The Impact of Technological Advancement on Writing Skills

The Impact of Technological Advancement on Writing Skills


The advancements in technology have substituted writing skills with typing and texting skills. Texting a message has substituted writing letters among friends. Similarly, smart phones have become a common device among students. Students are handing in typed papers for assignments rather than hand written assignments. This greatly impacts the development of writing skills among scholars and students. This leaves the question: Has technology hindered the development of writing skills among scholars and students?

The Impact of Technological Advancement on Writing Skills

Research problem and purpose statement:

Advancements in technology are reflective in that when students are doing assignments, they have a spell checker and a synonym finder. The same luxury is not afforded if I am to write the paper rather than type, in writing I have to know or use a dictionary for the spelling, meaning and any synonyms. Texting has made messaging quicker and easier. The efficiency with which communication is done nowadays has led to reluctance in the development of writing skills (Ferris 1). Many children are introduced to texting and typing at a very young age.  Combining this with the fact that; in learning institutions, assignments have taken a technological perspective, there has been a deterioration of writing skills. Purcell, Buchannan and Friedrich (1) observe that the use of digital materials has created a hard ground for the development of writing skills among the students. There is the need thus to look deeply into the negative impact of technological advancement on the development of writing skills. In lieu of this, this research paper aims at establishing the negative impacts of technological development on the development of writing skills. A number of materials concerning the topic will be reviewed and analyzed.


The research aims to find a definitive or conclusive answer to the question. It will be based on experiences and academic scholarly material. The duration of the research will be 3 days in which materials will be reviewed and analyzed to provide a solution to the research question.

Annotated Bibliography:

Purcell Kristen, Buchannan Judy, Friedrich Linda. The impact of digital tools on student writing and how writing is taught in schools. Pew Research Internet Project, 16th July. 2013. Web. 18th Feb, 2014.

This article addresses the impact of digital technology on the development of writing skills. The authors agree that the digital age has come up with benefits in teaching languages and writing skills. At the same time, many challenges have come up in the teaching of formal writing skills, as a result of digital advancement. The authors argue that the digital technology favors informal writing style rather than formal. However, many teachers of languages still emphasize formal style, and it poses a challenge for them. The authors surveyed a total of 2462 teachers, a good number, thus raising the credibility index of this article. The authors have written several articles on this area, so they don’t raise any doubts on the credibility of data. It is a resourceful article for any student of this subject.

Ferris, Sharmila, P. Writing electronically: The effects of computers on traditional writing. The Journal of Electronic Publishing, 8.1 (2002). Print.

The article by Ferris addresses the effect of the growth of the use of computer on writing. Ferris examines the history of literary writing and addresses the transition from literary to orality. The author argues that computers have their roots in print, and this has made people all over the world to adopt the notion that in the present day, writing should be through a computer. This has greatly impacted on the traditional form of writing.  The author addresses both the elite and the laymen in this article. The article has referenced many other articles in the same field, raising its credibility index. It is a very resourceful article on the subject matter, and will be very helpful in this research.

Goldberg Amie, Russell, Michael, Cook Abigael. The effects of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. Journal of Technology, Language and Assessment, 2.1 (2003). Print

 This article is a meta-analysis of twenty six studies that concerned the impact of computers on writing skills. Although the article highlights some negative impacts of using computers, it takes the perspective that computers have contributed greatly to improve writing skills among students. The authors argue that the results of the evaluation of the articles that met their criteria and those that did not, reveal that typing and texting improves writing skills. However, the results ranged around average for negative and positive impacts. Going by this, the article will be very helpful for this research. A different view by this article will help in the testing of the hypothesis. The authors also agree on the challenge that befalls tutors in teaching formal skills to the students. The article has referenced many other researches increasing its credibility index. It addresses the scholars though laymen can also benefit from it. This is a resourceful article and will be very beneficial for this study.

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Demonstrating Technological Advances Writing Help

Demonstrating Technological Advances Writing Help

Technological advances in the field of computer science In today’s environment, every organization has various uses for increasing computer performance. People who want to work in their chosen field should stay updated on the newest technology breakthroughs, applications, and discoveries. Machine learning is a technological advancement that has helped many industries, primarily by using robots. Despite robots’ complexity and rapid progress, machine learning offers much more immediate and far-reaching applications such as algorithm creation, refinement, and maintenance which have become critical techniques in both data science and computer science. Higher degrees of an automation open up new paths for data collection and analysis, which is a fantastic resource for any business or organization.
 Quantum Computing Technology (QCT) is another computer science invention that has the potential to change the physics that underpin computer design. The primary goal of this method is to minimize processing by altering atomic states rather than leaving a physical or electrical signature on the material. The advancement of quantum computing may have a significant influence on computer performance. Big data has impacted every modern company, but public health and healthcare, in general, are at the forefront. Computer science is essential in healthcare in numerous ways, including forecasting local health needs, monitoring potential disease outbreaks, and recognizing patient patterns. Experts in data analysis and health informatics are also in high demand among academics, politicians, and commercial enterprises, including government organizations. are you looking for a technology dissertation help service?
 There have been technological advancements in data protection. Many people are concerned about cybersecurity, particularly in a society where most adults use the internet daily and rely primarily on digital infrastructure for everything from shopping, socializing, and entertainment to government functions. Businesses and government agencies are particularly concerned about digital security and have defined privacy paradox with an aim of ensuring data protection (Meurisch & Max, 6). Current computer science combines hardware and software components into a single system to improve safety. Data scientists and machine learning experts are also working on ways to leverage data science and machine learning to protect networks at home, in business, and public. The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and technology has created several new job opportunities for computer scientists. A smart device that can connect to a home network is beneficial for personal and professional purposes; remotely controlled appliances and lights are two examples of technology in this area. Since its start, computer science has evolved into a diverse set of related disciplines and expertise. In this era of technology, childcare assignment help is easier to find.
 How the current technology handles big data
 Big data refers to a collection of data whose breadth and volume are expanding exponentially. Big data technologies are computer programs intended to manage vast and complex data sets, which conventional management methods could never control. “Operational big data (OBD” refers to the quantity of data generated daily by online transactions, social media, or information from a single company and evaluated by software based on big data technology. It serves as the raw material for the analysis of extensive data. Improved adaptations to big data technologies are the focus of these OBD technologies, including actual comprehensive data analysis, which is essential for business decisions.   
  Hadoop is a tool used to deal with big data, and it was designed to store and analyze data in a distributed data processing environment utilizing a simple programming method. It is feasible to store and analyze data from a range of high-speed and low-cost devices, and several firms have used Hadoop as a Big Data solution to satisfy their data warehouse needs. Companies who have not yet explored Hadoop will almost definitely find its merits and applications once they start using it since it promotes efficiency and accuracy. AI is also a tool used to handle big data since it is a broad branch of computer science concerned with the building of intelligent machines capable of performing a range of tasks for which intelligence is often needed of people. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this area of research, machine learning and deep learning are just two of the many methods artificial intelligence considers, and it is revolutionizing Big Data Technologies. Visit for more.
 It is also feasible to use a NoSQL database to handle massive volumes of big data since it integrates a wide variety of Big Data Technologies created expressly for developing modern applications. It illustrates a non-SQL or non-relational database that may store and retrieve large amounts of data. They are used in real-time web analytics and big data, and it is possible to store data in an unstructured format, and the system can handle a wide variety of data types. The method of user interface creation offers the advantages of design integrity, more effortless horizontal scalability, and control over the possibilities across a wide range of devices. NoSQL database comprises of different database creation methods and one decides on the one to use based on the project required outcomes (Chen & Wei-Zhe, 120).  NoSQL calculations are accelerated by using data structures separate from those used by default in relational databases.
 Using programming as a creative tool
 Software, code, and computational processes are all used in creative coding to express oneself or develop new art forms. The advertising, branding, and design industries increasingly use creative coding, although it is often considered more aesthetic than functional. Many businesses, including the traditional humanities, now need information systems. As a result, programmers need the ability to think creatively and even a rudimentary understanding of the nuances of the work of artists or scientists for every new project (Hoebeke et al., 234). Knowledge and imagination are required to produce effective programs and apps, not to mention high-end computer games. There should be a lot of thinking put into the best programs and apps to make them creative and understandable to others.
 Understanding the societal need for continued computing innovation
 In the future, as shown at technology assignment help, society will be fundamentally reshaped by technological advances. Automated systems are transforming the workplace and will radically affect practically every sector in the future. In the future, humans and robots will work together in the workplace to boost productivity in various industries. By automating tedious and repetitive jobs, people will have more time to concentrate on more creative and fascinating projects to work on and promote worldwide developments. Robots are a tool for improving performance and productivity while removing the mentally taxing and uninteresting duties that many employees must deal with daily. The advancement of computing technology will aid humanity in resolving global issues such as increased energy efficiency, which is one-way technology that may help with climate change. The use of computers and robotics in medical research is another way that computer technology may be used in the healthcare industry to promote better experiences for the sick and increase the survival rates for patients.
 Although computer science is already extensively employed in education, there are new methods to use computers to make education more efficient and effective so that society can benefit. Educators will be able to determine the most effective teaching methods and incorporate these into their lessons if computers are used to monitor the many ways pupils learn to do so. Since digitalization is the only path ahead, whether it is a corporation or a government, there must be a strategy to digitize services at the very least to ensure continued development to handle the increasing world population. Exceptional Quality You’ve come to the right site if you’re looking for winning writing help site. For you, one of our expert writers will create a flawless work. We exclusively work with experienced, native English-speaking authors who have years of relevant writing background. Any Difficulty
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 Works Cited  
  Chen, Jeang-Kuo, and Wei-Zhe Lee. “An Introduction of NoSQL Databases based on their categories and application industries.” algorithms 12.5 (2019): 106-122.   Hoebeke, Stephanie, Ingri Strand, and Peter Haakonsen. “Programming as a New Creative Material in Art and Design Education.” Techne serien-Forskning i slöjdpedagogik och slöjdvetenskap 28.2 (2021): 233-240.   Meurisch, Christian, and Max Mühlhäuser. “Data protection in AI services: a survey.” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 54.2 (2021): 1-38.

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Freshwater is a vital resource. Is it possible to use icebergs as a source of freshwater? 2. What obstacles – technological, social, environmental

Freshwater is a vital resource. Is it possible to use icebergs as a source of freshwater?
2. What obstacles – technological, social, environmental & political – do you foresee for such an endeavor? (Make sure to mention at least one technoligical, one social, one environmental and one political obstacle.)
This topic is for a physical science 110 course, the discussion answer has to be in our own words, no plagiarism allowed thanks.
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identify how changes in public policy and technological advances in the future could impact this topic. What would those changes mean to the healthcare industry?

Part One:

Discussion Question:

You have been working on the Signature Assignment project since Module 1. Please post a link to your recorded presentation or just the PPT slides in the discussion board for your initial post (the 400-word requirement and required source are waived this week).

Please review at least two of your classmates’ presentation and provide support meeting the 200-word requirement for each reply.

Part Two:

Start by reading and following these instructions:

1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.

2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.

3. Consider the discussion and the any insights you gained from it.

4.Create yourAssignment submission and be sure to cite your sources, use APA style as required, check your spelling.

Signature Assignment Title:Informatics in Healthcare

Signature Assignment Description/Directions:

Beginning in Module 1 of this course you have been researching a healthcare informatics topic of your choice. Now you will present your findings in a 7 to 12 minute recorded presentation complete with PowerPoint slides (no length requirement).

  • Discuss your topic and its relationship to your current (or future) practice. Discuss why the topic is important in healthcare informatics.
  • What research have you have found on the topic. Describe how each scholarly article relates to the topic and your current (or future) practice. Describe what conclusions you have drawn based on your research of the topic.
  • What ethical or legal issues does this topic present?
  • Create a plan for implementing a change (or justify the need for no change). Who needs to be involved? What training programs are needed? Is there a need for on-going training? Discuss how you would evaluate the success of the change (or the continued success of what you are currently doing). What is the cost to implement or maintain this change? Who will be financially responsible? How feasible is this change?
  • Finally, identify how changes in public policy and technological advances in the future could impact this topic. What would those changes mean to the healthcare industry?

Length: Recorded presentation between 7 and 12 minutes in length. The presentation should include a PowerPoint and oral presentation of the slides. Answer all questions thoroughly with the allotted time. Usewww.screencast-o-matic.comor other software to record your presentation as an mp4.

Structure: Include a title slide, objective slide, content slides, reference slide in APA format.

References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions. Include at least three (3) scholarly sources to support your claims.

Rubric: This assignment uses a rubric for scoring. Please review it as part of your assignment preparation and again prior to submission to ensure you have addressed its criteria at the highest level.

Format:Save your assignment as a link or .mp4 file.

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Discuss your solution from multiple perspectives, such as educational, legislative, scientific, technological, economic,

Here is where you will submit your final project that you were introduced to in week 6, please review the instructions below and submit the project when you are finished by the due date.

Your final project should be creative and interesting, and should be a minimum of 6 pages in length not to exceed 8 pages and you will use APA style formatting. It should be well-organized and demonstrate an orderly flow of information that clearly addresses the subject chosen.

You should incorporate the following elements in the project: 1.Problem identification: Clearly indicate the issue you will discuss and the influence this problem has on land, air, water resources, plant life, animal life, and human societies. Discuss the long-term effects this problem will continue to create without a comprehensive solution. The problem can be of local, national, or global scope. 2.Solutions currently implemented: Discuss how the issue has been addressed historically. Determine the courses of action taken in science, technology, political and economic systems, laws and regulations, community-based initiatives, education, and so forth. Review the successes and limitations of these actions. 3.Recommendations: Explain the actions that you believe need to be developed and implemented to accomplish change. Discuss your solution from multiple perspectives, such as educational, legislative, scientific, technological, economic, and other points of view.

In addition you should cite at least three other credible sources. Put these on your last page as works cited. You are cautioned to check out internet sources. The web abounds with junk science that is totally unreliable. Be sure to cross check your sources.

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Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations.

HSS205-1202A-04 Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

The information about the users and functions of hospital medical records has been delivered to administration. Now it is essential to look at the components of the medical record within the other entities operated by Smalltown Health Center. The center owns and operates the following:

  • A rehabilitation center where speech, physical, and occupational therapies are available for patients with strokes, joint replacements, and other types of injuries
  • Manor Nursing Home, where long-term care is provided
  • United Home Health, which provides home health services and maintains an office in the hospital
  • Smalltown Physician Clinic, where patients receive primary care

Each of these facilities has its own paper-based medical records and has specific documentation requirements. All of these medical records will have to be converted to electronic health records. You will visit each facility to obtain the list of documents for each type of medical record.


You will prepare a 8 page document that will detail the various needs for documentation and a chart that will show which documents would be mutually used.

Step 1: The  pages will have the following for the hospital, rehab center, nursing home, home health, and clinic:

  • 1 paragraph for each facility that will explain briefly any special needs
  • An explanation of why the documentation is needed.

Step 2: The chart to show the list of the facilities with the required documents.

Step 3: What clinical information systems might be implemented that can be used by all entities?

HSS 205-1202A-04 Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

HSS205-1202A-04 Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

HSS/205-1202A-04 Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

Technological Applications in Healthcare Organizations

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Competitive Strategy: Technological, Legal And Environmental

Competitive Strategy: Technological, Legal And Environmental.


Discuss about the Competitive Strategy for Technological, Legal and Environmental.




The essay will be highlighting the tools that help in providing competitive strategy to the organizations, which will allow them to function in a proper manner so that the external and the internal threats can be identified properly. The organizations need to have a clear understanding of the threats and the opportunities that are there in the market that may affect the company in an internal or an external manner. The essay will be highlighting the PESTLE analysis and the Five Forces analysis that affect the company in an external manner and SWOT analysis that helps in evaluating the internal operations of the company by examining the strengths that are present. These competitive strategy tools will help in providing Fonterra a competitive advantage in the market so that they can gain a better market share and increase the attractiveness among the customers.

PESTLE analysis

This is an important tool, as it helps in taking in to consideration the external environment under which the organization is performing so that it can help in providing a clear idea before they are ready to launch a new product within the market so that it can be successful. The analysis is an abbreviation that stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (Kolios and Read 2013). The political factors will help Fonterra in deciding the regulatory frameworks that will help them in offering the products in the market by abiding to the rules and regulations lay down in the country. The economic factors will help the organization in getting a better knowledge of the performance of the country with respect to the economy so that the company can be able to increase its chances of profits. The social factors will help Fonterra in indentifying the society in which they are operating so that so that they can take in to account the needs and preferences of the customers (Shaw 2015).

The technological factors will enable Fonterra in getting a better understanding of the new technologies that are available in the market so that it can result in increasing the production within the organization. This will allow the company in gaining a competitive advantage in the market as well. The legal factors will help Fonterra in adhering to the safety rules and regulations that are present so that they can work in an ethical manner (Baldwin et al. 2014). The environmental factors allow the company in highlighting the surrounding environment where they are carrying out with the operations. It will also enable them in understanding the natural forces that may destroy the production (Yadavalli and Heggers 2013).

Five Forces analysis

This competitive strategy will help Fonterra in evaluating the position and the competitive strength that they have within the dairy industry. The organizational strength can be determined, which will help in providing the actual position of the organization in the chosen markets so that the ways can be identified that will help in increasing the profits of the company. The power of the supplier has to be determined by Fonterra so that it can help them in analyzing the impact that the suppliers can create within the industry (Spicka 2013). It will also enable the organization in analyzing the cost of switching to the new company. The power of the buyers also needs to be taken in to account by the company, as they play an important role in the reduction of prices within the market. It will also enable the organization in evaluating the willingness of the customers to pay for the products (Noble 2017).

The rivalry among the competitors will enable Fonterra in understanding the abilities that the competitors will have in influencing the product within the market. Most of the competitors in the dairy industry provide the products that are similar to Fonterra, which results in decreasing the attractiveness of the product in the local market (Yadavalli and Geggers 2013). The threat that comes from the substitutes needs to be evaluated so that Fonterra can understand the ability of the customers in switching over to a new product when they try to increase the price of the products in the market. The new companies that are gaining entry in the market needs to be analyzed by Fonterra so that it can help in understanding the profitability ration that the company can likely achieve when the new companies will operate in the market (Raven, Cocks and Hayes 2014).

SWOT analysis

This analysis will help Fonterra in analyzing the strengths and the weakness so that they can overcome the weakness based on the opportunities that are provided within the market. This competitive strategy tool will help in analyzing the internal environment of the company so that they can maximize the level of efficiency within the company. The strengths of the company will help in evaluating the core competencies that are present so that the quality and the quantity of the production can be maintained, which will provide them with a competitive advantage (Ingaldi and Skurkova 2014). The identification of the weaknesses of the company is mandatory for Fonterra, as it has to be improved that will provide the competitive to achieve the economies of scale in a better manner. It will also provide the organization an opportunity to evaluate the weakness so that they can take a better step and analyze the strategies that are present within the organization (Seifu and Doluschitz 2014).

The opportunities have to be identified by Fonterra so that it can help them in improving their business in an efficient manner. This would result in increasing their level of profits so that they can be profitable in the market. Fonterra needs to evaluate the options that are present to them as opportunities so that they can help in increasing their volume of sales in the market. It will also result in identifying the loopholes that has not been capitalized so that it can help in increasing the goodwill of the company in the market (Passetti et al. 2016). The threats need to be analyzed in a proper manner by the company so that it can help in understanding the market dynamics that are present in the market. This will allow the company in eliminating the threats that are present in the market so that the company can function in an efficient manner. The managers of Fonterra needs to have a better insight regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the organization that are present internally so that they can identify the threats and the opportunities and operate in a proper manner (Seifu and Doluschitz 2014).   


It can therefore be concluded that the tools that are present in analyzing the competitive strategy of the company will result in protecting the internal as well as the external environment in an efficient manner. It will help the managers of Fonterra in understanding then position of the company within the dairy industry as well as in the overall Australian market. It will also allow Fonterra in analyzing the risks and identify the opportunities that are present in the market so that they can be competitive and increase the attractiveness of the products in the market.

Reference List

Baldwin, R.L., Zhang, A., Fultz, S.W., Abubeker, S., Harris, C., Connor, E.E. and Van Hekken, D.L., 2014. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle. Journal of dairy science, 97(4), pp.1877-1884.

Ingaldi, M. and Šk?rková, K.L., 2014. Company strategy determination in food company using SWOT method. Acta Technologica Agriculturae, 17(3), pp.66-69.

Kolios, A. and Read, G., 2013. A political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) approach for risk identification of the tidal industry in the United Kingdom. Energies, 6(10), pp.5023-5045.

Noble, D., 2017. Forces of production: A social history of industrial automation. Routledge.

Passetti, R.A.C., Eiras, C.E., Gomes, L.C., Santos, J.F.D. and Prado, I.N.D., 2016. Intensive dairy farming systems from Holland and Brazil: SWOT analyse comparison. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 38(4), pp.439-446.

Raven, L.A., Cocks, B.G. and Hayes, B.J., 2014. Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle. BMC genomics, 15(1), p.62.

Seifu, E. and Doluschitz, R., 2014. Analysis of the dairy value chain: Challenges and opportunities for dairy development in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 2(6), pp.224-233.

Shaw, A., 2015. A PESTLE analysis for the Pharmaceutical Industry.

Spicka, J., 2013. The competitive environment in the dairy industry and its impact on the food industry. Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 5(2), p.89.

Yadavalli, R. and Heggers, G.R.V.N., 2013. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 11(1), p.36.        

Competitive Strategy: Technological, Legal And Environmental

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Social Technological Forecasting And Change

Social Technological Forecasting And Change.


Discuss About The Technological Forecasting And Social Change?




UniCredit is an internationally acclaimed financial institution which has its operations in 22 major European countries. This financial institution has its strategic position in Eastern and Western Europe and thus the company has largest market share. The operations of UniCredit group is found in Ukraine, Turkey, Slovenia, Serbia, Russia, Romania, Poland, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Latvia, Hungary, Germany, Estonia, Czech Republic, Croatia, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Azerbaijan, Austria. The origin of this group dates back to the establishment of an institution in the year 1473, called Rolo Banca. Several specialized business divisions are present in UniCredit Group. This includes investment banking and Corporate Banking division, private banking, families and SME banking. The group also has a CEE division that emphasizes on operations in 19 Central and Eastern Europe countries. Presently the chairman of the group is Giuseppe Vita and the CEO is Federico Ghizzoni ( 2018). This study is based on the assignment 1 and 2 which emphasizes on the early market entry strategy, merger of HVB Group and the UniCredit Group and the strategies taken up by these groups.

Benefits and drawbacks of the first mover market entry strategy in comparison to the follower or late market entry strategy.

First mover can be described as a competitive a business receives when it first tries to capture the market and brings a service or product in to the market before any other competitor does. Thus being the first in a market specifically increases the brand recognition and the loyalty of the customers before the other market competitors that are entering the market later. Another important benefit that a certain first mover company receives is the ample amount of time to improve the service and the product (Boldrin and Levine 2013).

The advantages of a company being the first mover are as follows: the company gains the benefit of establishing its product as an industry standard; a long lasting impression is created by the company along with the strong brand image that give boost to the brand image; coming first in to a market provide strategic advantage with respect to the hiring skilled employees, contracts with the vital suppliers, location benefits and resource control; other advantages include less cost of attached to the new product launches in comparison to the new entrants (Vecchiato 2015). The other benefits include: Technology leadership- the first movers get an opportunity to make technology used in the product harder to replicate or copy. The first mover company for example can reduce the cost of the product which will be hard for the late movers to follow. This effectively increases the first mover company to establish an advantageous position in terms of product costs. The other way includes securing the new products with patents by the first movers; Control of resources- the second benefits arises from the strategic control of resources; Buyer-switching costs- this is an exclusive benefit of the first movers, and the late movers pay a hefty price in order to make the reluctant customers choose their products (Markides and Sosa 2013).

Drawbacks of being the First Mover- Although there are several advantages for being a first mover, however there are certain drawbacks that do not guarantee advantage:

  • The first movers have to make additional arrangements in order to persuade the customers to try a new product. Whereas, for the late movers it is easy to establish the business on the lines of the previous entrant because the customers are already informed about a specific product (Loschelder et al. 2014).
  • The late movers make cautious decisions and try to avoid the mistakes made by the first mover.
  • The late movers make use of the opportunity of capturing the market where the first mover has failed to capture the customer attention.
  • There is always a chance of making better products through the reverse engineering. This option is truly lacked by the first movers.
  • The late movers can take the advantage of improving on the sections and areas where the first mover entirely overlooked (Loschelder et al. 2014).

There are several examples of companies that were not the first movers and still are now considered to be market leaders: Google- before google came there were previous entrants like Infoseek and Yahoo. However, Google improved their search engine and effectively and Google now control 65% of the search in search engines; Southwest Airlines- this airline was a late mover in to the airline sector, still this company expanded fast and now they are the second largest airlines in the world (van Loon 2012).

Retail banking and its entry timing in to a foreign market as a first entrant in a foreign country

There are factors that play a major role in deciding the timing of a retail banking entry in to a foreign country. The several factors are listed as below:

The capabilities of a firm is decided by its competencies, what areas it is good at and what it does better than the other market rivals. Thus, for a banking company to become have all the better qualities than all its rivals takes time to build. Banks begin to earn a large margin of profit only after a certain period of time, and that too the profit is based on the number of customers it serves. Gaining popularity and faith of the customers as a reliable requires a lot of time. Thus, when a company decides to expand its branches into the foreign countries, its own capabilities must be at a peak position. This timing of foreign market entry comes only after it has gain ample confidence and success in its base country (Kotha, Zheng and George 2011).

Characteristics of the host country in to the retail banking firm will enter plays an important role. These characteristics include the market economy size, technological sophistication, industrial market structure. The host country must promote the options of foreign direct investment (FDI) so that foreign institutions can easily enter the foreign market without any hurdles. The timing here also plays a crucial role, the environment within the country that promotes a favorable foreign investment will attract the institutions like retail banks to enter in to a foreign country. Timing of such expansion is vital as it leads to an increase in higher profits by the banking entities. The other vital characteristics that are also important include institutional environment, political stability, taxation policies, price of the natural resources, employment and wage laws. All these factors influence business environment to a large extent and thus the decision of a retail banking entity to enter in to a foreign country will largely include the an assessment of these factors (Nielsen and Nielsen 2011).

Competition is a vital aspect of any business entity that wants to survive and competence with all the rivals in the same market environment. Entering in a foreign market also included a crucial assessment of the presence of the market competition in that country. The presence of the level of competition in foreign country will deter most of the companies to expand their branches. However, if that same country lack the market competition, then it will be easy for a new entrant to open a new branch and introduce new products that will attract the more customers.

Economic factors are the sole promoters that push a foreign business entity or a retail banking firm to invest in to a foreign country. If a country provides ample opportunities through its economic services, then the likeliness of investment by the retail banking firms will increase. This again depends on the timing of the economic condition of a country, if a country is willing to open its domestic market for the foreign direct investment. Then, such opportunities can be directly linked with the timing of market entry (Goldfarb and Xiao 2011).

Geographic proximity and whether it contributes to the success of market entry

Geographical proximity play a positive role in contributing to the success of market entry because close proximity helps in easy conduct and management of the whole business process. The increased availability of the geographic information related to the consumers provides an added advantage and scope for the companies to use such information for the purpose of marketing. It is known fact that the social influences are greater when there is a close geographical proximity. The lack of the social network data implies that the influence of the consumers that are in geographically in close proximity can be effectively distinguished from the social proximity. The geographical and the social proximity are much related concepts and thus for this reason the geographic proximity data can be used effectively when the social proximity is absent. Thus expansion of the business and companies to the regions that are in close proximity can lead to increased compatibility between the people (Meyners et al. 2017). It is seen that due to societal, cultural and legal differences the foreign market which is located geographically close often seem to psychologically distant. The two major issues related to the psychological difference are: it is easier for the firms to enter foreign markets when there exists a close psychological proximity; the perception of psychological differences is sometimes based on the false perceptions rather than realistic belief.     Expanding in to countries that are in geographically close proximity helps in reducing the complexities that arise due to the societal and the cultural differences. This makes the management of the operation similar to the management operation in the home country. Considering the case of the UniCredit Group, the company expanded in to the neighboring European countries which was under the same economic group and had similar less cultural and societal differences (Thornton, Ribeiro-Soriano and Urbano 2011).

Expanding in to the neighboring country which is geographically in close proximity can be effective to a large extent. The effectiveness can be related to the understanding at the governmental level. Countries that are in close proximity often undergo in to promoting business environment that influences each other’s market. Due to the increased effect of the globalization, the market economies are open and thus countries often prefer to have foreign direct investment from the foreign institutions. Countries often open their market to increase their annual gross domestic product (GDP) from the foreign institutions that operate in a country. Countries often make special economic zones for the foreign entities and exempt them from the paying extra taxes and labor laws also are also made flexible for these foreign entities. When the neighboring governments are stable, it has a positive impact on all the governments that are geographically in close proximity. Stable governments promote a healthy growth environment for the domestic as well as the international players. Thus stable governments create opportunities for business and firm expansion which are otherwise detrimental (Autio and Fu 2015).

Firms increasingly depend on the knowledge sourced from the other funds in order to enrich their own capabilities and knowledge base. Thus, engaging into merging and collaborations increases the potentiality of accruing knowledge, which otherwise would not have been possible. More demanding customers, shorter life cycle of the products and the ever-increasing global competitions have made the firms realize that working or collaborating with the others can effectively solve their problem. These mergers and the collaborations effectively make the business entities and firms resilient to the rapid changes occurring in the domestic and the global market. Firms and the institutions frequently undergo collaborations for the purpose of having advantages from the other market rivals and competitors. Collaborations that occur are based on the reducing the time for the development of the innovations, gaining knowledge from the partners, resource and risk sharing, increase the diversified knowledge base. Inter firm mergers and collaboration are found to occur frequently between the companies that are geographically located in close proximity. The proximity can be broken down to two major types: non-spatial proximity and geographical proximity. The non-spatial proximity includes the organizational proximity, cognitive, technological, social, cultural and institutional proximity. The merger or collaboration generally occur between organizations are entirely based on the technology acquisition, knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing. These are often the primary goals of any merger of collaboration. According to some authors, the degree of geographical proximity is described as the geographical distance between two entities (Berchicci, King and Tucci 2011).

Thus, it is seen that geographical proximity is playing a major role in defining the success in relation to the market entry. Knowledge sharing and knowledge acquisition are the sole criteria that pushes firms to enter in to foreign markets that are geographically located in close proximity. It is often seen that when companies want to expand in to the neighboring countries, they often choose to move in to a joint venture or from a collaboration. These collaborations or joint ventures arise between business entities that belong from the same industry (Chetty and Michailova 2011). For example, if a bank wants to expand its branches in to the neighboring country, it will look to form a collaboration with a company which is also a financial institution or a bank. The same is true for the automobile firms. If a foreign company wants to launch it automobiles in to different country which previously do not have any manufacturing base, then it forms joint ventures with the domestic company of that country. Such collaboration are solely based on the technology transfer and also introduction of the product which would otherwise have costed more capital to set up its own manufacturing plant (Killing 2012).


Thus, from the above discussion it can be concluded that, UniCredit and HVB Group were leading banking institutions before the merger took place. After the merger in the year 2005 the company even soared to new heights made the UniCredit Group one of the best financial institutions in Europe. The study also focusses on the benefits arising from being first mover in to any market. Although there are certain benefits associated with first moving, there are certain drawbacks that tend to help the later movers tremendously.


Autio, E. and Fu, K., 2015. Economic and political institutions and entry into formal and informal entrepreneurship. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32(1), pp.67-94.

Berchicci, L., King, A. and Tucci, C.L., 2011. Does the apple always fall close to the tree? The geographical proximity choice of spin?outs. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 5(2), pp.120-136.

Boldrin, M. and Levine, D.K., 2013. The case against patents. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(1), pp.3-22.

Chetty, S. and Michailova, S., 2011. Geographical proximity and inter-firm collaboration: The role of knowledge access and knowledge acquisition. Journal of General Management, 36(4), pp.71-87.

Goldfarb, A. and Xiao, M., 2011. Who thinks about the competition? Managerial ability and strategic entry in US local telephone markets. American Economic Review, 101(7), pp.3130-61.

Killing, P., 2012. Strategies for joint venture success (RLE international business) (Vol. 22). Routledge.

Kotha, R., Zheng, Y. and George, G., 2011. Entry into new niches: the effects of firm age and the expansion of technological capabilities on innovative output and impact. Strategic Management Journal, 32(9), pp.1011-1024.

Loschelder, D.D., Swaab, R.I., Trötschel, R. and Galinsky, A.D., 2014. The First-Mover Dis advantage: The Folly of Revealing Compatible Preferences. Psychological science, 25(4), pp.954-962.

Markides, C. and Sosa, L., 2013. Pioneering and first mover advantages: the importance of business models. Long Range Planning, 46(4-5), pp.325-334.

Meyners, J., Barrot, C., Becker, J.U. and Goldenberg, J., 2017. The Role of Mere Closeness: How Geographic Proximity Affects Social Influence. Journal of Marketing, 81(5), pp.49-66.

Nielsen, B.B. and Nielsen, S., 2011. The role of top management team international orientation in international strategic decision-making: The choice of foreign entry mode. Journal of World Business, 46(2), pp.185-193.

Thornton, P.H., Ribeiro-Soriano, D. and Urbano, D., 2011. Socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity: An overview. International small business journal, 29(2), pp.105-118., 2018. EN. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Feb. 2018].

van Loon, S., 2012. The Power of Google: First Mover Advantage or Abuse of a Dominant Position?. In Google and the Law (pp. 9-36). TMC Asser Press.

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Social Technological Forecasting And Change

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What Is Meant By Technological Determinism Philosophy Essay

What Is Meant By Technological Determinism Philosophy Essay.

The term “technological determinism” is believed to have been coined by American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen. Taken on its own, determinism is the doctrine that all events occur as a result of a direct, prior cause. Accordingly, at the broadest possible level, technological determinism is the conceptual framework in which social, cultural and historical phenomena are primarily the outcome of technological causes, in particular technological advancement.

As with many philosophical views, there is no single, universal definition. And as Bimber puts it, “Until we are able to agree about what precisely we mean by this concept, we are unlikely to resolve the question of whether technological determinism is a useful lens through which to interpret history.

” [2]

The various positions within this school of thought have been vaguely distinguished into two versions characterising the intensity of the role technology plays in determining society. Proponents of the “hard” view hold every social activity is solely and directly driven by technology, which is itself an independent force.

The assumption is that technology undergoes perpetual advancement according to some given logic and specific stages of technology development give rise to specific social change. This change is independent of society’s desires and preferences. This theory is neat and tidy, but it is also not widely accepted because of its lack of flexibility and generality.

The “soft” version accommodates this exception. It argues that technology is still the fundamental force for effecting social change by creating conditions favourable for certain social activity to take place. However, this “disposition” or “tendency” could be rejected with the collective conscious will of society. Hence it distinguishes itself from the “hard” version in that it allows for the possibility of human intervention.

Bimber goes against the grain from this standard model of classification and identifies three common interpretations of technological determinism. First is the “normative account”, which argues that efficiency and productivity have become the primary ends in which technology is advanced and which society functions, excluding it from the human domain and its associated elements.

The second interpretation is the “nomological account”. Supposing that the scientific laws are discoverable in a sequential order, technology, being the recombination of existing artefacts and the manifestation existing scientific knowledge is also subject to this trajectory. For example, it is unlikely that motor vehicles would be built without the engine having been previously invented. More importantly is the extrapolation of this mechanistic train of thought to the assertion that certain technological developments necessitate a particular form of social organisation and subsequent technological development such that an inevitable path ensues. In this view, only a narrow definition of technology as artefacts is admissible. Broad definitions, such as technical practices bring the human dimension back into the picture.

The third interpretation draws attention to the fact that the effects of technological development are sometimes impossible to predict even among participants key in the development. On this account, one could argue that technological development is at least partially autonomous because it has outcomes that are independent of human control. Here the idea of technology as an autonomous agent of change is brought into play because for technology to be given credit for having brought about social change, technology itself must first be independent of social causes. Otherwise you end up with a theory where society influences itself through indirect means (technology) [3]

Bimber advocates Cohen’s criteria for judging the three interpretations, namely that it should be both technological and deterministic. On this basis, Bimber argues that only the nomological interpretation stands up to both tests. The normative account is not technological because the root agent of change is social norms rather than technology. It is not deterministic because this preoccupation with efficiency and productivity is itself a product of a varying culture and time, and not entirely external to men’s locus of control. Bimber claims that the unintended consequences interpretation also fails because it amounts to indeterminism. Here I disagree. The uncertainty principle pose a fundamental limit on the accuracy of measurements, rendering accurate predictions impossible. But the concept of causality is still an incontrovertible axiom, and the universe may still yet be deterministic. In any case, Bimber points out that the theory does not attribute the nature of unpredictability to an inherent quality of technology (it may be the fallibility of the human intellect that fails to predict the consequences), and thus it fails on that basis.

This criteria does not admit the distinction between “hard” and “soft determinism because the “soft” version also fails on both accounts. Thus, if we were to admit Cohen’s criteria, we would be in a very tenuous position. Intuitively, technology does not exist in a vacuum and social forces simply weigh too much on the development and adoption of technology to be dismissed so simply.

Why then should we accept his definition of technological determinism? Bimber suggests that it is attractive “on grounds of semantic clarity and integrity” and consequently “this standard of clarity is surely more useful than one in which the theory of change is hidden by less precise language”. Just as a peanut is neither a pea nor a nut, this line of argument could be construed as pedantic and splitting hairs. At the very least, it is unhelpful for furthering the discussion. Thus for the purposes of breaking this impasse, I propose that we momentarily abandon this hardline approach to avoid throwing out the baby with the bath water. Rather, we will take the pragmatic approach and examine the more mainstream “soft” determinism put forward by Heilbroner. I am not debating whether this is in fact technological determinism, I am merely supposing that it is, and examining how good it is as a tool for elucidating twentieth century history.

Heilbroner’s view can be summarised into two fundamental tenets. Firstly, technology develops in a determinate sequence of steps. Secondly, that this advancement of technology effects a social “evolution”. Heilbroner [4] makes his case for the first proposition with three pieces of evidence. Firstly, the “simultaneity of invention”. In many instances, independent parties have made similar discoveries within a short span of time of each other. This is the case for the invention of calculus and the telephone. The existing knowledge and prevailing technical expertise provides the basis and foreshadow of what is to come. Hence the discovery about to be made is merely the inevitable next logical step; something that must be obvious or at least imaginable to more than a single individual. This brings us to the second and third point which is the “absence of technological leaps” and the “predictability of technology”. Heilbroner makes the point that technology advances at its frontiers (direction) in small incremental steps (magnitude) that seems to make progress appear predictable.

Heilbroner limits his discussion of the second proposition to the influence of technology on the political and economic aspects of society. He suggests that a certain technology such as factory automation imposes a particular characteristic constraint on the makeup and organisation of the social structure. He proposes a normative argument where economics is the intermediary which links technology and society. He explains that with the principle of economic maximisation presupposed, changes in technology are brought to bear on the economic system, and thus the effect on social order can be quantified and analysed. But he rightly concedes that the extent to which technology affects society sociologically are more difficult to ascertain.

How useful then is such a theory of technological determinism? Firstly, technology has meaning and purpose only if thought in relation to humans. Hence technological determinism is especially useful in the twentieth century because of technology’s increasing influence. It ties two important strands in history together and actively brings regularity and order in history in a simple and general manner. That certain civilisations undergo periods of technological stagnancy and even regression does not undermine technological determinism though such societies may be less open to systematic analysis than when it is guided by an economic imperative. In fact as Edgerton suggests, it seems that a lack of innovation in technologically-backward societies point towards the limits technology imposes, and thus it could be understood as being more determined. [5]

Secondly, technological determinism is useful because it is in some sense more enduring than social institutions. This is similar to the practise for historians to infer the lives the ancients led based on the tools they used and the structures they built. Cultures and social conventions are temporal and evolve with the times. But technology provides a background with which to put matters in context, because it appears to travel in a fixed path, especially in hindsight. So while technological determinism may not be useful when viewing the twentieth century from the twenty-first, it certainly might in the thirtieth.

This view is elaborated by Misa who states that the longer the time frame, and the broader and more aggregate the topic in question, the more technological determinism appears plausible. Those who conduct studies in the micro-level will find a variety of societal forces and agents at work obscuring the importance of the role of technology. [6] To illustrate this argument, society can consciously reject a technology due to cultural preferences. But while this affects the rate of adoption, it is possible to make a case that this is in fact merely delaying the inevitable. The underlying assumption is that the cultural context changes but technological benefits are absolute. As long as mankind is composed of rational beings, social evolution will eventually favour the adoption of the beneficial technology. This is applicable for example in the study of genetically-modified foods.

Lastly and perhaps less importantly, technological determinism is useful insofar as it is simple. Therefore, despite obvious difficulties in the theory, the idea is prevalent in popular imagination and political rhetoric. It is useful to think that the internet gave rise to an information revolution, or that the contraceptive pill gave rise to a sexual revolution, particularly for the masses who if such abstractions did not exist, would be ignorant of these issues at all.

Nevertheless, several problems persist. Perdue uses several agricultural examples to demonstrate that technology itself does not account fully for the variances in historical outcomes. [7] In fact, applying social factors in single-factor models are also not satisfactory. In theory, we would like a theory in which social and technical factors are not only independently considered, but the mutual interaction, reciprocity, feedback, and equilibrium of the evolving relationship emphasised. This well summed up by Winston Churchill, “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us.” But such a theory is difficult if not downright impossible to formulate. In Heilbroner’s words, “A recognition that the technological structure is inextricably entwined in the activities of any society does not shed light on the connection between changes in that structure and changes in the socioeconomic order”.

Misa’s exposition on the difficulty of constructing a “middle-level” approach offers us a solution. He suggests that macro studies resist integration with the micro-level because its definition as an independent force rejects the effects of micro-forces. In micro-studies the multitude of agents involved swarms the obvious importance of technology; sometimes it is simply omitted from the narrative. This parallel to entropy that offers us a way out. Entropy is useful as a macroscopic empirical principle, but as far as we know it does not result directly from any of the underlying physical laws such as quantum dynamics. Therefore, as a scientific model, technological determinism is merely a model, a simplified, reduced representation of the vagaries of a complex underlying reality. As a partial theory analogous to relativity or quantum mechanics, technology determinism accounts for many of the observed social change in the twentieth century, especially when considering the major themes of industrialisation, urbanisation and the growth of wealth. To give technological determinism any less credit, or to expect it to be the sole basis of all human activity without exception would be overly presumptuous.

What Is Meant By Technological Determinism Philosophy Essay

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The Technological Advancement In Communication And Society Media Essay

The Technological Advancement In Communication And Society Media Essay.

Human beings are social beings. Communicating and passing information and understanding one another are of vital importance if we are to survive in society. Earliest types of communications included vocal (language) communication, signals or even pigeons, in a more civilized society, before technology took its turn. Communication is not a choice, it is a necessity. And so, technological advancement in the field of communication has been achieved over time to make it more efficient.

One of the earliest technology feats in the communication sector were achieved by Alexander Graham Bell by the invention of the first telephone in the 19th century.

With the birth of the telephone, people can just pick up the phone and talk to anyone, from their neighbor to a person half way around the world. Distance could not stop people from getting closer anymore. Phone helped international trades and businesses by making the process of negotiation easier and even possible. (Ferderer, 2008).

During the 19th and early 20th century, the radio and television were also developed and in the late 20th century, finally, the World Wide Web (WWW), internet, was developed which changed the way of communication once and for all.

Internet was developed by the US government to improve their military communication methods. Today internet is public and it is the most widely used means of communication than any other means. Cyber communication gives people valued learning and independence. Communication via the internet has dramatically expanded the social circle.

Online networking websites, like Facebook and Twitter have become the most popular means of instant communication. These websites allow users to communicate with friends, family and clients from moment to moment. Users can add images, update their status (telling everyone what they are doing), start a fan page for your business, send personal messages, and more. The idea behind these websites is to give users the opportunity to connect with people, even if they are thousands of miles apart.

Websites like these are bringing people together irrespective of their race, culture, geographic location or their physical appearance. Young people geographically remote, disabled, or housebound due to illness may find online chat an important form of communication (Wakefield, M. A., & Rice, C. J., 2008). Cyber communication has been proved to be helpful in children to overcome shyness and improving their social interaction skills by using the online interactive tools like Facebook, Twitter and other like those. Internet allows people to express themselves who otherwise would feel uncomfortable doing so in person. Internet has made communication cheaper, faster and available to everyone from an individual to businesses. Internet is being used for communication in the educational field, for example, online forums, online books etc. Websites like YouTube allows people to communicate via posting videos or music files on the platform. YouTube has eased communication in various fields. People can watch anything from educational videos to participating in political discussions. Internet is a necessity in today’s world. Tourists use the internet to find direction for popular hot spots, students use it for communicating educational ideas for schoolwork, shoppers use it to stay connected to distant friend and relatives by e-mail, instant messaging or chat. Internet both expands and changes the communities in subtle ways.

With the technology advancing at such a pace, phones could not stay in their current state either. Today, we have mobile phones which can be taken with us anywhere in the world. Development of smart mobile phones has made communication possible on a device merely half the size of our palm. Smartphones enable users to use normal phones functions on the go, which are calling another mobile phone or landline. But it also allows you to use internet and e-mail functions to keep up to date with your social activities. Text messaging through mobile phones is increasingly becoming the way to communicate quick thoughts to friends, family and clients.

Technology is described in the dictionary as the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, and applied science. The rate at which technology is evolving, is unbelievable. Who knew that the hard-wired telephone invented by Graham Bell in the 19th century would soon transform into a device which you can keep in your pocket and take with you wherever, whenever.

Technological advances in communication have changed the face and the pace of the world. But none of these benefits come without a flip side. As much as technological communication has improved our way of life and business, these advances do have their downside which may outweigh their positive effects.

The state of the art communication technology poses a lot of risks and negative effects in our daily lives. For instance, whilst mobile phones have been proved to be tremendously beneficial for communication purposes, they are responsible for a lot of negative effects.. Mobile phones are quite renowned as the single biggest contributor to hazardous driving. Drivers frequently use their mobiles phones to text, call or chat while driving which poses a major threat to the oncoming traffic and pedestrians. Use of mobile phones while driving has been linked to many car crashes also. Research has clearly shown an increased risk of traffic accidents, some 3-4 times greater chance of an accident, when mobile phones (either handheld or with a “hands-free” kit) are used while driving (World Health Organization, 2005).

Mobile phones pose a threat to our health and social environment. Behavioural scientists and researchers have pointed out that a high usage of mobile phones leads to loss of concentration on immediate tasks at hand. According to a research conducted by Gaby Badre, M.D, of Sahlgren Academy in Gothenburg, Sweden, on effects of mobile phone usage on sleep patterns. Teenagers that use excessive mobile phones experience chronic restlessness, difficulty falling asleep at night with disrupted sleep and they also experience fatigue and stress (Heath). According to a 2007 American Academy of Otolaryngology study, people using their mobile phones for more than an hour per day are at an increased risk for hearing loss. (“,” 2012)

Mobile phones pose greater negative effects on teenagers and pre-teenagers. Frequent use of mobile phones and chatting applications affect sleep patterns, mentioned before, but even behavioural instincts and patterns. The use of mobile phones for texting and chatting has been found to have an impact on student’s writing and grammar. The use of abbreviations, utilised in chatting, has been frequently used in essays and English writing in schools. conducted a poll and found that 50% teachers feel texting is harming students’ writing and grammar (Blake, 2011).

Introduction of the internet and e-mail opened new doors for communication to our society. We can now talk, chat, video chat and socialize via Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, educational forums etc. Things that once were thought to be of magic or folklore are now achieved through advancement in communication technology. But even these advances present a variety of negative impacts on society. Websites such as Facebook and Twitter are used by millions of youngsters, young adults to socialise. Teenagers waste time on these websites which is reflected in their poor grades, incompletion of schoolwork and most of all, procrastination. As easy it is to find information on the internet, is it very easy to go wrong in the internet too. Teenagers are susceptible to spam and junk mails and even pornographic material. As internet is a free tool, there is no training given to anyone on the correct procedure of using the internet and quite frankly, teenagers today are stumbling upon pop-ups and restricted material on the internet quite frequently.

While online networking promotes socialising, it also promotes online stalking and bullying, in conjunction with smartphones. It is very easy to make an anonymous account on Facebook or Twitter and change your identity to talk to someone. Research reveals that one in five youth ages 10 to 17 received unwanted sexual advances online (Wakefield, M. A., & Rice, C. J., 2008). Cases of murder and rape have been reported relating to murderers and pedophiles using different identities to communicate with unknown people and then arranging to meet in person where they inflict harm on them. Also, smartphones can encourage bullying. Students who encourage and enjoy bullying want to show what they have done to students. As smartphones come equipped with video cameras, bullies upload these videos online, on websites such as YouTube for the whole world to see and ridicule their targeted person. Cyber Bullying is also done via the creation of false Facebook/Twitter accounts to inflict emotional damage to the targeted person and also via text messaging.

The internet and phones can be used to violate our privacy. In 2006, reporters at the tabloid, News of the World, illegally hacked into the voicemail messages of phones of people of interest to the newspaper. The court hearings for the News of the World phone hacking scandal continue to this very date. Also, hundreds of viruses are sent in spam and junk mails to people. Only a click is required in order for important data and files in our computer or mobile to be visible to the hackers.

Morality has changed with the technology. In earlier times, it was not moral to flaunt one’s private photos and private life to the public. Today, websites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and various blogging sites are functioning on the basis of sharing personal information with the world in order to be social. The factors influencing decision making have shifted from moral, etiquette, conscience to materialistic forms such as profitability and aesthetics. Technological advancement in communication is being closely followed by its negative effects. Technological advancements need to be weighed in terms of their need, their benefit to society and their negative effects to the society.

It is fair to say that technology helps in easing our lives. However, not all technological advancements are required; some may do more harm to society than good. It is not right to be a neutralist and say that technology is neither good nor bad; it depends on how we use it. While it can be agreed to some degree, it cannot be given a hundred percent approval. Invention of the telephone was a great benefit to humanity. It saved people from travelling long distances for personal visits and businesses. Today smartphones have become a part of our lives. But comparing it to the first invention of the phone in terms of its benefits and drawbacks, the smartphones have more drawbacks as mentioned before. Technology is surely changing the world for the faster and easier but it is not necessarily changing it for the better.

The fact is that with the new technology people do not communicate on the personal level with each other as often as they once used to. Technology has made communication so easy and effective and cheap that it has created a barrier in personal, face-to-face communication amongst people. People do not feel the need to go meet someone or wish someone on their success when they can just send a text or post them a message on Facebook. This ease of communication has in turn created isolation from one another.

As a result, people are becoming lazy and they do not feel the need to go outside of their home to find entertainment and activities such as team sports with friends or going out for shopping, instead, ordering stuff through the internet. As communication is getting better and better, we are becoming totally dependent and attached to the new technology. People have lost skills and confidence in themselves and they’ve started trusting technology over themselves.

Technology is a privilege but it is not a substitute for interaction with other people. One needs to be responsible for one’s own actions and not blaming technology for it.

People need to start acting more responsible. Higher values which give better moral beliefs need to be adopted. People need to start making decisions which will help the society and the environment and not the opposite. One needs to understand that not every technological advancement in communication is a beneficial one.

Development of communication through technology needs to have more moralistic reasons than profitability and fiscal reasons. Only then might the society benefit from the technology.

The Technological Advancement In Communication And Society Media Essay

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