Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence

Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence. Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Please split this post into two post…

As you consider this week’s discussion question, you will also want to think about validity. What is reliability and validity. How do they differ? How are they related? What are the implications of invalid measurement tools?

An excellent (and credible) website to assist in your understanding of this week’s content can be found at

Keep these principles in mind as you reflect upon the data collected and reported in the website cited. Surveys are frequently used to collect data in research studies. The development of a sound survey is a science in and of itself. As you review the survey presented in the link provided above, consider the purpose of the survey. Does the survey appear to collect the intended data? What data do you feel would be beneficial to have collected that perhaps was not? What challenges are present in survey data collection?  Review of course outcomes 2, 4 and 5 will help keep students focus as they comment on this busy and complex discussion board.

Access the following information. You may read the PDF online or download it.

American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. ANA. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

  1. Review the secondary data presented in the ANA Fast Facts and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce.
  2. Describe the purpose and the intent of the ANA sharing these results?
  3. The next process for our study is to collect data. The research design will indicate the best data to be collected. The tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Define these terms with respect to research, and explain why they are important.
  4. Consider data collection and measurement methods for your nursing clinical issue. Explain how you would collect data and what measurement methods you would use.

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Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence

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Types of Research Questions

Research Questions

After reviewing the “Types of Research Questions” tutorial, choose a broad area of interest that aligns with your concentration area. Describe your broad area of interest. Then, write three or more research questions that a researcher could use to study this broad topic area. For example, you could write composition, relationship, and causality questions related to that broad topic area. After writing the three research questions, which would be the best to pursue, and why?

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Public Health Research

Research Design and Methodology

In this assignment, you will complete the third portion of your final research project, which will be due in Unit VII. Based on the topic you chose in Unit I, you will describe the research design and methodology you plan to use to complete your research (remember this is a hypothetical research study that you will not conduct). You will include and discuss the type of data you will collect and consider the following questions:

  • Describe the three types of research designs, and explain what method you will use to collect data (qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods).
  • Why did you choose this approach?
  • What type of tool (i.e., survey, interview, observation) will you use to collect data?
  • Explain why you will use that type of data collection tool.
  • Explain how you will ensure internal and external validity in your research project.

Submit a one- to two-page paper (page count does not include title and references pages), and include at least three references; two of them must be peer-reviewed articles. Follow APA style to format your paper (Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spacing, etc.). 

Vaccine Hesitancy and its Impact on Public Health

I am interested in exploring the topic of vaccine hesitancy and its impact on public health. Vaccine hesitancy refers to the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines. This issue has gained significant attention in recent years, particularly considering the COVID-19 pandemic and the urgent need for vaccination to protect individuals and communities from the spread of the virus. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex issue that can arise from a variety of factors, including misinformation, lack of trust in the healthcare system, and cultural or religious beliefs. It can lead to decreased vaccination rates, which in turn can contribute to the resurgence of preventable diseases and other public health threats. Research on vaccine hesitancy is critical in developing effective strategies to address this issue and improve vaccination rates. Studies can help identify the reasons for vaccine hesitancy, as well as the most effective ways to communicate with hesitant individuals and promote vaccine acceptance (Troiano & Nardi, 2021). I believe that understanding the root causes of vaccine hesitancy and finding effective solutions to address it is essential for promoting public health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Through my research, I hope to contribute to the development of evidence-based approaches to increase vaccine acceptance and improve public health outcomes.

Reasons for selecting this topic.

I selected the topic of vaccine hesitancy because it is a pressing issue that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of vaccines in protecting public health has become more apparent than ever before. However, there are still many individuals who are hesitant or resistant to getting vaccinated, which poses a significant challenge to efforts to control the spread of the virus. As a public health professional, I believe it is important to understand the factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy and find ways to address these concerns to promote vaccination and protect public health. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy is a multifaceted issue that intersects with many different aspects of public health and healthcare delivery. It involves issues of trust, access, communication, and cultural beliefs, among others. By studying vaccine hesitancy, I can gain a deeper understanding of how these different factors interact and impact health outcomes. This knowledge can help me become a more effective public health practitioner and contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to improve vaccination rates and promote public health. Furthermore, the topic of vaccine hesitancy is a highly relevant and timely issue not only in the context of COVID-19, but also in the broader context of global health. Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving vaccination goals for other diseases, such as measles, polio, and HPV (Wilson & Wiysonge, 2021).

Research Questions

· What are the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy among different populations, and how can these concerns be effectively addressed through targeted communication and education strategies?

· How do vaccine hesitancy impact vaccination rates and contribute to the spread of infectious diseases, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic?

· What role do healthcare providers play in addressing vaccine hesitancy, and what are the most effective strategies for increasing vaccine acceptance and addressing concerns among patients?

· How do cultural and religious beliefs influence vaccine hesitancy, and what approaches can be used to address these concerns in a culturally sensitive and respectful manner?

Top of Form

Bottom of Form


Troiano, G., & Nardi, A. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in the era of COVID-19.  Public health,  194, 245-251.

Wilson, S. L., & Wiysonge, C. (2020). Social media and vaccine hesitancy.  BMJ global health,  5(10), e004206.

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Revising Research Questions

Revising Research Questions

Part 2

Identify one question about the topic that you are curious about.What caused millions of people to die during Mao Zedongs rule over China?   How did lousy government policies contribute to one of the worst famines in human history? (Revised)
Describe why this question matters to you personally.The revision for this question was based on the understanding that it is the government policy that led to millions of people to die during the Zedong’s rule. The Great Leap Forward was a government policy premised on the belief that collectivization would transform Chinese agriculture from small household farming into large-scale mechanized production, thus making China achieve a significant leap in productivity. However, the policy was implemented despite being a fabrication of lies about grain production and disastrous farming methods. The primary sources indicate that government policies play a central role in human lives.  Review of Edgar’s interview with Mao (1965) helped me to understand that government policies impact important aspects of lives such as education, health, religion and how people do business, practice agriculture and interact with others. Subsequently, bad policies have significant negative impacts on the lives of citizens. For instance, in the case of the Great Leap Forward policy, peasants were forced to build backyard blast furnaces to produce iron and steel tools that would make mechanization of agriculture possible production (Wilson Center, 1960).  The policy took labor away from food production, leading a shortfall in food and subsequent famine.  
Describe why this question matters to society.Government policies continue to impact every aspect of citizens’ lives. Citizens are not immune to government policies, but all they are left with is to conform to the policies.  The society continues to be at  the risk of suffering from bad government policies, thus making it necessary to understand the genesis of bad government policies as based on the Great Leap Forward. Bad government judgments are a detriment to the lives of its people.  Therefore, it is vital to understand how ineffective and inefficient policy contributed to the deaths of millions of people.
Identify a second question about the topic you are curious about.What was the Great Leap Forward? What was the Red Guard?   What are the dangers of power concentration around one person? (Revised).
Describe why this question matters to you personally.The revision of this question was informed by the knowledge that the concentration of powers around Zedong was the cause of loss of millions of lives. The deaths in the Great Leap Forward were primarily a result of a systemic failure in central planning. The policy was collectively introduced nationwide without considering the difference between low-output areas and high-output areas. The traditional households were barely ready to implement mechanized farming.   A document from the Wilson center (1959) on Zedong’s comments helped me to understand that the government imposed local cadres to overcome reactionary conservatism. The local machinery helped to create an illusion that China had achieved food self-sufficiency and hence it was reasonable to divert a large amount of the agricultural labor into industry labor thus leading to a decline in food production (Wilson Center, 1960). Estimated 16.4million peasants were relocated to urban areas to support industrialization  
Describe why this question matters to society.The centralization of the policy made the mistakes to be replicated in every part of the country, causing the whole country unnecessary deaths. Effective plans and research were not conducted to establish the viability of the program. Everything was informed by the illusion that collectivism would help China achieve increased food productivity and subsequent industrialization production (Wilson Center, 1959).  Centralized powers meant relevant stakeholders who could provide necessary assistant were not consulted, and any form of resistance was met with punitive reactionary measures from the government.  


Edgar, S. (1965). Interview with Mao. The New Republic, Retrieved from

Wilson center (1959). MAO Zedong’s remarks at the March 25, 1959, meeting in Shanghai, Retrieved from,

Wilson Center. (1959). Record of conversation between polish delegation and PRC leader Mao Zedong, Beijing.  Digital Archive, Retrieved from

Wilson Center. (1960). Cable from the Chinese foreign ministry, ‘Investiigative’ report on the Korean embassy in Beijing supposedly assuming responsibility for the provision of essential food stuffs to Korean residents of Beijing. Retrieved from

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ASSIGNMENT: RESEARCH DESIGN               Your name: ……………………………….                                     

    The working title for your project?    The title of the project will be the Causes of Suicidal Minds, and it will focus on the suicide cases on rising in our society among the youths while using recent incidences as the case examples.    
    Identify a research problem      This research will aim to find the solutions for this self-annihilation acts and try to identify methods and mechanisms that can be put in place to ensure no similar future occurrences take place.    
    What is your research hypothesis or a research question or central question?      The research will base its arguments and draw hypotheses from the question “If the majority of youths are counseled and given proper guidance, will the rate of suicides committed be on the low?” while trying to explain the limitations and significance of the question asked.  
  What keywords will you use to search the literature based on your topic and title? List 5 – 8    Many terms will be used depending on the occasion requirements, but most commons shall be; tackling depression among teenagers, outcome of hopelessness in young people, suicide prevention methods, causes of suicide, how to minimize suicide cases, signs of a suicidal thoughts, behaviors associated with suicide and most importantly the single term of “suicide.”          
  What is the worldview of your study?  The most prominent perception I always hold towards the word “suicide” is it is the worst perpetration that a human can commit against themselves. I am of the opinion that apart from me, the majority of people cannot understand how other humans arrive at this decision and decide to get rid of themselves, the phenomenon at large is unfathomable.    
    Which of the three types of research design will you use and why? (qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods and WHY?)               The research design that will be an application in this study is the qualitative method since this research will largely depend on people’s ideas, opinions, perceptions, and experiences which qualitative methods rely on. It will, therefore, require the study being undertaken through this method.    
  Which type of research inquiry will you use (e.g., experiment, case study, etc.) and why?  The most suitable inquiry method for this type of research is survey method mainly due to the fact that the study will depend on information extracted from samples in the form of queries which is the most convenient method for this type of research.
    What is your sample? (sample size, characteristic of the sample, how will you select your sample)          Since we are looking into suicidal rates among young people the sample will be youths in the age bracket of 17-25 with the characteristic of having experienced suicide either directly or indirectly. The sample will be chosen through questionnaires administered to a group of youths and analyzing the best candidate for this particular research.
  What data will you collect? (e.g., interviews, photos) Will you use secondary data (and what type)?        Data will be collected in the form of questionnaires that the sample will be answering while also offering interviews to get the sample’s personal experiences concerning the subject. Secondary data on the internet will also be utilized and used in this research.    
  What are the ethical considerations in your proposed study?      The research will uphold anonymity requests filed by the samples being interviewed in a bid to conceal their identities while taking great care in handling their reports with confidentiality. The study will also seek the sample’s consent before any of their data is published and made public.
  Why do you think your study is significant?          Will enable the world to have a closer look at suicidal cases and find ways of preventing such from happening

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Research in Nursing

Research in Nursing

Written Assignment 2

Title of a research articleUses of electronic health records for public health surveillance to advance public health.
Type of research study Quantitative research.  This is because the study uses figures to report on the progress which has been made so far in as far as the use of electronic health record is concerned. The data collected have therefore been analyzed and reported quantitatively.
Purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the use of electronic health records is beneficial and it has advanced public health in the United States (Birkhead et al., 2015).
Methods/sample This study uses the survey and reports by which have been documented by the Health Department of the united states as the source of information (Birkhead et al., 2015).  The study, therefore, employs survey as the primary research strategy to obtain data which help to show how the use of electronic health records have helped in transforming public health owing to the fact that it eases various management of the patient and the services which are offered.
Results  The result of this study indicates that the use of EHR has boosted the surveillance which is undertaken in order to understand the rate at which some of the communicable and chronic diseases occur.  From the findings, it is clear that the use of EHR has helped the public health departments to be able to track various diseases and be able to monitor and even control them (Birkhead et al., 2015). Without this technology, it would be almost impossible to retrieve information regarding public health and thus difficult to control and prevent some diseases.
Limitations (including threats to internal and external validity)This study acknowledges that there is still the challenge of reporting of information since most of the cases which have been recorded in HER may be incomplete since physician reports are paperwork. This, therefore, makes some crucial data retrieval very tedious and labor intensive. 
ConclusionsEHR is one of the health technology and practice which may be used to keep health information and help not only in treatment but also for public health purposes and specifically in tracking down diseases which are of great concern to public health.

Table 2

Title of the research articleEthical issues in electronic health records: A general overview
Type of research studyQuantitative research
Purpose of the studyThe purpose of this study is to look into the ethical issues surrounding the use of the electronic health records which is being adopted in various parts of the world.
Methods/sampleThis research used the reports which were published to communicate its research. By the use of the reports the authors are able to clearly demonstrate that despite the benefits which are associated with the EHR, there are undoubtedly many challenges which come with it (Ozair et al., 2015). The authors describe privacy and its importance in as far as information is concerned. The study further uses a survey of various researches which have been conducted to show how privacy breach can be tremendous and harmful to the patient and the use of electronic health records. 
ResultsThe findings of this research indicate that the use of EHR is faced by challenges such as information security risks. The risk of information may be dangerous as it causes a lot of damage not only to the patients but also the patients and the providers. Information safety is crucial, and thus the patients need may lose rust in case their personal data is leaked. The service provider on the other hand also loses the customer due to lack of the customer’s trust and consequently affect its performance (Ozair et al., 2015). As compared to the old system of record keeping, this study finds that the EHR has various loopholes of information leakage risks to information safety.
Limitations (including threats to internal and external validity)Although the study comprehensively lists the challenges which are associated with the EHR, it does not look at the systemic challenges which are computer related. For instance, the data which are input into the system, the computer may have challenges which are related to the interfaces and end up distorting information. In this case, the information generated is not due to the problem associated with the HER but the computer systems. Also, the study does not mention the exceptions to countries like India which has for years have been recognized as the leading adopters of health technologies. Conclusively this study notes that electronic Health records are essential and has boosted health in the world but is faced with various issues regarding information safety and patient’s privacy which may not be guaranteed since the information stored in the system can be accessed by anyone including unauthorized persons.  In addition, the study uses a survey which was conducted to show how physicians breach the privacy of their workplace by using mobile phones to text each other about matters of their workplace. The reliance of this information to make a conclusion over the breach of privacy may not be adequate since, in the entire health sector, physicians only make a small percentage of the healthcare professionals (Ozair et al., 2015).
ConclusionsThis study concludes that there is a need to have an extensive effort of all the health stakeholders in order to have a fully functioning EHR. It, therefore, suggests the use of multiple strategies to ensure that EHR functions as required with utmost information safety and thus will help to eliminate the threat of information risk.


Table 3

Title of the research articleUsing electronic health records for clinical research: The case of the EHR4CR project
Type of research studyQuantitative research.
Purpose of the studyThis study seeks to demonstrate the interoperability between EHR and clinical research.  In essence, this study seeks to show the research and electronic health records can work hand in hand with research to attain the aim of every healthcare professional as well the sector.
Methods/sampleThe study used applied various techniques to ensure that the EHR information which is collected, analyzed and stored is reused with the intention of using them to aid in clinical research. This is done with an intention to ultimately attain the goal of utilizing the information for research (De Moor et al., 2015). EHR contain information such as personal information, the type of diseases among other details which may be useful in a clinical research study.
ResultsThe findings of this study indicate that EHR has been utilized to aid in the management of  various health reasons including  the storage of patient’s personal information and the entire history of the patient’s condition (De Moor et al., 2015)
Limitations (including threats to internal and external validity)The study does not report on the shortcomings and the specific challenges (De Moor et al., 2015). This, therefore, does the research biased research since it only focuses on the positive aspect and does not give the possible negative aspects of the computer system as applied in the healthcare service delivery.
ConclusionsOwing to the very many years of experience and the use of EHR, there is need to incorporate various acceptable designs of technology which is acceptable and upholds ethics (De Moor et al., 2015). This is because a high level of consideration of ethical practices is critical in reusing the EHR data.

Table 4

Title of a research articleThe Journey through Grief: Insights from a Qualitative Study of Electronic Health Record Implementation
Type of research studyQualitative research
Purpose of the studyThe purpose of the study is to demonstrate that there are challenges which are seen in the process of implementation of electronic health records. The challenges include both the cost that is involved as well as the know-how which may not be adequate in various health facilities.
Methods/sampleThe study was conducted by conducting data analysis inductively and deductively using constant comparative method. In this regard this study, therefore, the data which is obtained is analyzed using the inductive and deductive methods which do not use any statistical analysis but is mostly based on phenomena which are analyzed based on the opinion and the view of the person undertaking the analysis (McAlearney et al., 2015).
ResultsSince this study is focused on the implementation of EHR, it lays down the strategies which need to be put in place in order to ensure a smooth implementation process.  The focus, however, involves addressing some of the barriers which hinder EHR implementation (McAlearney et al., 2015). By suggesting some of the strategies the study, therefore, helps to create insight into the areas in which the organization that is seeking to adopt EHR need to look into to ensure that there are no barriers to adoption and implementation.
Limitations (including threats to internal and external validity)The findings and the conclusion of this study are based on the interviews on the focused groups. The conclusion is also based on the deductive and inductive analysis. The author did not indicate the shortcomings of the two approaches used to obtain information and therefore leading to the questions of integrity of the study. This consequently leads to doubts on the validity of the entire research as the integrity of research clearly shows that the study shows some level of honesty and possible shortcomings.
ConclusionsThe research strategies which have been employed to address EHR implementation barriers may help in bringing value to clinical practice since the physicians, and other healthcare providers have an adequate transition to the use of technologies which then help to improve service delivery. EHR eases the manner in which the patient information is handled and retrieved when the need arises.

Table 5

Title of a research articleThe probability of an Obese Person Attaining Normal Body Weight: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records
Type of research studyQuantitative  research
Purpose of the studyThe purpose of the research is to study the probability of obese people attaining normal weight using electronic health records.
Methods/sampleThe study used the study sample which was drawn from the United Kingdom’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2014.
ResultsThe findings of the study indicated that a significant number of participants attained a weight loss of 5%. These results were however made possible by the use of the EHR (Fildes et al., 2015).
Limitations (including threats to internal and external validity)The findings of the study which concludes that a good number of participants lost weight may not be conclusive since most obese people have an intention to lose weight and the weight loss recorded may not be considered as a chance.
ConclusionsEHR has been used to monitor various related challenges since it allows for storage of information which can easily be retrieved as compared to other health information storage. In this study, the findings used are mainly retrieved from EHRs.


Birkhead, G. S., Klompas, M., & Shah, N. R. (2015). Uses of electronic health records for public health surveillance to advance public health. Annual Review of Public Health36, 345-359.

De Moor, G., Sundgren, M., Kalra, D., Schmidt, A., Dugas, M., Claerhout, B., … & Kush, R. (2015). Using electronic health records for clinical research: the case of the EHR4CR project. Journal of Biomedical Informatics53, 162-173.

Fildes, A., Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., Littlejohns, P., Prevost, A. T., & Gulliford, M. C. (2015). The probability of an obese person attaining normal body weight: cohort study using electronic health records. American Journal of Public Health105(9), e54-e59.

McAlearney, A. S., Hefner, J. L., Sieck, C. J., & Huerta, T. R. (2015). The journey through grief: Insights from a qualitative study of electronic health record implementation. Health Services Research50(2), 462-488.

Ozair, F. F., Jamshed, N., Sharma, A., & Aggarwal, P. (2015). Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview. Perspectives in Clinical Research6(2), 73.

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Self-Selected Apologetics Argument: Analysis and Critique – Research Stage Template

Self-Selected Apologetics Argument: Analysis and Critique – Research Stage Template

Type your name here:

Ensure you review and understand the assignment instructions and grading rubric before attempting to complete any part of this template. Please do not change any aspect of this template or delete anything from it. Instead, type your content in the spaces provided. Before typing your content, you should review the entire template to be sure you understand what is required.

The purpose of this template is to provide you with a few major building blocks that can be incorporated into your final paper. In the sections provided below, you will insert your approved thesis statement, you will begin building the foundation for what will become the first two major sections in the body of your final paper, and you will footnote after each bullet point and reference in the bibliography sources used in your bullet point formulations (at least two from the opposing worldview).

1. Approved Thesis Statement

The religion of Islam believes that Allah is the only God, whereas Christianity believes that there is one true and living God that exists in three Persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and yet with many similarities and differences between the Bible and the Quran and Islam and Christianity, the truth remains that at the name of Jesus, every knee should bow and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord.

The remainder of this form will help you begin working on the first two major sections of your final paper – the analysis and the critique of the worldview you are writing about.

The basic outline for your final paper should follow this structure:

I. Introduction

II. Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

III. Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

IV. Defense of Christianity

V. Conclusion

In what follows, you will be crafting the building blocks that will eventually become sections II and III in the outline.

1. Introduction

Religion is a complicated and multi-faceted component of human life that has been the topic of discussion, debate, and investigation for millennia. It can mold the beliefs, values, and ethical standards of people and entire groups, and it has played a significant role in influencing human history and the development of civilizations. Since their inception, the world’s two greatest and most pervasive faiths, Islam and Christianity, have been compared and contrasted greatly. There are many points of agreement between these two faiths, such as their shared commitment to a single, all-powerful deity and their shared goals of fostering peace and justice (Oni 2021, 3). However, there are also significant points of divergence, including their divergent views on God, the role of sacred texts, the meaning of life, and the nature of the religious practice. This paper will analyze and critique a worldview thesis statement that contends that. In contrast, Christianity acknowledges the existence of one God who manifests himself in three different persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; Islam believes in only one God named Allah.

2. Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section will form the building blocks of what will become the first major section in the body of your final paper (section II in the outline above): Summarize the worldview by using aspects of its presuppositions and beliefs using one sentence per bullet point (revision and/or expansion of these bullet points is required in the next stage of the project). The number of bullet points needed will be determined by thesis and the quality of your research but at least two are required.

· Islam and Christianity adhere to the idea that there is only one God, despite the fact that the two religions hold various contradictory beliefs and practices (Oni 2021, 3). Islam emphasizes allegiance to Allah and a life of virtue, while Christianity emphasizes a personal relationship with God and the promise of eternal life. Islam has a distinct conception of God since Allah is regarded as the lone, unrivalled deity who is neither a partner nor an equal. The Quran is the most important book in Islam and is believed to be the authentic word of God as it was given to the Prophet Muhammad. (Gastelum 2018, 137). Humans are commanded to surrender to Allah, whom the Quran describes as merciful, just, and all-powerful. As far as Muslims are concerned, all existence is directed toward the worship of Allah and the fulfilment of His commands, the ultimate reward for which is entry into Paradise. On the other hand, Christian belief holds that there is one God, who is also three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Bible is the most significant book in the Christian canon since it contains God’s divinely inspired words and provides guidance for dealing with life’s most difficult issues. According to biblical teaching, having a relationship with the loving God who created us is the ultimate purpose of existence. Christians believe that by putting their trust in Jesus Christ, they will be forgiven and granted eternal life with God.

· The significance of religious texts is yet another crucial component. Muslims consider the Quran to be the exact words of God, and it is from this text that Muslims get their ethical and religious guidance. The moral and legal foundations and the instructions for worship outlined in this book make it an indispensable resource for Muslims who wish to put their faith into practice. On the other hand, Christians look to the Bible for both revelation and guidance, but they do not consider it to be the literal word of God. Christians hold that the Bible is the word of God and that it was written by divine inspiration. They look to it as a source of wisdom to help them navigate the obstacles of everyday life.

· Regarding religious observances, prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage are some of Islam’s most revered rituals and customs. Praying five times a day while facing Mecca is essential to the Islamic faith and practice. Muslim practice also includes fasting during the holy month of Ramadan as a means of spiritual cleansing and becoming closer to Allah. A pilgrimage to Mecca is an integral part of the Islamic religion since it is seen as a method to show love for Allah and unity with other Muslims. On the contrary, Christians have a number of significant rituals and customs, such as prayer, worship, and Communion, that are central to their faith (Parry 2022, 278). Christians place great value on prayer as a means of connecting with God and expressing their devotion and gratitude. Collective acts of worship, typically in a church, are also central to the Christian life. The Christian practice of Communion is fundamental since it serves as a means of commemorating Jesus’ atoning death and showing love and support for fellow Christians.

Overall, there are numerous shared and divergent beliefs and behaviours between Islam and Christianity. Although adherents of both faiths acknowledge the existence of a divine creator, they hold vastly different views on God and the meaning of life (Oni 2021, 3). Each religion has its own ideas and ideals, which are reflected in its sacred books, beliefs and values.

3. Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section focuses on helping you build what will become the second major section of the body of your final paper (section III in the outline above): Evaluate aspects of your selected worldview to show where it fails to provide a rationale, livable, comprehensive system.

· Though Christians and Muslims both profess a belief in a single Creator, the God of each faith is distinctly different. While Christians believe in a personal, loving God who is actively engaged in the world, Muslims view Allah as a separate, impersonal deity. Also, there are considerable discrepancies between the teachings of the Quran and the Bible. For instance, there are fundamental differences between the Quranic and Biblical accounts of creation and human origin, which give rise to divergent views on the meaning of life and the nature of the world. In addition, the Quran’s teachings on salvation and the afterlife diverge from the Bible, resulting in different perspectives on the point of human existence.

· The Islamic religion’s narrow conception of God has been critiqued for a long time. Even though the idea that there is only one God, known as Allah, is fundamental to Islam, there are others who contend that this does not provide an adequate picture of the divine nature. The lack of the notion of the Trinity implies that the complexity and depth of the divine nature are not addressed (Griffel 2022, 379). This is because the concept of the Trinity incorporates numerous facets of the divine nature, such as the traits of love, wisdom, and power. Another critique of the Islamic conception of God is that the Quran does not give an exhaustive explanation of God and the characteristics that characterize him. Even while the Quran is claimed to be the literal word of God and is regarded as a compilation of divine revelations, it does not contain the extensive descriptions and explanations of God’s essence and personality that are contained in other religious books. This results in various interpretations and beliefs held by Muslims, which can also contribute to a fragmented knowledge of God.

· The Christian doctrine of the Trinity has been a subject of critique because it is unclear and contradictory. For individuals who have not been exposed to the doctrine of a triune God, the idea that there is just one God despite the fact that he manifests himself as three separate divine beings may be challenging to comprehend. People can become confused regarding the nature and attributes of God as a result of a lack of clarity such as this, which can lead them to question the reality of the theology.

· Also, the concept of the Trinity, which is central to the Christian understanding of God, has been questioned because it is the product of human interpretation and is not founded on the teachings of Jesus. Some people believe that Jesus never presented the idea of the Trinity to his followers and that the doctrine of the Trinity was developed via human interpretation and theological conjecture. Consequently, some people have asserted that the dogma of the Trinity is not founded on divine revelation but rather on human ingenuity.

· The concept of a religious authority constitutes another critique of the competing worldviews. When it comes to Islam, Quranic verses and Prophet Muhammad’s sayings and deeds (Hadith) form the basis of Islamic belief. They are considered the most authoritative sources of religious doctrine (Griffel 2022, 379). This topic has been the subject of debate due to the assertion made by certain individuals that Islam is dependent on the direction of Prophet Muhammad, who was a human being and not divine. On the other hand, Christianity acknowledges the authority of the Bible as the word of God. It focuses significantly on personal relationships and interactions with God. 2 Timothy 3:16 NKJV states, “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness”. This verse highlights the significance of the Bible as God’s authoritative message and its function in molding the believer into a devoted servant of God.

· Notwithstanding these critiques, Christianity continues to be a viable worldview. Christianity provides a distinctive worldview because it emphasizes God’s unmerited favour and mercy. The concept of a triune God provides a deep and nuanced framework for comprehending the deity and the divine-human connection. The Bible also offers thorough guidance for leading a meaningful life and provides responses to the most critical questions in life. The Bible contains morals, ethics, and justice lessons that guide ethical lives. The Bible also provides a history of the globe and the occasions that have formed humanity. This involves the creation of the universe, the history of humankind, and the birth, ministry, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ, which are at the center of the Christian faith.


While Christianity and Islam share some commonalities and divergences, each religion’s worldview is unique in its understanding of the nature of God, the meaning of life, the universe, and the purpose of human existence. While Muslims consider Allah the supreme deity, Christians believe in one God who manifests Himself in Trinity. Christianity, despite critiques, is still a valid worldview that provides billions of individuals with hope, comfort, and guidance. It presents a thorough blueprint for leading a fulfilling life and a compelling worldview based on God’s grace and unconditional love.

4. Turabian bibliography (must be located on its own separate page; see below):


Gastelum, Arturo. “No God but One: Allah or Jesus? A Former Muslim Investigates the Evidence for Islam and Christianity, Nabeelqureshi, Zondervan, 2016 (ISBN 978-0-310-52255-3), 318 Pp., Pb $17.99.” Reviews in Religion & Theology 25, no. 1 (2018): 137–40.

Griffel, Frank. “24. Religious Critique as a Popularization of Philosophy.” The Popularization of Philosophy in Medieval Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, (2022), 379–88.

Oni, Idris Ajani. “A Comparative Analysis of Selected Fundamentals of Christianity and Islam,” 2021.

Parry, Jonathan. “Stratford Canning and the Politics of Christianity and Islam.” Promised Lands, (2022), 278–97.


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The first steps in data analysis, used for quantitative research is descriptive analysis

Descriptive analysis is one of the most necessary and first steps in data analysis used for quantitative research.  Descriptive analysis uses statistical processes describing, measuring, and summarising collected data.  Week 6 lesson lists ways researchers can measure the data: “measure to summarize, a measure of central tendency, a measure of variability, a measure of position and relation, and summarizing using graphical presentation.” (Chamberlain, 2023).  Inferential analysis numerically measures the accuracy of results and makes predictions about an entire population.  This type leaves room for the uncertainty of the sample on the population or sampling error. (Houser, 2023).  Qualitative analysis is a technique measuring non numerical data such as people’s experiences/perceptions to understand their beliefs better, points of view, and reality.  This technique can be very challenging and time consuming.  It allows the researcher to take part in the study.  The three main qualitative analysis methods are template, editing, and immersion.  This type of analysis reveals a deeper meaning. (Houser, 2023).  Interestingly, this form of analysis searches for deeper meaning, so the researcher must take extra steps to ensure the results are trustworthy and reliable.   Another interesting fact is that Houser explains that the “purpose of summarizing descriptive data for research differs from the purpose of summarizing data for the readers.”

Data analysis is important to nursing practice.  As nurses, we use it daily for quality improvements, such as vitals, diseases, issues, and length of stay.  Analysis helps conclusions drive change in how we practice, evidence-based practice, and to make a safer work environment for nurses.  Houser, p.414, states, “Qualitative conclusions enhance the evidence for a holistic view of nursing practice.”

Statistical significance shows the reliability and validity of study results.  Clinical significance reveals the impact on nursing practice and how interventions/treatments/methods affect patients and outcomes.  Both are important.  Studies may be statistically significant but not necessarily clinically relevant.  So clinical significance is of high importance for practice.  (Anaesth, 2021).


Chamberlain college of nursing, (2023). Week 6 lesson:  Findings: Analysis and results.

Houser, J., (2023). Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence. (5th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.

Anaesth, S., (2021). Statistical significance or clinical significance? A researcher’s dilemma for appropriate interpretation of research results. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 15(4): 431–434 Retrieved from:,of%20the%20results%20or%20not Links to an external site. .

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Identify and describe at least 3 ethical considerations in conducting evaluation research

Develop a post in response to the discussion question chosen. Post must contain 400–500 original words and adhere to the following: Include an analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the topic. Include a reference and in-text citations for the course textbook. Include a reference and in-text citations for at least one article from a peer-reviewed journal published within the past five years. Include a reference and in-text citations for the Bible. Include an assessment/analysis of your Christian worldview as it relates to the topic. Include both in-text citations and references in APA format. Utilize correct English, grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Include clear topic sentences for each paragraph, supporting sentences, and a conclusion sentence/paragraph.  

QUESTION CHOSEN:  Identify and describe at least 3 ethical considerations in conducting evaluation research. How do these factors affect the evaluation effort? 

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Generate a Term Project – Research Paper

Group #:                  

Team Goal: Generate a Term Project – Research Paper

Duration and Time Commitment: 01/06/23 – 04/04/23

Team Topic: 

1. Team Contact Information

#Team Members:Email:Phone:Best days/times to contact:

2. Team Communication Plan

Enter the teams plan for:            

1. Communicating with each     other every week and   
2. the location of the teams      shared document.   
3. Project Completion Plan  
StepsTasksWeek DueDate DuePlan for Completion
1Select a topic related to a business, healthcare, marketing, data privacy issue of interest, a well-known problem in your major area of study, or another problem that the team selects.   
2Research peer-reviewed articles related to the topic selected.   

TasksWeek DueDate DuePlan for Completion
6Analyze & Record research for Literature Review   
 a. Write 1 Literature Review   
 b. Edit 1 Literature Review   
 c. Submit 1 Sample Literature Review in drop box in BlackboardWeek 802/21/23 
 d. Revise the Sample Literature Review with Professor’s feedback   
 Add 2 literature review sections to Sample literature review for submission with Assignment 4   
7Submit Assignment 4 – Literature Reviews for 3 articles in drop box in BlackboardWeek 902/28/23 
8Revise Assignment 4 according to Professor’s feedback and save to include with Term Project – Research Paper.   
9Begin writing the sections of the term project – research paper.   
 1. Introduction   
 2. Background – Root Cause   
      Background – What Went Wrong   
 3. Literature Review (from revised Assignment 4)   
10Submit Assignment 5 – Draft sections 1 – 3: Introduction, 2 sections of Background, and Literature Review   
11Revise Assignment 5 according to Professor’s feedback and save to include with Final Term Project – Research Paper.   
124. Write – Discussion   
 5. Recommendations   
 6. Conclusion   
13Submit Assignment 6 – Draft sections 4 – 6: Discussion, Recommendations, and Conclusion   
14Revise Assignment 6 according to Professor’s feedback and save to include with Final Term Project – Research Paper.   
15Generate a Final Term Project – Research Paper Generate a Term Project – PowerPoint Presentation   
16Group presents Term Project – PowerPoint Presentation during class in Week 13 (03/28) Submit the Final Term Project – Research Paper and Presentation in Blackboard.Week 13     Week 1403/28/23     04/04/23 

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