo-Rand anticline, a long-lived feature subject to repeated uplifts (Eriksson et al.107-119).
None of the above tectonic shortening events gives in either intensity or scale to an interpretation. Due to this fact or reason, a question is raised above the eyebrow stating the possible geodynamic properties for the craton whilst the long period of over a billion years, and yet here we have a recourse to the available and possible conditions at the transition in Earth history from a thermally-dominated planet to a layered mantle and where plate tectonics rest at the pre-eminent structure. However, due to the processes and evidence viable in the text, they prove that the bush veld complex has a close relationship with the mafic dyke formation that is the formation of the dyke’s extent its processes to the complex.
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Catuneanu, Octavian and Patrick G Eriksson. “Sequence stratigraphy of the Precambrian Rooihoogte–Timeball Hill rift succession, Transvaal Basin, South Africa.” Sedimentary Geology, 147. 1 (2002): 71–88.
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Chudy, TC, A Zeh, A Gerdes, R Klemd and JM Barton. “Palaeoarchaean (3.3 Ga) mafic magmatism and Palaeoproterozoic (2.02 Ga) amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt: New geochronological, petrological and geochemical constraints from metabasic and metapelitic rocks from the Venetia area.” South African Journal of Geology, 111. 4 (2008): 387–408.
Dalziel, Ian WD. “OVERVIEW: Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: Review, hypothesis, environmental speculation.” Geological Society of America Bulletin, 109. 1 (1997): 16–42.
De Kock, Michiel O, David AD Evans and Nicolas J Beukes. “Validating the existence of Vaalbara in the Neoarchean.” Precambrian Research, 174. 1 (2009): 145–154.
De Wit, Maarten J. “On Archean granites, greenstones, cratons and tectonics: does the evidence demand a verdict?.” Precambrian research, 91. 1 (1998): 181–226.
De Wit, Maarten and Justine Tinker. “Crustal structures across the central Kaapvaal craton from deep-seismic reflection data.” South African Journal of Geology, 107. 1-2 (2004): 185–206.
De Wit, Maarten J, Cornel EJ De Ronde, Marian Tredoux, Chris Roering, Rodger J Hart, Richard A Armstrong, Rod WE Green, Ellie Peberdy and Roger A Hart. “Formation of an Archaean continent.” Nature, 357. 6379 (1992): 553–562.
Els, BG. “The auriferous late Archaean sedimentation systems of South Africa: unique palaeo-environmental conditions?.” Sedimentary geology, 120. 1 (1998): 205–224.
Els, B.G., van den Els, BG, WA Van Den Berg and JJ Mayer. “The Black Reef Quartzite Formation in the western Transvaal: sedimentological and economic aspects, and significance for basin evolution.” Mineralium Deposita, 30. 2 (1995): 112–123.
Eriksson, Kenneth A, Brian R Turner and Richard G Vos. “Evidence of tidal processes from the lower part of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa.” Sedimentary Geology, 29. 4 (1981): 309–325.
Eriksson, PG and W Altermann. “An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Supergroup dolomites (South Africa).” Environmental geology, 36. 1-2 (1998): 179–188.
Eriksson, PG, UM Schreiber and M Van Der Neut. “A review of the sedimentology of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting.” Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 13. 1 (1991): 107–119.
Jaguin, Justine, Denis Gapais, Marc Poujol, Philippe Boulvais and J-F Moyen. “The Murchison Greenstone Belt (South Africa): a general tectonic framework.” South African Journal of Geology, 115. 1 (2012): 65–76.
Jones, AG, R Evans, X Garcia, M Hamilton, S Evans, S Fourie, A Mountford, J Spratt and AD Chave. “A Magnetotelluric Survey of the Kaapvaal Craton and its surroundings: The SAMTEX Experiment.” 1. (2005): 03.
Klausen, MB, U S\”Oderlund, JR Olsson, RE Ernst, M Armoogam, SW Mkhize and G Petzer. “Petrological discrimination among Precambrian dyke swarms: eastern Kaapvaal craton (South Africa).” Precambrian Research, 183. 3 (2010): 501–522.
Olsson, JR, U S\”Oderlund, MB Klausen and RE Ernst. “U–Pb baddeleyite ages linking major Archean dyke swarms to volcanic-rift forming events in the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), and a precise age for the Bushveld Complex.” Precambrian Research, 183. 3 (2010): 490–500.
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Van Reenen, Dirk D. Origin and evolution of Precambrian high-grade gneiss terranes, with special emphasis on the Limpopo Complex of Southern Africa. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America, 2011.
Vel\’Azquez, Victor F, Claudio Riccomini, Celso De Barros Gomes and Jason Kirk. “The cretaceous alkaline dyke swarm in the central segment of the Asunci\’on rift, eastern Paraguay: its regional distribution, mechanism of emplacement, and tectonic significance.” Journal of Geological Research, 2011. (2011): 18. <http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgr/2011/946701/>.
Watanabe, Yumiko, Hiroshi Naraoka, David J Wronkiewicz, Kent C Condie and Hiroshi Ohmoto. “Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur geochemistry of Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61. 16 (1997): 3441–3459.
Zeh, Armin, Axel Gerdes and Christoph Heubeck. “U–Pb and Hf isotope data of detrital zircons from the Barberton Greenstone Belt: constraints on provenance and Archaean crustal evolution.” Journal of the Geological Society, 170. 1 (2013): 215–223.
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Module 02 Discussion – The Nurse-Client Relationship
In this discussion, we’ll talk about the nurse-client relationship and the use of therapeutic communication as an important part of that relationship. Please answer the following questions:
The Nurse-Client Relationship
What are your concerns or fears about mental health nursing in general? Are you interested in mental health nursing, or do you approach the topic with some anxiety?
What do you feel are essential aspects of a good nurse-client relationship?
Please include an example of how you established good rapport and a good professional relationship with a patient in the work or clinical setting. What nonverbal and verbal techniques did you use in this relationship?
Note: APA Style
Please make an initial post by midweek and respond to at least two other students’ posts with substantial details demonstrating an understanding of the concepts and critical thinking. Remember that your posts must exhibit appropriate writing mechanics, including using proper language, cordiality, and proper grammar and punctuation. If you refer to outside sources or reference materials, provide proper attribution and/or citation.
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Major Relationship Between Arthritis, Arthritis Patients, And Nurses
Arthritis is a disease in which the body tend to malfunction as one grows older. The body of a human being works through a series of veins. Veins are thin walled blood vessels that carry blood from the body tissues back to the heart. Veins form a network of ‘straw’ vessels throughout the body. In the limbs i.e. hands and legs, the distance from the heart lowers the pressure with which the heart pumps the blood (Francesca, et al. 12). Therefore, to facilitate the movement of blood from the legs and arms towards the heart and vice versa, the muscles squeeze the deep veins forcing the blood upwards. There are several disorders attached to the deep veins. The focus of this paper is on the deep disability of the veins which can be termed as arthritis. Arthritis affects different parts of the body, this include the knees, elbow and various joints. Research shows that the number of people is very high compared to the majority number of services. In different terms the mode in which various medical facility have been distributed all over the world is minimal and can not cater for the whole population. This facility includes joint replacement machines and medicines in case of an early detection. As arthritis tends to grow into different stages there is need for of the patients affected by the disease, the care requires learned personnel’s who can be able to cater for different services.
Major Relationship Between Arthritis, Arthritis Patients, And Nurses
Nursing has one of the most interesting histories in comparison to other professions. In the %the century BC, a famous philosopher Hippocrates is known to have advocated for care for the sick and wounded as they recover back you normal health and the fit in maintenance of their health. The religious books of our times, The Bible to be precise, records that Jesus a Key figure in the foundation of Christianity is known to have advocated for care of the sick as well. History apart, it was not until the 17th century that nursing began to live as a service. In England for instance, care giving; the early form of nursing then was delegated to men and women in punishment. These were often prostitutes and criminals serving in prison. Florence Nightingale is remembered today for being the first person to consider nursing as a profession, getting into it well learned, she began a formal training procedure for nurses. In 1901, New Zealand became the first nation to enact a provision for nursing as a profession. Nursing is a profession like any other, governed by national and international law. It is trained as a course at various levels of study the largest being the PHD. The process of entering into a nursing profession is a choice by interest basis. However, unlike other professions, nursing is associated with a calling into the profession. Interest into other courses is commonly driven by job availability or professional marketability, salary and reward associated patterns, previous experiences among other many preferences. However, nursing is an interest by devotion and dedication based profession. Although not formally stated, nursing has been talked of as a service oriented profession and therefore, its personnel are expected operate not to meet the requirements set within their ethics, but to devotedly eradicate human suffering through care services. Majority of personnel in the nursing profession in the past are had personalityies tending towards the ethical expectation of nursing. However, today, recent records proof otherwise. Not many formalities are followed at the expression of interest to enter the profession. Prospective entrants only need to go to college, study a minimum of a diploma certificate and register as a nurse.
This paper is a focus on the cares and the risk factors of arthritis in South African population. Dr.Virchrows in early 2005 (www.pathguy.com/virchow.htm, www.oralchelation.net/../page8a.htm) spent time in South Africa and observed that prevalence of arthritis in patients grew at a rate of 18%. Most of these patients were also HIV positive (Liu, et al p.32) (edrv.endojournals.org/../313). He conducted a systematic study and in the end of his study, he outlined several principal factors risking arthritis in South Africa. Deep vein thrombosis also known as deep venous thrombosis [medicine] is caused by formation of blood clot in the deep veins of the body. It mostly occurs in the deep veins of the legs. In most cases, the blood clots usually dissolve on their own without any medical intervention. However, this clotting tends to make the body malfunction as one age (Bjorklund p.14). This is however tends to affect joints, the elbow and knees. People tend to ignore this factor because they think that it is a result of aging. This condition has no cure but, better medical care is needed for people suffering from this disease.
Background / Literature Review
Dr.Virchrows in early 2005 spent time in South Africa and observed that prevalence of arthritis in patients grew at a rate of 18%.Most of these patients were also HIV positive (Canadian Arthritis Network 11). He conducted a systematic study and in the end of his study, he outlined several principal factors risking deep vein thrombosis in South Africa (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
Prolonged Inactivity: Lack of leg movement up to four hours or more due to driving for long hours or long flights causes calf muscles in the legs be unable to contract. Contraction of muscles is necessary for facilitating smooth blood circulation in the veins of the legs hence lack of blood circulation enhances the risk of blood clotting in the veins. This can also occur to patients in bed rest or patients with paralysis. (p.22)
Genetic disorder: exactly how much does genetic affect the case of arthritis? Generic are transferred from one generation to the other. Clough insinuates that genetic has a slight chance of affecting the body of the generation to get the same disease (p.34) According to medicine heredity traits are acquired from the parent through genes. This genetic material does not necessary change during fertilisation. Thus a genetic disorder in the family can be said to be one of the ways of having arthritis. Deep vein thrombosis could be as a result of a genetic disorder causing blood clots in the veins. Meaning that joints will start having disorders as one age, this can be counted with specified time. ( p.36-38)
Surgery: During surgery general anaesthesia used tends to dilate veins raising the risk of blood clotting. Injury to veins could also slow down blood circulation hence blockage of veins. According to Shen (p.981), surgeries that could risk arthritis include: Orthopaedic operations involving the hip and knees, neurological procedures, major pelvic or abdominal surgery caused by malignant like cancer(Anderson ML, rheumatoid arthritis(2006))
Some high-level sports: Over the years sports has been determined to be one of the best ways to keep fit. Thus it is very difficult to determine how sports would cause arthritis. Sports as a general lead to side effects which are generally not positively oriented. Various exercises and sports can lead to bone joint injury and subsequent arthritis. During sports some people tend to have hearts issues. Poor heart conditions slacken blood flow and this may lead to blood clots causing veins blockage, as seen earlier this may lead to arthritis. The benefits of sports generally out numbers the chances in which one risk at getting arthritis(McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
Obesity: Joints are responsible for supporting the body. Joint damaged thus is highly dependant on the total weight exerted on specific areas. Excess weight puts pressure on the legs and pelvic thus reducing blood circulation in the lower limbs. This could cause blood clots. Excessive weight may also increase the chances of getting arthritis through damages caused by the excessive weights (The British Pain Society-2005-p 2).
Occupational hazards: Some workers stand a great chance of being affected by arthritis. This include people who work in assembly areas, assembly areas generally involves working with heavy machines. This weight exerted in different body parts affect joints; this may end up injuring different joints in the body. Workers working in smoke oriented industries stand a high chance of getting arthritis. Smoke slows down blood circulation in the body and could also cause blood clot.(Armstrong L-2007)
Illness or infection: People with infections which affect the joints, high levels of gout, or any other medical conditions. These conditions tend to leave people very vulnerable to diseases. An example of this is arthritis. Previous injuries also tend to cause abnormality of the normal smooth join surfaces. The tibia plateau fracture is an example of an injury which may cause arthritis. The space which had the fracture may enter the knee joint. This is an example of arthritis on the knee joint (Belcher c- (2004-2007)-gycosaminoglycans)
Well over 200,000 South Africans suffer from arthritis each year, (p.4) but, because most arthritis is occult, the true incidence is unknown (Burnside, et al. Page 493). Approximately 50,000 patients per year require hospitalization for 5-10 days of intravenous heparin therapy. In addition to those with acute thrombosis, thousands more suffer from Sequelae such as stasis dermatitis and venous ulcers. While the degree of morbidity is significant, mortality rates are equally problematic. Thromboembolic disease is annually responsible for 20,000 deaths in South Africa. The elderly are in greatest jeopardy; arthritis is associated with around 20% annual mortality in this age group (Coates p.56). Many in this subgroup die from associated pulmonary embolism (PE), while others succumb from co morbid disease, especially cancer. Even children are at risk for acute arthritis. Paediatric patients at risk include those with spinal mechanism that propels blood into the central circulation. Stasis plays a role in joint encountered in the morbidly obese and in individuals with cardiac disease. Limb paralysis from stroke or spinal cord injury is associated with a difficult to evaluate syndrome of painless or occult arthritis (Burnside, et al. P.493).Surgery and trauma are responsible for up to 40% of all joint related diseases, which results from both a hypercoagulable state and immobility. These insults activate the clotting cascade, and indices of arthritis and fibrinolysis rise rapidly (Aurich M, Squires GR- differential matrix degradation- 2005)
Questions heparin for arthritis, interestingly, this practice is not justified by the literature. For patients not on warfarin, assessment of the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) will almost never affect management. Obviously, a PTT should be obtained six hours after standard heparin in begun (Goodacre, et al. P. 129). If a patient with acute arthritis is currently on warfarin, an International Normalized Ratio (INR) is essential for management. It is now well documented that the prothrombin time (PT) is both antiquated and inaccurate, primarily because the sensitivity of joints tissue reagents differs from batch to batch. Fortunately, the International Normalized Ratio (INR) adjusts for this lack of standardization by comparing each batch with an International Sensitivity Index. (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
Measurement of the prothrombin time could be eliminated from clinical practice if replaced by the (INR). Adequate anticoagulation for arthritis is reflected by an International Normalized Ratio(INR) between two and three. If a patient with a sub-therapeutic INR develops arthritis, they will require more aggressive anticoagulation— first with heparin, and then an increased dose of warfarin. However, a patient who is on warfarin, but sustains an acute clot and has a therapeutic INR, requires a Greenfield filter. Emergency Medicine Reports (p.17) chest pains or shortness of breath should have a volumetric quantitative computed tomography (VQCT) scan to expedite the diagnosis (Heit, et al. P.697). Two joints tests are valuable in the management of arthritis disease: the D-dimer and the INR. Current D-dimer assays have predictive value for arthritis, and the INR is useful for guiding the management of patients with early detected arthritis who are on warfarin. While no blood test can conclusively rule in or rule out venous arthritis, a normal D-dimer in a patient with no risk factors for thrombosis makes proximal arthritis extremely unlikely. Despite the fact that it is frequently ordered, a complete blood count (CBC) rarely provides useful information in patients with joint signs or symptoms. The leukocyte count cannot distinguish between arthritis and cellulitis and is neither sensitive nor specific for either condition (Torjuul, Elstad and Sorlie p.9) Coagulation studies rarely are required as part of the initial evaluation of venous arthritis (Gottlieb, et al. P.853). Occasionally, these studies may be valuable after Doppler demonstrates an acute arthritis, and in patients who develop the disease while on warfarin.
A caveat that is nearly 20 years old remains valid today. “A combination of clinical signs and symptoms that included tenderness, swelling, redness, and the assessment of Humans’ sign [can] not adequately differentiate patients with or without arthritis (Righini p.55).”This is not to imply that physical examination is useless, but that a number of physical findings in combination with risk factors assist in the diagnosis of a patient with joint complaints. Occasionally, a rectal temperature can help distinguish cellulitis from arthritis. While patients with arthritis may have a low grade fever due to a systemic inflammatory response, this fever rarely exceeds 102°F (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
To help make this differentiation, it is essential to completely undress the patient with leg symptoms and inspect for lymphangitis, erythema, and ulcerations. Joints may become infected, especially in patients with intravenous drug abuse. Remember to examine the entire joint for abnormalities, as lymphangitis may have large “skip” areas. Be alert for psychiatric patients or prisoners who may tie a tourniquet around their thigh to produce factitious arthritis. Lack of discrepancy in calf size does not rule out arthritis. Some researchers have standardized calf measurements at 10 cm below the tibial tuberosity. While asymmetry of the calves of 1 cm or more is abnormal, such asymmetry does not definitively distinguish between patients with Thromboembolic disease and that without (MacKay, et al. P.29).
However, asymmetric calf swelling of greater than 3 cm is almost always a significant finding. Examine the joints for pitting edema; extremities affected by acute thrombosis are frequently warmer than the opposite limb. Palpation includes a search for “cords,” which are very specific, although insensitive for thrombosis. Cords are most often detected in the popliteal fossa. Palpate distal pulses and evaluate capillary refill to assess limb perfusion. Pulses may also be diminished in long-standing arterial disease. The presence of pain with passive range of motion of the toes or ankle is an important clue to compartment syndrome. Move and palpate all joints to detect acute arthritis or other joint pathology (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
Neurologic evaluation may detect nerve root irritation; sensory, motor, and reflex deficits should be noted. Search for a thrill or bruit which is associated with arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. Patients with large fistulas have abnormally high cardiac output, and manual compression of the fistula reflexively slows the heart by reducing the shunt (Branham’s sign). Patients with a remote history of a gunshot wound to the extremity are most likely to present with a fistula (p.89) Bony tenderness does not rule out DVT. Indeed, up to 65% of patients with DVT will have pain with percussion of the medial tibia (Smolen 8). Bancroft or Moses’ sign is pain with compression of the calf against the tibia. Some patients with arthritis will have more pain with this manoeuvre than with transverse compression of the gastrocnemius. A review of venous thrombosis would not be complete without mention of Homans sign: pain in the posterior calf or knee with forced dorsiflexion of the foot. It is often present in patients with sciatica (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
Despite numerous references to Humans sign in the medical literature, this finding is inaccurate and unreliable. Examination of the patient with arthritis does not end with evaluation of the extremity. Search for stigmata of PE such as tachycardia (common), tachypnea or neck findings (rare), and exam for signs suggestive of underlying malignancy. Diffuse swelling can indicate the presence of an up coming numbness. Effort-induced arthritis occurs in young, active males, while catheter-related arthritis is limited to patients with prior instrumentation or intravenous old people (aging). Dilated collateral veins are frequent in the joints, but these are more easily seen in Caucasians (Wells p.295). Look for arm discoloration and palpable axillary veins. Diagnostic Studies Clinical examination alone is able to confirm only 20-30% of cases of arthritis. Because of the limitations associated with the physical examination and history, the diagnosis of arthritis must be pursued in any patient who presents with unexplained extremity pain or swelling. A patient, who presents with symptoms in both arms and both legs, usually will not be suffering from bilateral arthritis.
Patients with risk factors for bilateral arthritis, however, who present with bilateral findings, need careful examination. Patients with unilateral complaints and no clear explanation, such as a direct blow to the extremity, twisted ankle, etc., require further evaluation. The presence of risk factors for arthritis must decrease the threshold for obtaining imaging studies. Accordingly, nearly all patients with complaints compatible with venous arthritis, and who have no typical alternative diagnosis, require an imaging study. (McNeil and Sack-2005-health and fitness).
This Clinical Pathway is a suggested approach for suspected arthritis patients, and is intended to supplement rather than substitute for professional judgment (The British Pain Society –p.4). The physician may change this plan at any time depending upon the patient’s individual needs. Failure to comply with this pathway does not represent a breach of the standard of care. Emergency Medicine Reports dimer measured by the whole-joints disability assay almost rules out the diagnosis (i.e., there will be less than a 1% chance of proximal arthritis). While some physicians (nurses) may opt to forgo imaging studies in patients with a negative D-dimer, others may be reluctant to rely entirely upon a joint test. It seems reasonable that a negative D-dimer may obviate the need for off-hour Doppler studies in low-risk patients (Stupack, et al. p.571). If a patient presents at night with an immobile leg or any other part of the body, it can not be postponed till the next day.
Imaging studies include both invasive (venography, radiolabeled fibrinogen) and noninvasive (ultrasound, plethysmography, MRI) techniques. Current options are discussed in the next sections. While venography aspires to be the “gold standard” modality for the care and diagnosis of arthritis, it is a “gold-plated” standard at best (Eby p.1137. First, radiologists disagree on interpretation in at least 10% of cases, and 5-15% of all studies are technically inadequate (Celeste C and Jonescu, M- matrix metabolism,-2005).
Moreover, side effects are significant and 2-5% of patients develop phlebitis from this painful procedure. The rare case of anaphylaxis remains a significant clinical concern. For the most part, ultrasound has supplanted venography for the initial evaluation of the patient with suspected arthritis. If the ultrasound is equivocal or unavailable, venography may be useful. Venography is also useful if the patient has a high clinical probability of arthritis and a negative ultrasound, and it is also valuable in symptomatic patients with a history of prior thrombosis in whom the ultrasound is non-diagnostic (Wells p.295). In these patients, it usually can distinguish between acute events and chronic changes seen on ultrasound. A contrast study can delineate occlusion, recanalization, and collateral channels. Since neither ultrasound nor
impedance plethysmography (IPG) is accurate for clot in Up to 10% of patients with DVT have an underlying coagulation disorder such as antiphospholipid syndrome or protein ‘S,’ protein ‘C,’ or antithrombin III deficiency. However, measurements of these levels usually are not necessary for emergency management. On occasion, the admitting internist may screen young adults with unexplained arthritis for more common coagulation disorders, D-dimer. If an emergency physician wishes to use a single tissue test in order to exclude the diagnosis of DVT, the D-dimer assay would be that test. Only 2% of patients with a negative
D-dimer (measured by the whole by agglutination assay) will have arthritis. In patients with a low pretest probability, the negative predictive value is 99.4%. D-dimer is a specific degradation product of cross-linked fibrin (D’Adamo and Whitney p.58). Because concurrent production and breakdown of clot characterize arthritis, patients with Thromboembolic disease have elevated levels of D-dimer. There are three major approaches for measuring D-dimer. The two older tests include the sensitive, but time consuming, enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid, but less sensitive, muscle inactivity. These tests suffered from specificity of as low as 15-38% in arthritis and PE.
Currently, the most useful assay is the whole blood arthritis test (SimpliRED). This five minute, bedside test is both rapid and sensitive. In one study, this technique had a sensitivity of 93% for proximal arthritis, 70% for calf arthritis, and an overall specificity of 77%. 69 All D-dimer tests, regardless of the process, are more sensitive for proximal than distal clot, and may miss as many as 30% of calf arthritis (Cheriel, et al. p.1494). False-positive D-dimers occur in patients with recent (within 10 days) surgery, trauma, injuries, fractures, recent myocardial infarction or stroke, and acute infection: 69 in a patient with no risk factors for arthritis, a negative DTEST.
The motivation of this paper is found in the fact that the risk factors of arthritis in South Africa have already been identified. Virchow first elucidated the causes of deep venous arthritis with a description of a classical triad: stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury. While at least 50% of patients with arthritis have risk factors the strongest risk factor for venous arthritis is prior Thromboembolic disease.Moreover, risk factors are additive in nature (Goodacre, et al. p.143). The idea that a nurse knows major steps in taking care of patients has also inspired this research.
Research Question: Is conducting research on arthritis necessary for nurses?
The necessity to do the research based on the current health implications of DVT to South Africans. Scientists have shown through practical and theoretical arguments the clear effects of arthritis to humans (arthritis advisory committee) When a condition affects too many people and hits them with severe effects, then necessity arises for research to contain the issue. Further, the research is aimed at making reliable recommendations for future arthritis prevention and treatment procedures on basis of its findings.
Research Hypothesis: Tomorrow’s implications of arthritis in South Africa are depended on research conducted today
The findings of this research shall enable the laying of preventive measures/ procedures of arthritis in South Africa. Further, the research findings are aimed at making reliable recommendations for future treatment procedures on basis of its findings (Wicki, et al. p.173).
Aim: The main aim of conducting this research is to identify the risk factors for arthritis (DVT) in South African population. Nurses can also use this when taking care of arthritis patient. This is attained through:
Conducting a literature review on arthritis in South Africa
Conducting research and
Reporting Research findings
This is the systematic study of methods that have, can be, and have been applied in this research. They are systematic and orderly procedures which will help the main researcher achieve their objectives. The method used for this methodology may be expanded to include philosophically coherent collection of ideas. This method does not employ any philosophical assumption rather it creates space for real facts and theories which have been proven by scientist.
Research is a frequent used word in academic writing. It means different things. Microbiology concept of research would mean different to that of a statistician. This becomes different to that of a philosopher. Research is a process of searching that ideally, never ends. Research enabled gather information on and about patients with arthritis. It was an attempt to seek knowledge of what is on ground matters affecting health of individuals. Research will employ scientific and systematic search for the portent information, on specific arthritis cases.
Research helped formulating with the phenomenon to achieve new insights to active and applicable solutions. This included testing a hypothesis of a casual relationship between independent variables.
It is further defined as comprising, defining and redefining problems. Later, Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, organizing and formulating data. Deductions are made and reaching to conclusions and at least, carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
Research methodology characterized by the fact that it is deterministic. Clinical medicine issues should be thoroughly research to keep up to date with arising. It was generally seeking to accommodate all patients. The elimination and exclusion of some individuals will be geared at being biased.
The main methodology for use in this research is based on Rajit research structure (www.csl.Cornell.edu/../ recletters.html). According to Rajit, reliable research is based on an eight step structure. Each step is a process in itself as described below.
i. Formulating a research problem. This step involves literature review, formulation of a research problem, identification of variables and formulation of possible hypothesis.
ii. Conceptualizing of a research design: In this step, only two activities are involved. First is identifying a research design and second is selecting a study design for the research.
iii. Construction of an instrument for data collection: In this step, selection of a data collection method is done, then data is collected using attitudinal scales and last, a test to establish the validity of the data collection instrument is done.
iv. Sample selection: this is a brief step as it only involves the selection of a sample.
v. Writing a research proposal: this is literary the most important step in the research process. Its success determines whether or not the research is to take place and how reliable its outcome is going to be. With reference to this research, it wouldn’t be an overstatement to note that the research proposal was successful and that the outcome of the completed research is undoubtedly going to be a success.
vi. Data collection: This step marks the initial stage of the research process in the field. It simply involves collecting data as depicted by the name.
vii. Data analysis: During this second last step, data collected is processed and prepared for display and presentation.
viii. Report writing: This marks the end of the research. It compiles the research process in detail and provides conclusions of findings and recommendations.
This structure as designed by Kumar in 2005 is the research methodology applied in this research.
Ethical and Legal Considerations
For a just and fair research in this research, ethical and legal issues ought to be considered. The legal issues expected are in form of, collaborative partnerships with all stakeholders, social or clinical relevance, and scientific merit, fair selection of subjects, ffavourable risk-benefit assessment, informed consent, independent ethical review and respect for participants.
On the other hand, ethical issues to be considered can be considered as outlined in the Principles for ethical research (Wicki and Miller p.533). These are: respect for persons through, autonomy (informed consent), privacy and cconfidentiality; beneficence to do well and protect from harm and lastly justice as in through fair distribution of benefits and burdens.
The designs shown below are a plan of how the data in the population is going to be accessed or received. There are various means of data gathering that can be used in the following proposals, but due to saving resources, time and money. The proposals outline the most important aspects only that can be used for data collection
The researcher used various methods in her course work to investigate the relationship between environments and health implications. This includes the questionnaire method, interviews, library research and observation which are the four major methods used. A combination of this helped the researcher to come up with concrete and diverse information.
‘A questionnaire is a group or sequence of questions designed to elicit information upon a subject or sequence of subjects from an informant. Kapera defines a questionnaire as an instrument that consists of a set of questions to which the subject responds in writing (De Andres p.12).
The questionnaire was administered to patients in an open manner. This ensured that it attracts the most basic and true information on the patients. This was similarly, administered though the media in programs aired in them.
The researcher administered questionnaires on students because it was easier and faster to reach the teenagers and youth who are the most vulnerable persons of the disease-arthritis.
3.1.2 Interview Schedule
National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (2) defines an interview schedule as a conversation in which the researcher tries to get information from the interviewer. The method assumes that the respondents to be interviewed have the information required they can understand the question put to them and would be willing to give honest answers while they are face to face with the researcher.
Interviews were quite useful for the interviewer because through creating a good rapport with the respondents, much more vital information was obtained. It was up to the interviewer to control the order in which the questions flowed basing on the prior given answers by the interviewer. The tools used were unstructured interviews to get views on people’s opinion on religion, like whether it should be done away with in the media, how it has influenced people’s lives and what should be done to improve the religious program’s quality.
Observation consists of a set of specific instruments including use of standardized observation forms and participant observer. Observing is not confined to seeing only but also hearing and analyzing. The researcher was able to interact with religious heads, media practitioner’s people and from different religion. By definition the researcher was able to get firsthand information for example on the negative effect of religious programming.
Process of the Proposal
The research is basically planned on taking six months. Each of the months is presented with a specified task. Below is a breakdown of the tasks involved in each of the stipulated months.
First Month: Direct tasks Presentation of research proposal for approval
In this step, there shall be research proposal writing. The research proposal upon compilation shall then be presented to sponsors and other relevant authorities for approval and funding. There shall be the mild pre research done at this stage to ensure that the proposal is sufficiently equipped with necessary and relevant information towards wooing the sponsors and the approving bodies to support the research in ways possible.
Second month: Gathering logistics and preparation of data collection tools.
Upon the approval, the initial steps in the research process shall involve preparation for the practical work in the field. In this level, resources required for the success of the study shall be identified. They shall then be gathered together. In this stage as well, there shall be setting up of a site from which the research or study shall be run. There shall be further planning on the specific logistics to be carried out during the study.
Third month: Collection of data from target population.
This is the most important step in this study. It shall involve the previously discussed methods of data collection. The study first of all involves researchers setting out to the field to make first hand observations. Researchers are also herein obligated with a task to sample sources in the field and record first hand observations. This gives this study a primary a primary sense of sources in research. On the other hand, this study is also subject to previous studies conducted successfully on subjects relevant to this case. This therefore gives this research paper a secondary research form. Therefore, in essence, it is not an overstatement to say that this study takes root in both primary and secondary sources of data. This choice is aimed at increasing the scope of sources and subsequently widening the information needed. With wider information, this study will be better positioned to draw more realistic conclusions and recommendations. The featured sources of data are as presented below.
He target audience in this study shall include several bodies. The institutes which facilitate human health provision would be the target audience for this assessment. The target audience institution shall include hospitals, security enforcement, academic institution and international nongovernmental organization like; WHO, WFP and UNCHR. The target group means of data collection shall overwhelm random sampling. The data medium of collection would be subjective interview to the general public to ascertain the target group feeling about arthritis and how it has affected the society.
Fourth Month: Data verification and analysis.
Since part of the data collected shall involve numbers and other measurements such as demographic and geographic, quantitative approach in research shall come in handy. The approach shall further come in handy in analysis of the quantitative data collected. Finally, presentation of this data in form of graphs, tables and charts shall also be guided and made easier by the quantitative approach in research.
On the other hand, the choice of the qualitative approach in research is based on the fact that part of the research is based on opinion from individuals and therefore can only be qualitatively measured. This is inclusive of questions asked to respondents either as individuals or as representatives of institutions. Thus, the qualitative approach in research, analysis and presentation of such data shall herein come in handy.
Fifth month: Complying of data and final report writing
This is part of the final steps involved in the research writing exercise. In this stage, data collected and analyzed shall be compiled together. It shall be presented in report format both in soft and hard copy. Data presentation shall herein use academic writing formats, use of charts, tables and graphs.
Sixth month: Policy Implications
According to the information gained, the research will implement various methods in which can be used to either educate people on measures for helping those who are sick. He should also find various methods to gain access to local people through various non governmental organizations in order to help him through with the funds.
Anticipated results, reporting and implementation of results
The expected results speculation is very minimal since all the other researches which have been carried considering the topic have come up with different ideas. Having taken the proper time studying, the question on what measures have been taken towards arthritis will be answered. It’s expected that a large number of people will have no idea of the disease. Due to ignorance the largest number will not have an idea of how to treat patients affected with the diseases. Having the largest number of patience lying in hospitals nurses are expected to be out numbered, this will lead to inadequate care. It is also expected that a lot of doctors (local) doctors won’t know how to treat a case of serious arthritis, this further will be among the reasons why a large number of people die to arthritis.
Previous researches used quantitative approach to provide solutions to the already existing crisis in arthritis. The quantitative approach applied was sound enough to include numerical and chronological factual records. Contrastingly, this research uses a qualitative approach in addressing the same problem. Logical analysis and reasoning is heavily employed in this paper which clearly links means to ends in accordance to research the question and purpose. As highlighted earlier, a qualitative approach answers the questions of why and how in a reasonable order (Arthritis Foundation p.17).
The basic method used in this quantitative form of research is the use of graphs, pie charts, tables among other means of definite data analysis. However, this being a qualitative research, the most preferred method is content analysis. Content analysis is a method of data analysis that involves the consideration of content obtained from the field, most probably verbal or written data. It involves reasoning of why or how a situation is the way it is. By applying this method in this research, a more reliable conclusion is attainable since satisfaction being the key problem in this research is an immeasurable factor. It most revolves the feelings and views of a person towards the subject matter.
The advantage of content analysis discussed above is that the factor of personal views and feeling towards a subject is catered for. Unlike majority other methods such as logical analysis which involves mathematical representation of issues, content analysis accommodates numerically immeasurable forces around the question of satiability in nursing profession.
This includes a mini scale of the final study. The study was carried out in order to make sure that the whole study would go as planned. The methods which were used in this case include the interview schedule. The whole process took a little amount of the researcher time as it took 2days.
Conclusion from the pilot study;
It was depicted that 90% of the patients suffering from arthritis are not taken care of properly, Reasons being lack of enough nurses at the based hospital. Saudi Arabia having one of the largest populations in the continent showed that a large number of the given population was suffering from arthritis. At king Khalid university hospital the total number of all patients suffering from arthritis was 195, the ration was depicted to be 4:1, the largest percentage being women. The onset age for both male and female was set to be different as studies showed that females who had the disease were remarkably young. This statistics were analysed as follows (24.4+_ 13.4 vs. 42.9+_13.2 year of male-p+0.037). The highest percentage had an onset of 76.4%; While 45.1 used mostly the local type of medicine. Rheumatoid factor was detected at (79.5%). 39.5% reported constitutional symptoms. The highest type of disease affecting the population was PIP joints. The pilot study further showed that a large number of patients used a second line drug. 56.1% of these patients were in functional class 1 and 2. This pattern was depicted in South Africa by Dr.Virchrows.
First and foremost, any research is faced with a challenge of imperfection. However data collection, analysis and presentation may be accurate, there always exist measures of tendency in which deviations are expected to occur. This research is limited in such consideration. Second challenge is of bias rooting from misinterpretation of meanings of phrases. Third, the field research always has perverse conditions than those planned for; this could limit the research process in terms of resource availability.
However, to decrease the impact of the above limitations, this research has taken intensive planning measures and created regulative measures (Bands 26).
The budget of this research is set from the cost of key requirements necessary for the success of this research. In this case, funds represent the required materials necessary to facilitate the recording, presentation and report of the research findings. Moreover, the funds are representative of the wages and salaries of personnel of this research. The question of the funds brings in the necessity of funders. These could be the individual donors, cooperates or even the government. This party comes in to facilitate and help in mobilization of necessary resources for the research to be conducted successfully (Board of Nursing 7).
Second requirement is the personnel and subjects involved in the research process. The people to strategize this research, the researchers themselves, and the subjects of the research, research writers and data analysts are part of the onboard research crew required. Most important in this list are the proficient personnel who understand data collection methods well. Data collection methods in research are distinct. The same commonly known collection methods are to be employed here. One of the methods is interviews in which a person questions a subject verbally. Another method would be questionnaire filling. In questionnaire filling, subjects are given questions to answer on hard copy. The questions in this form could either be open or closed ended. One advantage of questionnaire method is that data collected is not altered at any moment and that first hand data is available for future consultation in its original state. A third method of data collection would be content analysis. This is method involves reviewing past records of research findings and collecting any relevant from them. Such among other methods are the kind proposed for data collection in this research. This kind of personnel is almost obviously found with people in this field of academics. Preferably, the research should be conducted by qualified personnel.
Research personnel preferable in this research would be medics and nurses themselves while on the side of the subjects, those infected together with current practicing medics would be a major consideration in this research. adults presenting to Emergency Units of GF Jooste (GFJ) , Tygerberg hospital (TBH) Victoria hospitals(VWH), Groote schuur Hospital (GSH), Paarl Hospital And Newsomerset Hospital (NSH) or admitted in these hospitals who diagnosed as DVT by formal ultrasounds.
For reliable research writing, experienced research writers come in handy to fill this gap. These can be found locally within the regions of research or at lack, such writers can also be easily found online. Last but not least is the willingness of the relevant authorities in implementing the findings of the research and paving way for carrying out recommendations of this research.
Posters ( to create awareness)
600 @ $ 1
Research Committee pay( 10 members)
$120 per day for 120 days
Field researchers pay (19)
$60 per day for 100 days
Stationery (pens, writing pads etc.)
Miscellaneous and allowances
Knowledge based on structure designs. Methodology structures. Online library. Wiley.com//../methodology.
Lessons Learnt From The USs Current Relationship With Iraq, 2003
The relationship of the United States and Iraq offers a lesson on various diplomatic concepts and the underlying socio-economic and political ideologies. Various scholars have in the past shed light on the sociological aspects of the existing relationship after the decade long invasion and occupancy of Iraq by United States. Theoretical concepts of international relations will be explored to unveil the true picture of U.S – Iraq interaction aftermath. In the interest of researchers, academia and political science, it is imperative that this case is given critical assessment. This issue presents an avenue of intellectual discourse concerning the diverse disciplines that discuss international relations. In view of the social structure, economic policies and political strategies, this debate covers substantial research concepts that are important to ascertain validity and credibility of existing knowledge.
Lessons Learnt From The USs Current Relationship With Iraq, 2003
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
The United States’ stay in Iraq has been on the global spotlight for over decade. Many people ask what the consequences this has on their relations. Apart from Iraq, United States interest in the Middle East has raised eyebrows leading to in-depth research on various dimensions (Lake, 2009, 19). The Geopolitics of Middle East has been a significant contributor to its overall influence in the global economy. However, its socioeconomic policies and political system has been the subject of discussion. Iraq wields a lot of influence in the region, and the West saw its political ideologies as a threat. It is not a matter of retelling the chronology of the U.S invasion of Iraq, but the impacts this has on the global socio-economic and political position America occupy. According to Christol (2004, 47-9), diverse acts of atrocities under the guise of setting the new global order of democracy was met with mixed reactions by Middle East nations and Iraq in particular. In this paper, it is important to note that the raging debate on the theoretical concepts surrounding diplomatic relations is the center stage for international peace agreements.
According to Tate (2010, 128-9), the traditional mentality that international relations were limited to specific disciplines is ruled out. This explains the need to break away from the confines of philosophy, sociology and economics as the only relevant disciplines exploring diplomatic ties. International relations theories should equally not be misconstrued as solely for academia. This means it should be given much attention as it plays a critical role in mutual understanding in cross-boundary relationships especially in this wake of open economies. The current relationship between United States and Iraq offers a lot of lessons on feasibility of tested theories concerning international relations. It reflects the complex international interactions that are characterized by divergent socio-economic and political ideologies. Kenneth N. Waltz is one of the scholars who assert the fact that diplomatic history has been marred with elitist decision making.
Statement of the Problem
According Waltz, the consideration is on individual state, and to ideological, moral and economic issues, both traditional liberals and classical realists make the same mistake. They fail to develop a serious account of the international system—one that can be abstracted from the wider socio-political domain. Waltz acknowledges that such an abstraction distorts reality and omits many of the factors that were important for classical realism. It does not allow for the analysis of the development of specific foreign policies. However, it also has utility. Notably, it assists in understanding the primary determinants of international politics. He reformulated realism in international relations in a new and distinctive way. In his book Theory of International Politics, first published in 1979, he responded to the liberal challenge and attempted to cure the defects of the classical realism of Hans Morgenthau with his more scientific approach, which became known as structural realism or neorealism. Waltz insists on empirical testability of knowledge and on falsifications as a methodological ideal, which, as he admits, can have only a limited application in international relations. The case of US attack on Saddam Hussein and subsequent changes in approaches of managing Iraq indicates two sides of international relations theories. These include realism and idealism key in defining the relations among states and U.S – Iraq in particular. A realist theory can be seen as a tradition of speculation about the society or states. However, in international relations the realist theory is based on emphasizing the constraints imposed on politics by the nature of human beings (Ikenberry, et al. 2009, 93). The realist school belief that national self- interest mandate nations to constantly acquire power for the purpose of security and existence. It is usually contrasted with idealism or liberalism, which tends to emphasize cooperation. The negative side of the realists’ emphasis on power and self-interest is often their skepticism regarding the relevance of ethical norms to relations among states.
Hans Morgenthau is of the opinion that power is the undisputable feature which determines states policy on both foreign and domestic policies. The realist theory is also known as the power or traditional theory which is centered on power politics. It is concerned with an explanation of what happened, how it happened which is used to predict the trend of what to happen in the future. The lessons observable from the case of the U.S – Iraq relationship triggers further research into the theories that must be discussed to boost the increasing need for International Corporation.
According to Brennan (2013, 139-40), United States wield political and economic power and therefore play a central role in making decisions on global issues. The capitalism ideology has seen the America make several attempts to sink the communism, and this was the disguised intention of America. Military intervention by the U.S in most of its operation in the Middle East has significantly tainted its image in the international platform. Fingers point at neoconservatives who were well connected as the key architects behind the Iraq war. In regard to Guney (2007, 64), there was a political motive behind the lobbying with economic strategies. It is worth to note the involvement of several U.S presidents during their long stay of U.S military operatives in Iraq. The intertwining realism versus idealism approach dictates the perception of various people towards the U.S on how they handled Iraq.
 Lake, D. A. 2009. Hierarchy in international relations. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press.
 Christol, C. Q. 2004. International law and U.S. foreign policy. Lanham, Md. [u.a.], Univ. Press of America.
 Tate, K. 2010. What’s Going On? Political Incorporation and the Transformation of Black Public Opinion. Washington, Georgetown University Press.
 Mockaitis, T. R. 2013. The Iraq War encyclopedia.
 Martin, L. G. 2003. Assessing the impact of U.S.-Israeli relations on the Arab world. [Carlisle Barracks, PA], Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.
 Ikenberry, G. J., & Moon, C.-I. 2008. The United States and Northeast Asia: debates, issues, and new order. Lanham, Md, Rowman & Littlefield.
The relationship of the United States and Iraq offers a lesson on various diplomatic concepts and the underlying socio-economic and political ideologies. Various scholars have in the past shed light on the sociological aspects of the existing relationship after the decade-long invasion and occupancy of Iraq by United States. Theoretical concepts of international relations will be explored to unveil the true picture of US – Iraq interaction aftermath. In the interest of researchers, academia and political science, it is imperative that this case is given critical assessment. This issue presents an avenue of intellectual discourse concerning the diverse disciplines that discuss international relations. In view of the social structure, economic policies and political strategies, this debate covers substantial research concepts that are important to ascertain validity and credibility of existing knowledge.
LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE USA CURRENT RELATIONSHIP WITH IRAQ, 2003
The United States’ stay in Iraq has been on the global spotlight for over decade. The question many people ask is what the consequences this has on their relations. Apart from Iraq, United States interest in the Middle East has raised eyebrows leading to in-depth research on various dimensions (Lake,2009,pg.18-9). The Geopolitics of Middle East has been a significant contributor to its overall influence in the global economy. However, its socio-economic policies and political system has been the subject of discussion. Iraq wields a lot of influence in the region, and its political ideologies were being seen as a threat by the west. It is not a matter of retelling the chronology of the US invasion of Iraq, but the impacts this has on the global socio-economic and political position America occupy.According to Christol (2004, pg. 47-9) diverse acts of atrocities under the guise of setting the new global order of democracy was met with mixed reactions by Middle East nations and Iraq in particular. In this paper, it is important to note that the raging debate on the theoretical concepts surrounding diplomatic relations is the center stage for international peace agreements. According to Tate (2010, pg.128-9), the traditional mentality that international relations were limited to specific disciplines is ruled out. This explains the need to break away from the confines of philosophy, sociology and economics as the only relevant disciplines exploring diplomatic ties. International relations theories should equally not be misconstrued as solely for academia. This means it should be given much attention as it plays a critical role in mutual understandings in cross boundary relationships especially in this wake of open economies. The current relationship between United States and Iraq offers a lot of lessons on feasibility of tested theories concerning international relations. It reflects the complex international interactions that are characterized by divergent socio-economic and political ideologies. Kenneth N. Waltz is one of the scholars who assert the fact that diplomatic history has been marred with elitist decision making.
According Waltz, the consideration is on individual state, and to ideological, moral and economic issues, both traditional liberals and classical realists make the same mistake. They fail to develop a serious account of the international system—one that can be abstracted from the wider socio-political domain. Waltz acknowledges that such an abstraction distorts reality and omits many of the factors that were important for classical realism. It does not allow for the analysis of the development of specific foreign policies. However, it also has utility. Notably, it assists in understanding the primary determinants of international politics. He reformulated realism in international relations in a new and distinctive way. In his book Theory of International Politics, first published in 1979, he responded to the liberal challenge and attempted to cure the defects of the classical realism of Hans Morgenthau with his more scientific approach, which became known as structural realism or neorealism. Waltz insists on empirical testability of knowledge and on falsifications as a methodological ideal, which, as he admits, can have only a limited application in international relations (Jack, 2000).The case of US attack on Saddam Hussein and subsequent changes in approaches of managing Iraq indicates two sides of international relations theories. These include realism and idealism key in defining the relations among states and US – Iraq in particular. A realist theory can be seen as a tradition of speculation about the society or states. However, in international relations the realist theory is based on emphasizing the constraints imposed on politics by the nature of human beings (Ikenberry, et al. 2009, pg.93). The realist school belief that national self- interest mandate nations to constantly acquire power for the purpose of security and existence. It is usually contrasted with idealism or liberalism, which tends to emphasize cooperation. The negative side of the realists’ emphasis on power and self-interest is often their skepticism regarding the relevance of ethical norms to relations among states.
Hans Morgenthau is of the opinion that power is the undisputable feature which determines states policy on both foreign and domestic policies (Knopf, 1978). The realist theory is also known as the power or traditional theory which is centered on power politics. It is concerned with an explanation of what happened, how it happened which is used to predict the trend of what to happen in the future. The lessons observable from the case of the US – Iraq relationship triggers further research into the theories that must be discussed to boost the increasing need for International Corporation.
According to Brennan (2013, pg. 139-40), United States wield political and economic power and therefore play a central role in making decisions on global issues. The capitalism ideology has seen the America make several attempts to sink the communism, and this was the disguised intention of America. Military intervention by the US in most of its operation in the Middle East has significantly tainted its image in the international platform. Fingers point at neoconservatives who were well connected as the key architects behind the Iraq war. In regard to Guney (2007,pg.64),there was a political motive behind the lobbying with economic strategies. It is worth to note the involvement of several US presidents during their long stay of US military operatives in Iraq. The intertwining realism versus idealism approach dictates the perception of various people towards the US on how they handled Iraq.
In respect of all facts towards the US relationship with Iraq, a lot of historical statistics can be established. Considering the deteriorating power of the US in 1972 as it was losing the battle to the Vietnam, it is possible that the same may hold for the case of Iraq. The ensuing scenario compelled President Richard Nixon to create an entente which was meant to deal with Soviet Union using China. Although this approach worked, concerns were raised over US alliance with such a genocidal Chinese government. In the words of Ryan & Kiely (2009,pg 351-2) this case is an equivalence of the US strategy of using neighbouring countries to Iraq like Iran to manage it.This was a case of idealism approach that actually cost the US as the global view of the unfolding event was that of using military power to prove a point. All the above cases presented a dilemma to the United States. The attempt to reconcile morals with ideals was difficult. Political scientists noted that it was prudent for US to form an alliance with China, Russia or Britain, but this was likely to taint d’etre raison for the administration of US (Calabrese & Sparks, 2004, pg.125-7). The other side of the argument fronted for moral regime would only be available when the regime itself was existing. This event exposed the diverse strategies of the US to defend its socio-economic and political position in the world against the rising influence of Nazi and the existing Soviet Union. The case of Saddam’s increasing influence in the 1990’s in the middle East had begun to shake US in a similar way and this must have been initiated there sensitivity towards Iraq.
It is worth noting that the arguments posted towards US history in its international relations from World War I combine politics with ideologies. US invasion of Iraq has been attributed to several factors, but the proponents also suggest superficial ideas on the outcome. Taking the case of United States war on the Jihadists, complexity of the ideologies comes out open. In this respect; there are two perspectives of idealists. According to Uslu (2003,pg 308-9) one wing of the analysts argue that by engaging the Jihad in the war, United States should stick to strict adherence to human rights by avoiding any action that would amount to such magnitude during its operations. This principle also prompted avoidance of any alliances with a country which is oppressive to its people. In this respect for instance, US co-operation with Saudi Arabia to pursue its agenda in Iraq is not acceptable. Saudi Arabia’s social structure is almost diametrically opposite that of US and has been noted to give little focus to human rights.
Another faction of proponents argued that US occupancy of Iraq was meant to create and promote democracy. One question one may ask is why just Iraq. The reign of Saddam Hussein was said to be marred with socio-economic and political oppression with zero tolerance to opposition. This was seen as dictatorial and retrogressive towards the increasing need of globalization. Another two dimensional idealists can be observed in this group. The neoconservatives believe that democracy could only be achieved by force hence justified military deployment by the US. Part of these neoconservatives emphasizes protection of human rights as the essence of democracy and in the event this is in full violation then military intervention is acceptable. In this regard, US relation with Iraq is hanging on the balance with a lot under research.
Another school of thought refers to United States past records in international relations like in the case of Soviet Union, Britain and china. It is evident that US had to manage Iraq with allied support of some countries in the Middle East. The ironical twist in this case is that such allied states are always morally incongruent with US. This is the underlying truth in the case of Saudi Arabia’s pivotal role in boosting operation of US against the AL Qaeda. On this basis, Iraqi issue was seen as normal and justified. Critical evaluation of the arguments registered by various entities to this effect leaves one clear indication that Iraq invasion by United States was valid. The opinion of Feldman (2003, pg.41-3) is that there was an extension of the discussion that Middle East democracy would only be achieved through the United States approach. The finite nature of American power necessitated the support by other countries in its attempt to eliminate Jihadists. This is a supportive idea to the fact that foreign engagement in some cases depending on the circumstance may require back up by other states. The Muslim Radicals in Iraq were many and neighbouring states input is required in terms of military training ground, strategic planning and intelligence services. One lesson that was learnt from this incident is United States’ inability to overthrow regimes while at the same time courting alliance. Idealism approach assertion that a country cannot keep its moral policies while pursuing economic and physical security is trivial. In some circumstances, security demands power which is always entangled in corruption. Besides, seeking justice without sufficient force may turn tables against the country. All these facts indicate that American must just have its military force in its fingertips and use it when situations arise. In this respect, US involvement in the Middle East was likely to be interrupted with poor democracy in Iraq hence its use of military force. After all, in the socio-political history, there are claims that sometimes war can come to you even if you don’t ignite it. The situation of America in Iraq exposed it to two mandatory moral losses i.e. annihilation or an opportunistic corruption.
Meernik (2004, pg.120-4) asserts that the political leadership does not offer the luxury of thinking about fair decision making. Even not taking action is considered a decision in the political sense. A critical assessment of the respective regimes of George Washington, Franklin Roosevelt, and Richard Nixon to Barack Obama only explores one doctrine. Long term goals are the best for sustainable political principle otherwise short term is coupled with a lot of compromises. United States has been a leading campaigner for capitalism and past wars like with Vietnam was pursued to this effect. Such have been its strategic plan of imposing new world order and suspected threat is to be smashed by dialogue or war. It is, therefore, no strange that Iraq was headed the wrong way hence its collision with US. Some historians point out that if idealism approach had been used by United States, Adolf Hitler would have triumphed in World War II. It is, therefore, important for the US to understand that seeking democracy beyond its political resources and military endowment significantly threatens strength of democracy (Gaur & SeṅGara, 2005, pg.307-8). This idea complimented with the observed relationship existing between US and Iraq reveals that in some circumstances national interest’s defense justifies individual interest’s protection.
The moral argument in respect of United States involvement in the war with Iraq in a show of fighting for democracy stands out excellent. There is a good moral rationale against US setting up a military base in Saudi Arabia and provoking the Al Qaeda. According to McCormick( 2010,pg.102),one reality that United States has to contend with is that it has several enemies against few allied forces that it can use to pursue its will in the Middle East. Just like the case of the cold war and World War II, moral policies must be preceded by splitting and crashing the enemy. In regard to Middle East, United States had to use divide and rule strategy to strengthen its presence in the region against the opposition of Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda militia. This was evident with Bush’s pragmatic approach in Iraq. Martin (2003, pg.11) puts it that the realism theory of politics resurfaces equally in the debate of US – Iraq relationship. This concept disposes morality as it can compromise the security of the country. It is common knowledge that United States attack of Iraq was not authorized by United Nations for obvious reasons. While UN relies on proving guilt, US move indicated that they were investigating innocence on matters of nuclear weapons. However, from the perspective of Americans, pursuing moral discourse would disadvantage their interest of gaining influence in the Middle East hence compromise their long term economic and political schemes. The pretense of invading Iraq in search for weapons of mass destruction was not approved by the UN Security Council. The realists argue that the foreign policy understates the significance of morality. In this regard, America pursued its individual interest in Iraq through military intervention in a show of absolute power thereby evoking rebellion from most of the Arab states like Iran and other Muslim radical entities like al Qaeda (Tollitz,2005,pg.13-5). Realists champion for strong military power as a platform for international political deals. America had tried this in Vietnam and Iraq with less care about the feeling of other nations. Crusade for capitalism has been its priority and cannot be interrupted by any force lest they issue military reinforcement. This means heavy spending on the military by citizens’ tax. The recent withdrawal of US military personnel from Iraq by Obama has nothing to show in terms of gain to American citizens since their invasion.
United States applied different strategies to tame Iraq and restore what they termed as political sanity. This means that, in some instances, mixed policies were employed. In that respect, President Bush was seen as beginning to pursue realism and liberalism. In this case, multilateral ties with other nations make it difficult to wage war in a foreign land in an attempt to solve a problem. With the increasing international pressure from the allies of US in the Middle East in regard to how it was handling Iraq, it had to bring in liberalism approach. As Amstutz (2013,pg.87) puts it, the Middle East hold a significant position in the global trade but their strong geopolitical unity and congruent religious doctrines had begun to threaten US actions in Iraq. To reduce the possibility of losing track of its mission in Middle East and keep its diplomatic ties intact, it masterminded evicting Saddam Hussein from power and initiating a democratic process of coming up with a new president. This is an approach of the complex independence which required America to push for internal acceptance by the Iraqi citizens. To achieve this, they installed a president who would consent to most of their policies while lobbying for peace in the public. International relations proved indispensable to the US, and this culminated to the commencement of withdrawing troops. The United States had substantial trade and socio-political policy disagreements with some of its Middle East allies like Israel, but was not easy to use military intervention to bring a solution. In such scenarios, United States used economic incentives to press for their interests (Kant, et al.2005, pg.221).
Past political records identifies President Clinton as the only leader who effectively blended realism with idealism in the process of promoting human rights. Brutal actions of United States in Iraq were carried out at the height of Bush leadership. He was a strict idealist who inadvertently ignored the public talk against US invasion of Iraq. It did not matter to him what the outcome would be provided the mission was focused on meeting the demands of America. A lot of corruption, deceit and propaganda misinformed the actions of Bush and he completely considered Saddam Hussein a tyrant who needed crushing. The picture painted all over in the entire military operation including the capture and execution of Saddam Hussein is an explicit show of absolute idealism. There is a tricky policy yoke in which Obama found himself. In view of Kaufman (2013, pg.123), the progressive withdrawal of US troops from Iraqi has placed his presidency under some question mark. The ongoing policy reforms in Iraqi portray him as a realist, but there is an information gap here since these are mere implementation of Bush’s plans. While Obama was campaigning in 2004 for the presidency, the issue of Iraq was coming out more prominently, and that tag has always remained controversial in the wake of his recent past foreign policies. The eminent lose that United States had begun to foresee made the congress push for withdrawal from Iraq. From 2003 United States had begun to apply diplomacy in handling the Iraqi situation.
There are several effects that US invasion of Iraq has caused within the tenets of its socio-economic and political landscape. There has been internal rebellion against western policies by a section of Muslim radicals that has made Iraqi a place of frequent bombing. Initially, a Muslim dominated country; there has been a gradual shift in socio-cultural behaviour which US wanted to use as a medium of infiltrating the society (Fernandez Sola & Smith, 2009, pg. 67-9). A lot of reported US led atrocities caused emotional pain to several citizens especially during 2003. The pursuit of Saddam Hussein and subsequent execution was coupled with mass infrastructural destruction, and this significantly affected the economic progress of Iraq. It is worth to note that Iraq owns a significant proportion of OPEC supply share, but this was affected by explosion of many oil fields during the gulf war of 1991 ignited by the United States. It is worth noting that misrepresentation of facts by media and the underlying realities all worked against the United State in regard to their foreign ties with Arab League Nations. Mass destruction meted on Iraqi people was considered to create more instability as Iraqi was forced to retaliate against US sympathizers like Kuwait. Iraqi was seen as the epicenter of Muslim extremists’ groups like Al Qaeda, which has put the citizens under perennial fear of explosives. On the political front, destruction of Saddam attracted mixed feelings of the Iraqi people but the majority had a taste of a democratic election.
Multi-dimensional analysis of post invasion in Iraqi put the USA at the losing end. This perceived failure by United States significantly affected its standing in the UN council. Its unauthorized invasion of the Iraqi raised question on its voting rights within the UN. The Security Council had to lobby for adoption of more foreign friendly policies in regard to the United States dwindling relationship with Iraq. The new turn of events from 2003 exposed the vulnerability of US if it was to continue with its brutal attack on Iraq. In this regard, a more favourable international relations approach that would conform to the increasing pressure of globalization was proposed. The theory of complex interdependency requires a more diplomatic approach towards international disagreements. United States presence in Iraq was slowly increasing the tension in Middle East, and this even sucked in other influential states in the region like Iran (Lebow,2008,pg.465-7). It was out of this increasing multilateral trade ties that forced United State to begin a journey into diplomacy. This theory is referred to as liberalism and comes between traditional idealism and realism.
Outright declaration of war without UN Security Council was becoming more challenging to the US, and this prompted Obama administration to start pulling out troops as a way of showing commitment towards new foreign policies. Although the complex link between realism and idealism political ideologies has not been exhausted, liberalism came in handy for the US as a potential power broker in this era of globalization.
Amstutz, M. R. 2013. International ethics concepts, theories, and cases in global politics. Lanham, Md, Rowman & Littlefield. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=548177.
Calabrese, A., & Sparks, C. 2004. Toward a political economy of culture: capitalism and communication in the twenty-first century. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=640049.
Christol, C. Q. 2004. International law and U.S. foreign policy. Lanham, Md. [u.a.], Univ. Press of America.
Feldman, S. 2003. After the war in Iraq: defining the new strategic balance. Brighton, Sussex Academic Press/Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies.
Fernández Sola, N., & Smith, M. 2009. Perceptions and policy in transatlantic relations: prospective visions from the US and Europe. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge.
Gaur, M., & SeṅGara, S. 2005. Foreign policy annual, 2001-2009. Delhi, Kalpaz Publications.
Title: The effects of relationship of management and union at Washington Hospital Center and how improvements in this relationship can impact employee benefits and healthcare care delivery
According to the investigations conducted by Molander, (2000) in “Human Resources at work”, most of the workers at Washington Hospital Center have been abandoned and their needs were greatly neglected. The law dealing with the minimum wage for example was unknown in the institution. Benefits associated with collective bargain, protection of job and related benefits were all inexistent. The administration at the institution advocated for illegality of the workers joining a union. The administration turned a blind eye on the perceived benefits that the clients in the hospital would most likely access in case that the rights of the employees were uplifted through the freedom of expression given through the promotion of the unions. Most of the commonly raised concerns revolved around the quality of the care that the patients were given as a result of the persistent complaints by the institution nurses due to the exposure to poor conditions of work (Molander, 2000).
Morris & Feldman, (1997) in their work “Managing emotions in the workplace” conducted a study that proved a positive relationship between the poor conditions of work as evidenced in Washington Hospital Center and the level of employee burnout The results of his findings indicated that in such a setting, which offers services of great importance to the customers, then the customers remains to suffer as a result of the developing burnout among the workers. The burnout has important ramifications to the level of health care service delivery (Morris & Feldman, 1997). This is due to the contribution of the poor conditions of work that brings a feeling of being overworked among the nurses. This consequently promotes a situation whereby the nurses are not in their best with regard to the provision of the highest standards services of health care to the patients.
Organ, (1995) in “A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior” has established that the employees are entitled to other benefits of collective bargaining in Washington Hospital Center. This implies the rights that the employees should have facilitating their representation in the issues of negotiation of the terms as well as the conditions that govern the nature of their employment. In case this issue of collective bargain has not been looked in to, then the employees are denied the necessary input in as far as the working conditions are concerned (Organ, 1995). The contribution of collective bargain among the employees is a single united voice and a level ground for meeting with the management for the purpose of negotiating “in good faith” all the issues pertaining to their working conditions. This therefore brings about a genuine effort of arriving at positive agreement. On negotiation of a contract, some procedures of enforcement therefore becomes applicable that facilitates that the employees are in a position of honoring the accord.
Silva, (1995) in “overdrive, managing in crisis filled times” reported one of the union workers saying that “being a union member means I have a voice, that people care if I keep my job and get treated fairly”. The worker has also appreciated they importance that the management has attached to the issue of training all the members who are covered by the union in issues of representing the fellow coworkers. It is however worth noting that the majority of the most important issues in the institution has been unresolved which include the issues of wages, the improvement of the entitlement to sick leave, guaranteed working hours, the establishment of a pension plan, the shift as well as the weekend premiums, better sharing of costs of the benefits as well as the disability benefits on a long term basis (Silva, 1995).
Silva (1995) also addresses the issue of employee turnover at Washington Hospital Center should be checked in relation to the provision of a supported union at the health facility. Employee turnover cost can become a very significant cost that can lead to attrition on the bottom line of Washington Hospital Center. Washington Hospital Center has a possibility of confronting with high cost of employee turnover although they have low employee turnover rate due to an underestimated indirect cost from the consequences of employee turnover. Knowing the cost of losing and replacing an employee is able to help Washington Hospital Center to determine how much they can afford to retain their good performers. To begin with the first motivation, it is about high employee turnover cost that can result from the prohibitions to joining the union at Washington Hospital Center.
Abassi & Hollman (2000) in Public Personnel Management, 2 (3) pp. 333-342 state that employees are the main contributor to the success of organizations. It can be apparently seen that Washington Hospital Center has to invest a large amount of money on their employees in terms of hiring, training, developing, and retaining. As it is mentioned by Abassi & Hollman (2000) “the more you pay this person, obviously, the more you value their contribution to the growth and success of your business”. The value of employees is considered as one of the most important intangible resources in Washington Hospital Center, especially their skills. Broadly speaking, skills are hard to replicate not only technical skills but also soft skills. Therefore, when an employee decides to leave Washington Hospital Center for whatever reasons, it denotes an enormous cost from the view of Washington Hospital Center that is called employee turnover cost (Abassi & Hollman, 2000)
According to Gilman (1998) in Costs of UK labour turnover increase, he presents that the estimated employee turnover cost per person for an associated professional and technical occupational group in professional service industry such as Washington Hospital Center from the IPD survey at that time was £5,358. Moreover, the highest turnover cost was found among professional occupational group in professional service industry, which was £7,317. Furthermore, Gilman (1998) supports the information about the costs of employee turnover divided by occupational group as illustrated in figure 2.
Figure 2 – The costs of labour turnover divided by occupational group
Wegge, (2007) in Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology” has found the danger of leaving of employees without a supported union can be a huge impact in the financial aspect of Washington Hospital Center, regardless of industry. As reported by Parise, S., Cross, R. & Davenport, T.H. (2006) in “Strategies for preventing a knowledge-loss crisis, lack of job satisfaction was the primary reason for employees’ decision to leave. Most of their resignations resulted from the lack of a supported workers union in the institution leading to neglect in their needs. On the other side, if management in Washington Hospital Center does not clarify goals and decisions to employees then their work are not recognised or valued when it completed, this will damage the morale and esteem of those employees (Parise, Cross & Davenport, 2006) As a result, those employees are pushed to be dissatisfied with their old job then they will seek for a new job.
Webb & Cleary, (1994) in “Organizational change and the management of expertise” expresses the lack of advancement opportunities which is also supported by the workers unions refers as “push factor” because it pushes employees in the direction of leaving Washington Hospital Center. On the other hand, if those employees receive the opportunities of external promotion from outside Washington Hospital Center, this factor will become “pull factor” that stimulates the employees to take action (Webb & Cleary, 1994). Good performers may expect to be promoted faster than normal. If the opportunities either rising pay or promotions within the Washington Hospital Center have been limited, the Washington Hospital Center may need to evaluate trade offs between creating such opportunities and losing good performers in some circumstances. The follow up of the clients is then disrupted because the old clients are likely to meet new health care providers who are unaware of their medical history.
According to Naidu & Narayana, C(1991) in “How Marketing Oriented Are Hospitals in a Declining Market?” Journal of Health Care Marketing thelevel of pay was ranked as the forth reason for employee turnover which in turn affects the quality of health care delivery at Washington Hospital Center. Most of the respondents’ interviewed by Naidu & Narayana, (1991) indicated pay and conditions as the third reason in their decision to leave the Washington Hospital Center as revealed by Naidu & Narayana, (1991). Good performers are de-motivated if they work smarter and harder but they get equal outcomes as average or poor performers. In the worse way, if management in Washington Hospital Center shows bias and gives some employees better chances such as promoting someone who lacks training and/or necessary experience to be supervisor, it will rapidly push top performers in the direction of seeking better paying jobs. It can be seen from many exit interviews that the regular reason for leaving is to get a better opportunity, which typically means a better pay and conditions. On the other hand, it will be a major pull factor if competitors of Washington Hospital Center give an offer of a better opportunity to the top performers (Naidu & Narayana, 1991)
Work life balance at Washington Hospital Center is another area that is affected by supporting the workers unions. Acoording to Myers, (2009) in “Business continuity strategies”, success has a different meaning for different people: some people think that it means enjoying their job whereas some people consider it as climbing the career ladder as high as possible (Myers, 2009). According to a study from the Washington Hospital Center, most of respondents were dissatisfied with their current working hours. In particular, younger respondents desired flexible work throughout their lives (Myers, 2009).
Lee, (2000) in “An empirical study of organizational justice as a mediator of the relationship among leader-member exchange and job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions in the lodging”showed that work life balance was the fifth reason for leaving of employees, which was about 10% of respondents. Lee, (2000) pointed out that flexibility of hours worked is commented as work life balance. Also, he noted that not only Generation Y employees who seek work life balance but also Generation X and Baby Boomers About 80% of employees in Washington Hospital Center believe that work life balance plays a vital role in deciding whether to leave or stay with Washington Hospital Center All these issues are comprehensively deliberated if the employees are given a voice through their unions (Lee, 2000)
Hofstede, (2001) in “Cultures’ Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations” has advocated for one way of getting the reasons of resignation from an exit interview about the contribution of the workers unions in the workplace. It may be the attraction of a new job or the chance outside Washington Hospital Center, which ‘pulls’ the departing employees from time to time. Conversely, the employees may be ‘pushed’ due to dissatisfaction in their present jobs to seek alternative employment. However, the real reason for leaving of employees may difficult to discover. As Hofstede, (2001) said, “some employees in Washington Hospital Center may be reluctant to state the reason case this affects any future references or causes problems for colleagues who remain with Washington Hospital Center”. Therefore, employees generally state that their reasons of leaving are from “pull factors” such as higher pay offering despite it is not the real reason. This will gain the real problems because those employees need the problems to be fixed unlike those that have already decided to leave (Hofstede, 2001).
According to Fried, (2007) in his work “The validity of the Job Characteristics Model” One of the most important accomplishments required of the management at Washington Hospital Center is to reduce the rate of employee turnover that is brought about by suppressing of the workers unions in the institution. When an employee voluntarily makes a decision to leave an Washington Hospital Center for whatever reason, the institution is certainly going to lose more or less its money. Fried, (2007) estimated that a small increasing turnover rate as 1 or 2% could have a negative effect on the rate of performance. Therefore, in order to make an effective management, it is vital for Washington Hospital Center to observe the extent of turnover and its costs and try to establish the possible relationship of the issues to workers union. Although it is noticeable that employee turnover is costly, it is quite difficult to quantify the actual cost of turnover. As an illustration, one of previous studies relating to employee turnover cost presented the turnover cost ranges as percentage of annual base salary categorized by job types as shown in table 2.
Table 2 – Turnover cost ranges as percentage of annual base salary
Source: (Fried, 2007).
According to the above table, employee turnover cost can range from 30 to 200 percent of the annual base salary. The cost would be increased if employees move on to work for competitors. As a matter of fact, personnel are more likely to be re-employed within the same industry by a competitor. Hence, competitors would gain from the potential employees who have just left. It is therefore an important role of the management of Washington Hospital Center to take active measures to avoid the proliferation of workers turnover through comprehensive deliberations of the issues affecting the workers held through forums with the representatives of the workers. This is the only way that the problems affecting the workers can be identified and amicable solutions arrived at to make sure that the extent of the quality of health care delivery in enhanced.
Fisher, (2000) work on Mood and emotions while working: missing pieces of job satisfaction? in Journal of Organizational Behavior has played a contributory role in issues of workers unions. Fisher, (2000) also identified the different approaches to managing a multi-cultural team within Washington Hospital Center and ways to identify which approach Washington Hospital Center needs to be adopted in order to reach its successful goal of operation within an organization. (Fisher, 2000)
According to the arguments by Gilman, (1998) in “Costs of UK labour turnover increase”, it is important to note further that high employee turn over can dent the good image of Washington Hospital Center that may eventually negatively influence the services related to Washington Hospital Center hence the need for job satisfaction among employees. This is so to say that high employee retention is key in the achievement and the realization of the Washington Hospital Center future or long term growth. Yet another point to note is that retention of best employees in Washington Hospital Center is one way of ensuring and luring the probable investors as they would reflect the employee retention rate and their investment rate more especially if Washington Hospital Center is doing well in service delivery. It can therefore be concluded without any doubts that poorly managed employee turn over can destabilize Washington Hospital Center which eventually could lead to damage of the health care delivery. The answer therefore to good services at Washington Hospital Center given all other factors kept constant is employee job satisfaction through the promotion of a sound and supported workers union (Gilman, 1998)
Abdul-Gader & Bhuian, (1997) in “Market Orientation in the Hospital Industry” have given a lot of contribution in this issue. According to their publication, it is only in the recent years that employees have recognized and appreciated the link between distributive justice and the effectiveness of running companies and organizations. Abdul-Gader & Bhuian, (1997) found a direct relationship between distributive justice and job satisfaction through the rewards and the payments offered to the employees in the form of wages and salaries. According to Abdul-Gader & Bhuian, (1997), training of the managers is one way of ensuring that the employees receive fair and just treatment According to a research that was conducted to determine if distributive justice could act as a predictor of employee job satisfaction, it was pointed out that distributive justice is one of the major indicators of the level of commitment of the employees to the organization. In the same study conducted by Abdul-Gader & Bhuian, (1997), he pointed out the need for the managers to timely and effectively communicates relevant information to the employees as one major step in ensuring employee’s commitment to organizations. It is indicated that by applying the rule of fairness, employees will be rewarded according to their achievements and contributions to the organization void of bias and discrimination.
Weiss, (1999) in “An examination of the joint effects of affective experiences and job beliefs on job satisfaction and variations in affective experiences over time” has also documented the importance of the unions. They help the management at Washington Hospital Center to solve their problems measurably and manage their ability to build value, manage risks and eventually improve on their performance. Their services range from legal advice to financial support, business process and outsourcing as well as management consultancy. These are industry focused services that enable the Washington Hospital Center to gain public trust and enhance value for their clients and their stakeholders. By working with the workers unions Washington Hospital Center gets to network and share ideas with professionals through their conceptualization, and practice aimed at bringing solutions to the problems as well as gaining fresh approaches to these involvements. Putting people at the heart of change in through deliberations in the unions ensures great success as it helps the management of Washington Hospital Center to actualize their needs and what they really want. Many people are uncomfortable with change especially those that deal with their career but with the arrival of consultants, the burden have eventually been lightened. Lasting success is achieved through considerable skill offered by the unions as well as working with and integration with people in delivering services (Weiss, 1999).
The work of Abraham, (2009) in “The impact of emotional dissonance on organizational commitment and intention to turnover” has also contributed to immense information of the issues relating to workers unions. The current scenario at Washington Hospital Center requires the promotion of an emotional environment and status that may concern the organization’s ability and the consequences that such decisions may have on the work performance of employees and the overall goal of the Washington Hospital Center. The environment in the workplace determines the success of good working relationships. The idea of the fear of attending to the workplace is not appreciable among the majority of the workers. The human resource development at Washington Hospital Center is dependent on the extent of the friendliness of the environment of work (Abraham, (2009). The temptation of the participation in the conversations that may result to a toxic workplace is avoided. The rumors related to the changes in the workplace are dismissed that may bring about some fears because most of the people fear changes which in most of the cases results to a decrease in the morale of the workers. The thorniest issues are addressed in a direct manner. In the case that the performance of the employees is appreciable, it is usually good to show a sign of appreciation. This is a gesture that is good and it has some important implications in the process of initiating innovations at Washington Hospital Center
White, (2002) in “Writing your MBA dissertation” has documented that effective management and solution of rising needs of the workers within the Washington Hospital Center in addition to trying to achieve attitudes coherence has great positive implications to the stakeholders of Washington Hospital Center and the achievement of the set goals and objectives. The management in Washington Hospital Center should concentrate on the urgency, timeliness as well as adequacy pertaining to the underlying workers needs and its identification assessment as well as resolution. Human resource development and management at is considered one of the most advancing and growing departments of any given organization whether it is profit making or not (White, 2002). Business proposal experts argue that the success of any organization is entirely dependent on the techniques and methods put in place for the management of employees in particular organization.
Zaremba, &Tucker & Ogilvie, (1992) in “Journal of Health Care Marketing” found the current global business scenario is associated with a mutiny of workers needs as a result of the factors allied to business like the re-engineering processes of business, globalization among others, which forms an important component of the current business trends. There is therefore a need for a higher degree of attention since business integration complicates and diversifies business operations. This in turn result to differences in views and opinions as a result of cultural backgrounds and therefore the selected tool for the management of the needs of the employees in the current business situation should be chosen with a great care. This therefore calls for a clear understanding of the importance of access to the best possible approaches that are applicable in the process of employee management. There has been a need for an extensive research in this field which, when conducted well shall lead to the adoption of the necessary measures of dealing with such situations of in any organization. The current trend in business is an effort towards gaining a competitive advantage that can only be achieved in the situation that the operations in the firm are carried out in a harmonious manner (Michael, 1999).
Abassi, S.M. & Hollman, K.W. (2000) “Turnover: the real bottom line”. Public Personnel Management, 2 (3) pp. 333-342.
Abdul-Gader, A. & Bhuian, S. (1997). “Market Orientation in the Hospital Industry.”
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Abraham, R. (2009). “The impact of emotional dissonance on organizational commitment and intention to turnover. Journal of Psychology, 133, 441–455
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Fried, F., (2007). “The validity of the Job Characteristics Model: A review and meta-analysis”. Personnel Psychology, 40(2), 287-322.
Gilman, M.W. (1998) Costs of UK labour turnover increase. NY: Sage Pub.
And Organizations across Nations. California: Sage Publications.
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Molander, C. (ed.) (2000) Human Resources at work. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Morris,& Feldman,(1997). “Managing emotions in the workplace”. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9,257–274
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Naidu, G. & Narayana, C. (1991). “How Marketing Oriented Are Hospitals in a Declining
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The Cause Effect Relationship Of Discovery Of Electricity
Discovery of electricity started back in 1746, when Benjamin Franklin discovered static electricity when he was out flying his kite in a storm, but the electricity we use today is different from what he discovered. This was the discovery that nature has energy that man can use and it consequently set in motions the many other inventions that are the after effects of discovery of electricity.
After the discovery of electricity, technology started to advance this is because the world had also started becoming industrialized and there was need for a form of energy that was strong enough to help in the increased volume of production of commodities. The production also has become quality as better equipment and machines that lead to standard commodities have been discovered as well. One of the most outstanding effects of discovery of electricity is lighting, this is because the world has become safer with lights. Electricity has improved the transport industry; this is because people can use electric trains that are very fast and efficient as compared to the coal powered trains (Butler, p74).
The communication world has also been greatly improved; this is because people can watch televisions and listen to music by plugging in their gadgets and using electricity. The portable electronics also require charging like the cell phones, laptops and ipads. All these devices are charged by the use of electricity and have changed how we communicate. This allows for easy movement of information from one person to another.
In the medical sector, use of electricity has assisted in saving lives. This is through the discovery of many types of equipment that are used in hospitals. The quality of services has been improved as people can be watched overnight without any problems: diagnosis can be made earlier before diseases get to advanced stages that are not curable (Butler, p155). A good example of these machines that are electrically powered is the x ray machine. Chemotherapy that leads to reduction in the cancer causing cell requires electricity. Baby incubators also require electricity to keep the baby warm enough till he can be able to face the environmental weather: better infant medical services have been established.
Butler, G. Jeremy, (2012), A History of Information Technology and Electricity, University of Arizona, New York
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The Historical Relationship between Shlomo Carlebach and the Orthodox Jewish Pop Music
Shlomo Carlebach was an American of Israeli Jewish origin. He was born in the year 1925 in the City of Berlin, Germany. Shlomo Carlebach was a renowned musician who composed several songs during his lifetime ( Shepherd and Svanibor, 75). Many people, including the Jews, loved his songs. Shlomo Carlebach died on October 21 in the year 1994. He died at the age of sixty-nine on his way to Canada. His death resulted from heart failure. He left behind two children named Nedara and Neshama with his wife Elaine Neila. Shlomo Carlebach was mostly known for various things in the musical industry. Other than being a composer of songs, he was also a very powerful religious preacher or teacher ( Shepherd and Svanibor, 65). He taught several religious issues to both the Jews and none Jews.
People had lots of reverence to his teachings and developed a sense of interest towards those teachings. Shlomo Carlebach was also gifted with the talent of singing. He was a renowned singer who had a very sweet voice. His voice attracted several people’s attention whenever he sung. This earned him the nickname “Singing Rabbi” during his lifetime ( Shepherd and Svanibor, 38). His music emanated from the roots of Orthodox Yeshovit of the Jews. However, he slightly deviated from this and created his own. He did this by combing Hasidic Judaism, public concerts as well as synagogue services. Shlomo Carlebach developed melodies full of personal warmth and interaction, a fact that made him be considered the best songwriter and singer during his lifetime y the Jews. His music career survived for forty years during which he composed and recorded several melodies and albums. He recorded twenty-five albums in his musical career. These albums gained fame amongst various lovers of his artistic works.
During the time of Shlomo Carlebach, there existed the contemporary Jewish religious music. This music was also played during such times and were loved by several Jews. The songs were quite informative, entertaining and full of sweet melodies ( Shepherd and Svanibor, 29). This form of music involved a variety of genres and styles. Like the music of Shlomo Carlebach, the contemporary Jewish music also gained widespread fame and were mostly played in the synagogues as well as other religious events.
There are strong linkages between the influence of Shlomo Carlebach and the Orthodox Jewish Pop music industry. Shlomo Carlebach had a profound Hasidic influence in the Jewish musical industry. Shlomo Carlebach had a constructive influence in the orthodox pop music industry. The music industry has borrowed a lot from the artistic skills of Shlomo. The orthodox music industry has developed a new genre worship music that widely borrows from the styles used by Shlomo in his earlier days (Abramovitch and Sean, 43). This has made the orthodox Jewish pop music industry gain lots of fame and has drawn special interest amongst lovers of pop music. Through his songs and music, Shlomo influenced the Jews in a number of ways. Other than the music industry, his melodious songs also made the Jews embrace their heritage. This followed the unique styles that he used to compose his songs.
The orthodox Jewish pop music industry, through the influence of Shlomo Carlebach, has come up with several compositions of songs with highly inspiring stories (Abramovitch and Sean, 73). These have been accompanied with sweet melodies enlightened with several sensitizing as well as teaching tunes. As such, it can be evident that the historical relationship between Shlomo Carlebach and the orthodox Jewish pop music industry has been quite beneficial. The relationship of Shlomo with the Jewish music industry is also evident in the influence his previous music had on the folk music of the Jews. His influence elicited the idea of coming up with simpler music that bridges the gap between the folk world as well as the traditional Jewish Hasidic tunes (Abramovitch and Sean, 37). This has been crucial since it has made the orthodox Jewish music industry to gain a lot of fame.
Abramovitch, Ilana, and Seán Galvin. Jews of Brooklyn. Hanover (N.H.: University press of New England, 2002. Print.
Shepherd, John, and Svanibor Pettan. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. London: Continuum, 2003. Print.
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Using the semiconductor industry as an example, explain how japan’s economic strategy and ideology, industrial policy, and economic structure resulted in trade friction with the U.S.?
Japan’s dual-use technological capabilities are an issue with strategic considerations. Foreign policy leaders in America understand the issues and know how to deal with them. Regrettably, their clarity of mission and capacity to respond to threats does not exist with regard to long-term economic threats from Japan. U.S therefore needs to examine the current changes in Japan’s industrial policies. This means that the United States will have to take great steps with its capacity to handle economic threats. Since an economic policy is central to the sustainability of a nation’s strength, it is therefore important for Americans to take the same degree of precision (Ellis, 47). This will help in analysis of foreign economic threats. Additionally, American miscalculations on foreign economic threat with regards to Japan are derived from political and ideological biases of its leaders. This can be seen from the perspective of government intervention in the business of the economy. This is what is considered as the issue of industrial policy.
The economic threats that are underway in Japan suggest that their economic position is likely to strengthen as their recent economic policy changes. Japan’s economic development model perceives government intervention in policy making ensuring sufficient human investment. This allows the creation of competitive environment for private companies. At the same time it maintains an open economy for international trade. This further maintains macroeconomic stability for the country in relation to competing countries. Japan has since been conscious in its policies. It has successful practitioners of developmental economics. It has also been to task of coaching the Asian community about the virtues of industrial policy. Japan’s industrial policy refers to the country’s official measures to direct economic resources into specific sectors. It includes channeling of economic activities that are considered important for the growth of the economy.
Japan’s economic strategy and ideology, emphasizes on manufacturing. This is because the field of manufacture contributes positively to economic growth. Thus manufacturing jobs pay more and the exports here earn more. Services and specialized technologies including the field of communications are linked to manufacturing, this is essential to an independent national security. Economic strain between the two countries results from Japan’s action of abandoning the constraints of its overly managed economy. Japan is moving forward to look for more open, market-oriented strategy and thus the development of semiconductor industry. It is clear that for the past 8 years, Japan’s global competitive position in the field of manufacturing has slipped for a number of reasons. Japan’s manufacturing has slipped because of the reduced productivity growth and declining price competitiveness. All this is as a result of technological advancement that cannot compensate for Japan’s high wage disadvantages.
Despite their competitive manufacturing, Japan will experience a significant surge in its economic growth because of the recent tsunami. Their growth since 1996 was as a result of several economic factors such as changes in regulations, overseas direct investment, exchange rate adjustments, industrial restructuring, capital investment and most importantly employment gains that were centered on medium size and small firms. The firms account for 70 percent of economic activity in Japan. Their competitive industries have since been strong in international markets. Japan is growing to a larger percentage its dependency on foreign markets in manufacturing. Japan is a strong competitor of the U.S since it is basing its strategy on Asian markets. It has put aside aid and financing resources that to up projects and thus it has remained strong in manufacturing and technology applications. This has resulted into a weak tie with the U.S. Japanese overdependence on the U.S. market for exports is ending and thus developing the friction between the countries. Japan is therefore emerging as a more independent focused actor on the global economic market.
Evaluate the techniques the U.S. Used to try to manage trade friction with Japan, comparing the “SII” case and the framework talks. Do you think the U.S. handled these skillfully and succeeded?
Americans have emphasized political fragmentation. They are using Darwinian view of the world to undervalue the role of institutions in economic policy formation. U.S is assuming that the market allocates resources efficiently and that their current technology is increasing through the accumulation of knowledge. All these sums up to the fact that prices are all the information needed to maximize economic progress needed. Their policy policymakers are giving a serious consideration to the shifting economic strategies in Japan. Their hopes rely on the seemingly America’s stronger global economic position. Even though Japan has come through economic difficulties stronger and without the social disruptions of American corporate downsizing and restructuring, they will still face the strong opposition from American manufacturing corporations. America is currently moving toward a more market responsive economy. It is also reinforcing its incentives for S&T and regional infrastructural investment.
United States has taken great steps with its capacity to handle economic threats. This is because economic policy is central to the sustainability of a nation’s strength, it is therefore important for Americans to take the same degree of precision. This analysis of their policy has helped in combating foreign economic threats. Additionally, American miscalculations on foreign economic threat with regards to Japan are derived from political and ideological biases of its leaders. America is now reviewing policies that are important for their economic well being. This can be seen from the perspective of government intervention in the business of the economy (Ellis, 50). This is what is considered as the issue of industrial policy. America is using its economic factors in the assessment of national strength in order to change more rapidly than their military capabilities. This has been a great step especially under the guidance of bureaucratic initiatives. America has therefore concentrated its resources and talents into the defense bureaucracy and marketing of their manufactured goods. American analysts argue that economic strain between them and Japan does not call for bold initiatives in Asian relations. They still believe that Japan’s current economic downfall gives a primary loose-end in the global system.
America did make efforts to introduce either numerical targets or numerical indicators in the Asian markets and they only settled the “objective criteria” with Japan. The two sides have not agreed yet on interpretation of “objective criteria” for their policy implementations. U.S has made a considerable number of talks with Japan, in fact, it has held up public airing of disputes. This has been regarded as a sign of a healthy relationship. Americas and Japanese biggest issue was on autos and auto parts. This accounted for the bulk of the U.S. trade deficit with Japan. U.S had an agreement on issues as Japanese Government procurement of goods. The U.S has also threatened Japan with sanctions. Their threat involves invoking Section 301 of U.S. Trade Act. This move can amount to a trade war, but it has since been averted when they reached an agreement. They agreed that the move on Japan would violate GATT rules. America is looking for on how to reduce the relatively closed nature of the Japanese economy.
Since Japanese tariffs on the average are low, U.S regulations and informal business practices have been combined to impede foreign imports and investments. Their agreement with Japan has brought about desired results. They have decided to adopt a results-oriented stance in trade negotiations. America opened trade talks that have culminated in framework agreements. They have promised to reduce budget deficits and improve competitiveness while keeping their markets open.
Briefly, how trade friction between the US and Japan continue in multilateral settings?
America and Japan have since realized that in a market economy there is a strong presumption that competitive forces channel resources into their most productive uses. If their markets fall, the governments need appropriate interventions. United States has to take great steps with its capacity to handle economic threats. Since an economic policy is central to the sustainability of a nation’s strength, it is therefore important for Americans to take the same degree of precision. This will help in analysis of foreign economic threats. Even though Japan has come through economic difficulties stronger and without the social disruptions of American corporate downsizing and restructuring, they need a weaker competition from American manufacturers. America is currently moving toward a more market responsive economy. It is also reinforcing its incentives for S&T and regional infrastructural investment.
Ellis, Krauss. Political Economy: Policymaking and Industrial Policy in Japan. Political Science and Politics, Vol. 25. American Political Science Association Publishers, 1992.
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