Dismantling of the Affirmative Action within the University of California was appropriate.

Legal Memorandum




RE:      Dismantling of the Affirmative Action within the University of California was appropriate.

Statement of Facts

The passing of the Resolutions SP-1 and SP-2 by the University of California board in 1995 marked the end to the use of race and gender as criteria for student admission at the college. In 1996, the state of California also passed the California Civil Rights Initiative (CCRI) popularly known as the Proposition 209 that banned all ethnic, cultural and gender-based penchants in education admissions and opportunities. Affirmative action was intended to bridge the gap between the best universities in the country that largely remain comprised of whites than other races. However, those opposing use of affirmative action in the university admission perceives that use of racial and gender considerations are inappropriate since they exclude qualified individuals admission opportunities in universities. However, those supporting the affirmative action perceive that it increases opportunities for those who would otherwise be overlooked or even excluded from active consideration. Despite the dismantling of the affirmative action, discrimination remains rampant in University admission and consideration of race would be an important responsibility for any civilized society. Additionally, the supporters of the affirmative action posit that it should be promoted since it supports students from conventionally lessened groups a chance to get access to schooling and equal occasions.  Historical reliance on merit had given the white students more opportunities in the universities despite the underprivileged minority experiencing a lot of historical inequalities that disadvantaged their academic achievements.  Use of merit led to overrepresentation of the whites in the student body. However, the affirmative action helped to bring diversity in the student body by devising selection criteria that support the inclusion of the underrepresented races in the student body. In the run-up to the dismantling of the affirmative action, it was it was perceived that academic excellence was being compromised through policies that were instituted with a view of achieving diversity. However, those supporting affirmative action are of the few that marks and tallies should not be the sole principles for determining university admittances. After the affirmation act was eliminated in 1998, the number of African Americans admitted to Universities in California declined from 30% to 13% while that of the Hispanics dropped by 30-50%. The decline represents a significant blow to the prospects of the minority groups joining the elite Universities in the U.S. It will possibly kill diversity in the elite university student bodies and professions.


The question presented in this case is whether the dismantling of affirmative action within the college was appropriate. Affirmative action was dismantled when minority underrepresentation in elite universities was still rampant. Additionally, there was a need to compensate for the historical inequalities that minority races such as African Americans and Hispanics had suffered historically both academically and socially.  Moreover, there was a need to promote a diverse academic body in the university by promoting educational opportunities for underrepresented minorities. However, affirmative action is accused of denying and excluding qualified races from admission opportunities in the elite universities. Additionally, it is accused of compromising academic achievement through admittance of students with limited academic achievement to promote diversity in higher learning institutions. This begs the question of whether the dismantling of the affirmative action in the university was appropriate or inappropriate in the face of increased historical inequalities and discrimination that the minority races have suffered and continued to experience.

Brief Answer

Yes. Dismantling the assenting action in the University of California was appropriate since it was founded on a racial proportion system that used race as the sole factor to determine admission. Affirmative action acted as contrary discernment against the majority of whites by denying them equal admissions opportunities at the expense of minorities with minimal qualifications. Affirmative action played a critical role in supporting diversity in the institution by promoting access to academic opportunities for minority groups that had historically been denied equal admission opportunities to elite universities as compared to their white majority counterparts. However, use of race as criteria for admission amounts to racial discrimination which violates the American constitution. Therefore, its dismantling would promote equal access to academic opportunities for all races and prevent racial animosity through unequal representation in universities.

Applicable Statutes

Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment provides all individuals in the state must be treated in the same manner as others in the light of similar conditions and circumstances. However, under the clause, permissible discrimination is allowed, but this type of discrimination provide concrete, rational basis to justify the difference in treatment. Briefly, the clause prohibits disparate treatment unless there is a compelling interest to support disparate treatment.

 Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972

Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 requires that university and colleges must provide equal chances for both males and females in all aspects of education. Course offerings are one of the education aspect highlighted by the clause hence any form of discrimination in academic admission violates the clause. Other aspects of education include student health insurance benefits, employment, financial assistance and sporting chances.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 relates to discernment in the federally-aided education programs. The Title VI provides that race, colour and national origin should not be used as the basis for discriminating students during admissions in education programs that are federally-assisted.  Sec. 601 of the Title VI offers that every individual in the United States shall not under the background of race, colour or state origin be denied contribution in education program receiving Federal Financial assistance.

Based on the permissible discrimination as provided in the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the use of affirmative action can be justified since there is a concrete, rational basis for its application. Use of affirmative action is permissible as it promotes diversity in the student body and helps to remedy historical discrimination that the minority races had suffered in access to academic admission in elite universities. Therefore, dismantling of the affirmative action will kill the student body diversity and deny the disadvantaged minority access to academic opportunities.


Limited and highly envied positions in elite colleges have made competition for admission to the most prestigious more rivalries than ever. Rejection from these prestigious colleges is painful not only to students but also to their parents. It is even more painful when a well-qualified student is denied entry to the elite college through the affirmative action. The affirmative action was primarily used to remedy historical discrimination that had denied certain minority groups access to admission opportunities in the elite universities. However, the application of the affirmative action created an impression that the white students were unjustly barred from colleges. Exclusion of the white applicants from admissions opportunities in the elite universities is one of the factors that contributed greatly to the dismantling of the affirmative action in the University of California. Race-and ethnicity-targeted admission policies were central to the affirmative action making the probability of the prototypical white applicants virtually negligible. Consequently, the dismantling of the affirmative action increased the probability of white applicant’s admission at the expense of the disadvantaged minority. Despite the dismantling of the affirmative action, the opportunities for majority whites exceeded those of the other races significantly. The whites were dominant in every profession and occupation that is accorded high status except in sports.

The dismantling of the affirmative action was appropriate at California University for the sole reason that admission was based on racial quotas thus discriminating the majority white race. Use of racial quotas was intended to provide the races that had suffered historical injustices in admission to elite universities access to admission opportunities to promote diversity in the apprentice organization. However, search for diversity in the student body should not be achieved through strategies that promote the desecration of the Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. It is true that dismantling of the affirmative undermined aids that result from a varied scholar organization. Diversity in the student body is associated with high level cognitive and effective development. Students who interact more with other students from diverse backgrounds are impacted positively in most of the measures of academic development and achievements. However, the use of an affirmative action that excludes qualified students from pursuing their desires in elite Universities amounts to a violation of the constitution.

Considering admission criteria that boost chances for the under-represented minorities is a critical thing to consider in the American society. However, race should not be used as a form of exclusion to deny certain races to admission opportunities. In the Bakke v University of California  Board of Regents, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) the court lined that strict use of  racial quotas in the University’s admittance program was illegal since it denied qualified candidates a chance to join the university on the ground of race. However, the judges in the case commented that adoption of admission criteria that intends to promote diversity in the student body is appropriate but should not be based on racial quotas. Use of race as a basis for determining admission in the elite University is against the Fourteenth Amendment requires that an individual should be treated as another in similar circumstances and conditions. It is also against the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to use race as the basis for determining admission. Therefore, it is important to use alternative admission criteria that holistic factor evaluation of the applicants rather uses of the racial quotas as witnessed in the case of the University of California.

Use of race as a basis for determining admission in the University of California was against the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that necessitates that an individual should be treated as another in similar circumstances and conditions.  It is also against the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to use race as the basis for determining admission. Therefore, it is important to use alternative admission criteria that foster diversity without discriminating on certain individuals due to their race. However, the Fourteenth Amendment supports permissible discrimination provided that there is a concrete, rational basis to justify the disparate treatment. In Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin, 597 U.S. (2016),Fisher sued the University of Texas being denied based on admission criteria that were racially based. In her claim, Fisher posited that she had a higher qualification than most of the students from other races, but she was disadvantaged by her race. However, the justice system apprehended that the University of Texas was justified to use race-conscious admission criteria since it supported the development of enlightening welfares that accrue from a varied apprentice body. Additionally, the court seized that use of race-cognizant admission principles is justifiable under the Equal Protection Right of the Fourteenth Amendment given that it is intended to promote cross-racial understanding, end stereotypes and prepare students to work in a diverse environment. Similarly, in In Grutter V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003) the Federal Court apprehended that use of race in the admission policy is does not disrupt the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as far as the policy is intended to promote positive educational benefits by ensuring a  varied student body. In the same case, the court commented that an affirmative action based admission program should consider a holistic process for evaluation of applicants as opposed to the racial quota system that the University of California used. 

The only mistake with a holistic evaluation is when it is narrowly tailored to make a factor of the race to become decisive in admitting a student to the institution.  In Gratz V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003) the court seized that the admission in University of Michigan that automatically gave underrepresented students one-fifth of the obligatory points was tailored to make the race a determining factor of admission and was  not intended to promote instructive assistances that emerge from a various scholar organization.         It was found that the University of Michigan Law School admission process allowed minimally qualified minority applicants get outright admission at the expense of students from other races that were highly qualified. However, in the same case, the court commented that variety is a convincing state interest to justify deliberation of race, but the admission policies should not narrowly be tailored to make the race a determining factor in the admission program.

Therefore, an affirmative action that is solely tailored to make race the sole determining factor in the admission process is unconstitutional. Most of the case laws indicate that promotion of diversity in the Universities is an issue of compelling state interest. However, diversity should only be promoted in a way that does not make race the sole determining factor. A holistic approach that considers a wide range of factors including score, socioeconomic background of the student, interpersonal skills and a wide range of others is critical. In the Grutter v. Bollinger (02-241) 539 U.S. 306 (2003), the court held that the admission program used the Michigan University School of Law  did not disrupt the  Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment since it  promoted the creation of a serious mass of marginal scholars in the  university. The court held that there is convincing state attention in using racial affirmative action to promote a critical mass of minorities in University.  Promotion of diversity was a critical factor that the court used to uphold that the admission program at Michigan University School of Law. However, the court commented that an admission program that is based on racial quotas is unconstitutional since it uses race as the only factor for promoting diversity. While the University of California racial quota admission program was intended to promote diversity, it was laced with significant racial discrimination which is against the constitution.  Discernment on the foundation of race and state-providing teaching is no exclusion.     

In Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. (2014) case questioned whether a state disrupts the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by proscription race- and sex-grounded discernment on community college admittances in a state. The Supreme Court apprehended that the court seized that it was lawful for a state to ban admission policies based on race and ethnicity since classification of people based on race perpetuates same racism policies that the constitution sought to alleviate. The Supreme Court also ruled that it was not its role to disempower decision of voters in a state to make a decision regarding the ban of the race-based preferences in the University Admission. Therefore, when inferring from this case, it is justifiable to say that it was right for the University of Michigan to dismantle use of race-based penchants in the student selection process. Use of race as the sole factor for promoting diversity in the University Student Body is insufficient and unconstitutional in since it disadvantage one race at the expense of another and it perpetuates racism.


The University of California admission program was based on racial quotas that gave minority groups preferences in access to admission opportunities at the expense of other races. It was appropriate to dismantle this admission program since it perpetuated racism and made other races disadvantaged in access to education opportunities. The racial quota system was against the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that forbids any form of discernment that is founded on race. While it is important to promote variety in the University scholar body, the admission policies should not blatantly use race as the sole determining factor. Most of the case laws relating to the use of affirmative action in the admission policies have indicated that use of a holistic evaluation criterion that considers a wide range of other factors in addition to race is important in supporting a diverse body of a student in the Universities. The holistic evaluation drifts from making race the only determining factor in the achievement of diversity. Racial quota system used at the University of California denied highly qualified students a chance to be acknowledged in the University for the reason of race. With time, the racial quota would have made more and more students become disadvantaged at the expense of others hence it was important to dismantle race-based preferences in the admission policies.  



Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment,

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

 Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972.

Case Laws

Bakke v University of California Board of Regents, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)

Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin, 597 U.S. (2016),

Gratz V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003)

Grutter V. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)

Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, 572 U.S. (2014)

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Book Review: The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog

This assignment aims to analyze the text, The Boy Who was Raised as a Dog by Bruce D. Perry and Maia Szalavitz.

By completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following competencies and behaviors:

Competency 4: Engage in Practice-Informed Research and Research-Informed Practice.​
C4.GP.B: Apply critical thinking to engage in the analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
2. Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.​
Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.​
C6.GP.A: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies.​
Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C7.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C8.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities.
​C9.GP.B: Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to evaluate outcomes.
​Related Assignment Criterion:
5. Apply theories to social work practice using a case study about an individual or family and using the person-in-environment perspective.
Assignment Description
After reading the book, you will answer the questions listed below. Some questions will solicit your personal opinions or experiences, while others require you to cite evidence to support your response. Still others will require you to provide examples to support your work. All questions require you to think critically about what you read. To show comprehensive analysis in response to each question, you will need to do the following:

Integrate multiple sources of knowledge, including research-based knowledge.
Use social work databases as appropriate to support responses.
Use scholarly evidence to inform analysis of social work practice.
Use the textbook materials to apply the person-in-environment perspective in social work practice to the individual or family in the case study.
Remember this is a written assignment, and it should follow current APA formatting for written assignment submission.
Assignment Instructions
Answer the following questions using the guidelines provided above:

In the introduction to The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog, Perry distinguishes between being human and humane (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 12).
What are the differences? Provide a personal or historical example to illustrate your point.
What is the author’s main idea? Summarize it in 1–2 sentences. Does he consistently come back to this idea in each case he examines? Explain using examples from the various chapters.
In many sessions Dr. Perry has with the children, he describes doing a coloring activity with them. How does this help his relationship with the children? What are some of his techniques?
Do the children you read about in The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog have an opportunity to experience a normal adult life? Explain your answer; cite the text if possible.
In Chapter 4, “Skin Hunger,” Perry describes and explains the concept of the “failure to thrive” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 89–91). What does this mean? What key points about the ability to thrive were made in the chapter? What are some of the causes and lasting problems associated with the condition?
What is a good environment? Does this vary based on cultural or economic reasons?
According to the text, why was Tina unable to behave normally for a child her age? Is she a “lost cause,” as they say, or does she still have the ability to overcome the difficulties of her youth? Cite the text, and provide evidence to support your opinion.
In Chapter 5, “The Coldest Heart,” Leon is diagnosed as a sociopath (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 112–113). In your well-read opinion, who is responsible for his condition? Explain, providing textual support and evidence. What can we learn from his story?
Summarize the story of Chapter 6, “The Boy Who Was Raised as a Dog,” in 5–8 sentences. What lessons did Dr. Perry learn from Connor and Justin?
Which is more important, nature, which is biology, or nurture, which is the environment? Provide an example.
Are the roles of socioeconomic class and race important elements in the work that Dr. Perry does? Does he handle these issues well? Explain.
What is RAD (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, pp. 192–194)? How does a child acquire the disorder, and what are the symptoms?
In his conclusion, Dr. Perry gives a summation of his ideas. What are some of the ways in which Dr. Perry suggests children, and all people, can thrive?
In Chapter 11, “Healing Communities,” Dr. Perry states, “The world we live in now is biologically disrespectful” (Perry & Szalavitz, 2017, p. 262). Explain what he means, and interpret the idea. Do you agree?
Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2017). The boy who was raised as a dog: And other stories from a child psychiatrist’s notebook—What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing (3rd ed.). Basic Books.

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Henok is a 55-year-old male. He was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia but has lived in the American South

For this Check-Up, you are acting as a counselor. In your career, you will often need to provide more than medical advice: sometimes, you must also provide emotional support. In this case, you need to counsel your patient, about what he suspects he is experiencing.

Henok is a 55-year-old male. He was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia but has lived in the American South for the last 30 years. He has had a successful life as an industrial engineer, and has made a very lucrative living. Henok got married when he was 45 years old and had twin boys when he was 47. He loves his wife and twin boys but is starting to feel restless and anxious and unsure why. He signed up for a skydiving trip with his friends two weeks ago and loved it. Now he wants to buy a motorcycle. He has come to you because he is experiencing chest pains. His EKG is normal, and all his bloodwork is normal. Everything points to him being physically healthy.

You ask a few questions and find out the following information:

  • He hasn’t been sleeping well.
  • He thinks he is a failure.
  • He recently had his black hair bleached blonde,
  • He bought a beach house and hasn’t told his wife yet.
  • He got the phone number of a female coworker to meet for drinks, but he felt guilty and threw it in the trashcan right away.
  • He has found himself missing his late father.

Your job:

  1. Tell Henok what you think is going on (1-2 paragraphs)
  2. Tell Henok how you think he can best overcome these feelings (2-4 paragraphs)
  3. Make a referral for Henok (1 paragraph)
  4. Provide some encouragement for Henok (this is your conclusion)
  5. How did you reach these conclusions? What research helped you arrive at the decisions that you did?

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2.5-3 pages (not including title page or reference page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 outside scholarly sources in addition to course text)

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The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami?

The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami?


In The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami? David Bentley Hart confronts important questions about spirituality, faith and the omnibenevolent God. He uses the recent devastating tsunami of East Asia in 2004 to illustrate his claims and concepts. The existence of evil in the world, Hart explains, is not under the control of God. The official Catholic view of evil is that evil owes its existence to a parasitic relationship that it shares with the living. The author struggles to understand how an omnipotent and omnibenevolent God can allow terrible natural disasters, like the 2004 tsunami, to cause so much suffering to human beings. He believes that despite the fact that God has total divine sovereignty, many things that happen are out of God´s control, such as hurricane, tsunami or sin and murder. The New Testament and the Bible do not seem to share the same temperament as the author because the Holy Books seem to claim that God is in control of our lives (Hart, P.66). The New Testament explains that evil exists in the incarnation of Satan and that humans who would save their souls should follow Jesus´ instruction. Jesus instructs, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me (John14:16).” The Bible seems to ignore free will and disagrees with any conceptions of God other than the God decried in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions. The author reasons that learning to trust in God, in one’s own conscience and to have confidence in individual faith are the best tools for deepening your understanding of God (Hart, P.70). The author believes that genuine faith is characterized by optimism and hopefulness.  He argues that God should have no association with malevolence, pain or anguish because suffering has no place in a spiritual world. The common depiction of God as a righteous deity who is perfect and never wrong is questioned. In his book, he insists on the need to re-evaluate one’s faith in God and the nature of God’s will when it comes to cases of suffering and the death of the innocent. David Hart´s book is a bold exploration of many of the religious themes hardly ever discussed, such as God´s role in natural disaster, suffering and evil.

The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami?

The book questions the actions and character of God on several occasions; it is as if he wants to understand the motivations behind God´s actions. He begins with an attack on the character, God, asking if God is accountable for the deaths of the people from the 2004 tsunami natural disaster. The author decides that God should not have allowed innocent people to die and suffer needlessly. Hart is dedicated to defining and confronting all conceptions of God in all disguises. He takes delight in arguing with theology specialists over the matter of good vs. evil. At the beginning of this book, he shows optimism and faith when he explains that the fact that all manners of evil, despite their nature, are eligible for alteration to God’s good end (Hart, P.35). No evil doer or wrong doer is imperceptible to the forces of good and is likely to correct their evil actions if corrected and disciplined. Hart genuinely questions God’s actions regarding the tsunami in order to better understand his relationship with the divine.

 Ignoring all the scriptures in the Bible which discuss and explain the quality of God’s omnipotence as a Supreme Being, Hart goes on to question the nature and motivations of God´s actions. The author finds it logical that Christians consider pain and suffering to be a part of life and not the intervention of God. According to the author, grace performs its purpose on the condition that the believer let go of the curiosity and need for total understanding of God’s nature (Hart, P.68). For instance, sometimes people lose sight of the important things in their life because they have stopped experiencing pain, but one of the strengths of religion is that faith will help the believer to safety and healing. Hart is sceptical of all new innovations and new adaptations that change the church. However, he dismisses Calvin like religion because it is far too esoteric and doctrinaire (Hart, P.94). One would argue that life´s struggles, pain and difficult moments make life worthwhile and strengthen one´s faith; yet in cases where the suffering is beyond bearing, one is left to ponder why God would allow it to happen. But there is no answer, except that God doesn´t have any control over natural disasters, suffering and sin and evil.


In this book David Bentley Hart lays open ancient arguments about God´s role in the universe. He, obviously a believer, struggles to understand why God allows humans to suffer so needlessly. Some of the most basic concepts discussed involve simple questions about human suffering and God´s role in the universe. The author is, however, very critical of the pseudo-spirituality that he finds commonplace in the present day. He thinks that too many follow scripture and Church dogma without ever examining the true nature of religious principles. Too often believers only really evaluate their faith when they are faced with tragic experiences or disaster. On normal occasions, this kind of believer disregards complex questions and lacks the drive to re-evaluate their faith in God. The author uses an example from literature to explicate his point: In the classic Russian novel The Brother Karamazov lies a clue to understanding God. Ivan Karamazov has lived a life surrounded by incidents of juvenile torture and murder amidst politically insignificant implications and accusations. In the story, Ivan prays to God for a day in heaven free. He desires only to be where there are no tears and all sins are immediately exonerated. This prayer is essential to Ivan in order for him to continue on with his life. Ivan has never seen heaven and has little assurance of its promise, but he decides to accept on faith that heaven exists and that God can offer him help and safety.  Through this vision, Ivan finds relief from the agony and horror he has suffered. Hart uses Ivan´s story to explain the symbolic relationship and promise of God that faithful people will go to heaven. In the Brother´s Karamazov Ivan turns down the opportunity to enter heaven, arguing that it isn´t necessary as going to heaven will not change the fate of the impoverished children he has watched be tortured. As Hart responds to Ivan’s question, he indicates the prominence of the Augustinian view of evil whereby evil is a parasite that attaches itself to the living. In this view evil is not under the control of God and shares a parasitic relationship with humans and other living things.  

While most of Hart´s theories and opinions fit nicely with Christian dogma, tradition and belief, at times the author´s opinions are a bit outlandish. According to the author, Christians believe that agony, demise and evil lack eventual essence and spiritual sense and pose little threat to good Christians. However, innocent people are forced sometimes to suffer and be miserable. Hart explains how free will excuses God from any responsibility because free will places the responsibility on the individual. Free will allows humans to come and go as they please, and therefore humans are responsible for their own salvation. Many today will have a hard time listening to this kind of ancient religious mysticism because these claims are unobservable and cannot be proved right or wrong but must be accepted on faith. He argues that the world is not in its God-destined form, but it is in a form fallen from grace with God. The misfortune commenced with the fall of Adam and Eve, whereby death and transgression became the dominant themes for all human life. The author emphasises that God is summoned to confrontation by the actual and independent force of rebelliousness, another claim which many today will have a hard time accepting.  Questioning is a form of rebelliousness, like action, but questioning is not a sin. Adam and Eve rebelled, but because of their free will they were expelled from Eden and not punished by God. God´s mercy is great. Some of the author´s claims are a bit outlandish and fabricated, but overall Hart makes good use of Christian tradition, dogma and debate to clarify and elaborate upon his points.

Some Christians will disagree with Hart’s perspective of free will and God´s total divine sovereignty because many do not believe in the doctrine of free will. He justifies his belief in free will with examples of God´s mercy. He provides a sketchy argument about the fall of human beings and how this act has propagated the present moral crisis. Evil, which originated from one choice, can be explained by free will. The fact that individuals can make bad choices is part of free will. However, natural disasters are obviously out of mortal and immortal control, and hence cannot be associated with human-independent will and choice. If there was a possibility of human-independent will causing these natural disasters, then it would be logical to conclude that any person couldn’t use personal opinions to explain complicated, scientific mysteries. As outlandish as it is, Hart provides a starting point for those wanting to formulate a personal argument about religion, God and natural disaster events.

           In conclusion, The Doors of the Sea has awakened fresh sentiments about God´s benevolence and role in the universe. Hart’s view of religion and God takes a fundamentalist approach. Some would label the author blasphemous and unseemly, while others would view him as a free-thinker and a humanist. This book reflects on the need for people to re-evaluate their faith and to avoid the habitual sycophantic attitude towards religion. Blind acceptance of any manmade or natural disaster that is alleged to be a part of God’s plan and therefore cannot be questioned is unhealthy, wrong and dangerous. Hart argues that we need to question the acts of God but that does not mean we have to turn our backs on faith to do so. Hart is not advocating an atheist or faithless approach; however, religious fundamentalism does not allow God´s will to be questioned, and as history has shown, those who do are often condemned and ostracized for having the gall to defy the will of the Church. 


Works Cited

Hart, David B. The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami? Grand Rapids, MI:          Eerdamans Publishing Co., 2005. Print.

The Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1984. Print.

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The first is the prologue. The prologue was used to introduce Omar to the reader


            Omar Kahyyam was primarily a mathematician and an astronomer.  He was an extremely intelligent individual who wrote many theories in physics and metaphysics.  He is also attributed with the reformation of the Persian calender with seven other great intellects to create a calender more accurate than the Gregorian calender. Ironically he is known to the world today for his translated collection of lyrical quatrains called the Rubaiyat. His life and works are somewhat of a mystery because he was rather unpopular until after his death.  Yet the work he is most known and beloved for is considered to have been a gross mistranslation of both  character and content.

            This paper will be divided into six sections. The first is the prologue.  The prologue was used to introduce Omar to the reader.  Next there will be a brief biography of his life and major influences of his work. Following this will be a section on his magnum opus and only work, The Rubaiyat.  This will include literary criticism of his famous work.  After this there will be a brief conclusion to sum up the overall paper followed by an epilogue with my opinion on Khayyam.  Finally in my bibliography the reader will see my sources for research and my opinion on those books.     


            In the history of world literature Omar Khayyam is an enigma.  No poet of any time period has received greater recognition and fame through such a enormous misreading of his work.  Known today world wide, Khayyam’s works would undoubtable be unheard of in modern day literature in they were not translated by English writer Edward FitzGerald. The paradox is that FitzGerald misinterpreted  both Khayyam and his works in his translation to start an unending conflict1.

             FitzGerald added to his editions of the Rubaiyat a biographical sketch entitled “Omar Khayyam: The Astronomer Poet of Persia.” In this he wrote his opinion that Khayyam was an anti-religious materialist who believed life’s only meaning was to be found in wine, song, and worldly pleasures: 

            Having failed (however mistakenly) of finding any Providence but Destiny, and any world but this, he set about making the most of it; preferring rather to soothe the soul through the senses into acquiescence with things as he saw them, than to perplex it with vain disquietude after what they might  be…. He takes a humorous or perverse pleasure in exalting the gratification of sense above that of intellect, in which he must have taken great delight, although it failed to answer the questions in which he, in common with all men, was most vitally interested2….   


            This was how Fitzgerald interpreted the minimal facts of Khayyam’s life.  Many later studies of Khayyam reveal a more accurate description of his life and his writings. 

            Omar’s full name was Ghiyath ud Din Abu’l Fatah Omar bin Ibrahim al Khayyam.  From his name and the customs of the time it can be interpreted that his father was a tent maker, which is the meaning of Khayyam.  It can also be seen that his father was named Ibrahim.  Omar used the name Khayyam as his pen name.  He was born at Naishapur in the province of Khorastan (located in the northeastern part of present day Iran) on May 18, 10483.

            Omar’s great influence and teacher was Imam Mowaffak whom he and many others studied under.  It was through Imam that Omar met two other of his pupils and befriended them. One was Nizam ul Mulk, and the other was Ben Sabbah.  These three studied under Imam for about four years, in these four years they became great friends and influences on each other.  Towards the end of their studies with Imam they made a pact.  Based on the superior education all three of them had obtained the judged that at least one of them would become rich and important.  They made a pact that when one of them did become of some importance they would split their fortunes three ways.

            After years of traveling Nizam became a chief advisor to the Sultan.  The first to come claim his share was Ben Sabbah.  He demanded a place in government and was given a position of high regard.  He soon made a fool of himself and was removed from his position because of all his greed. 

            Omar also came to claim his share; but not to ask for a title or a position.  All Khayyam wanted to do was live in one corner of the shadow of his greatness, when Nizam realized the Omar was being truthful he granted him a pension from the gold treasury of Naishapur4.   

            Not much is Known of his life as a child, but that at the age of seventeen he was already adept in the academic subjects of his day.  In response of the early death of his father Omar began to look for means to support himself.  He therefore embarked on an illustrious public career at the age of eighteen.

            A tract he wrote on Algebra won him the patronage of a rich and influential Doctor in Samarkand.  Later he obtained a position in the court of Sultan Malik Shah, which included being the Sultan’s personal physicist.  By his mid twenties Khayyam became head of a astronomical observatory and authored many works on mathematics and physics.  He also played a leading role in  the reformation of the Persian calender5.

            After the death of Sultan Malik Shah in 1092 , Omar lost his place at court and one of his great influences.  Subsequently he made a pilgrimage to Mecca.    When he returned he is said to alienate himself from the general population.  Not much is known about this time period in his life except that  this is when he is thought to of written the Rubaiyat . 

            The story of Omar’s death is said to be that Omar was studying a work on metaphysics when he marked his page with a gold toothpick and prayed his last prayer and then died.  His tomb is still standing in Naishapur6.


            Omar Khayyam’s most famous work, and only work in poetry is the Rubaiyat.  Yet it only became famous because of the translation made by Edward FitzGerald in 1864. This translation however lead to a major controversy over how accurately FitzGerald actually represented the great author and his work7.

            The Rubaiyat, according to Edward FitzGerald’s translation is a series of lyrical poems that can be read separately or all read as a whole work.  These small poems that stand on their own are called Quatrains.  FitzGeralds translation of the Rubaiyat contains one hundred and one of these small poems.  They all seem to have the constant themes of hedonism, alcohol, women and spiritual fulfillment.  In the Rubaiyat Khayyam uses many different literary devises.  Some of the most popularly used are symbolism and metaphor. 

            Very little is known of the reception of Khayyam’s poetry before the nineteenth century when FitzGerald introduced it to Europe.  The themes in this novel at the time of the release of FitzGerald’s translation were thought to be Escapist and fatalistic.  This is why many feel it was so popular in Europe.  It seems the works of Khayyam seem to show that he found the world and all of its’ glory for just what it was, shallow and depressing with only simple pleasures.  FitzGerald’s book appealed and related to the people of Europe’s despair.  In fact the book became so popular that there were Omar Khayyam clubs formed by great minds in England and other European countries8.

            All the real issue behind this work is weather or not Edward FitzGerald properly translated Khayyam’s work, or if he properly judged his character.  After Fitzgerald’s translation of the Rubaiyat there were many other translations done because his was thought to be inaccurate.  This is one of the reasons the Rubaiyat is so popular now.  In fact, almost immediately after FitzGerald’s copy was published there was controversy over the accuracy of the translation from scholars.  For the common people however it was a beautiful book full of meaning that could be related to.  Most didn’t care if it wasn’t in its original form because it was magnificent the way it was. 

            Most literary criticism found today on the Rubaiyat will be more about the controversy than the actual writings.  It has been proven that FitzGerald completely gave Khayyam the wrong reputation in his forward entitled “Omar Khayyam; The Astronomer Poet of Persia”.  FitzGerald conveyed the message that Khayyam was an Atheist whose only goal was to pursue worldly pleasures.  This is what he leaned his translation of the Rubaiyat towards when he changed its format and sometimes meaning.  He didn’t do this intentionally, his true goal was to truly capture the spirit of Khayyam.  Unfortunately he completely misinterpreted Khayyam and the Meanings of his Poetry9.


            In 1867 J.B. Nicolas introduced a French translation of the Rubaiyat which differs greatly from FitzGerald’s in two respects.  Nicolas suggested that Khayyam’s Writings are very deeply rooted in religion, this is a large contrast to FitzGerald’s interpretation of Khayyam. Also his book cannot be read as one flowing poem as FitzGerald made his into.  This is an oriental way of poetry and not that of Khayyam.  Khayyam’s true poems could all stand on their own as completely independent and meaningful thoughts.  Justin H. McCarthy, another notable translator, completed his translation of the Rubaiyat in 1896 from the oldest existing manuscripts of Khayyam’s Rubaiyat that still exist.  These two translations have been called the two most accurate translated versions of the Rubaiyat that exist10.           

            The true Rubaiyat is said to be just about opposite of FitzGerald’s interpretation.  The poems show the limits of science and the importance of god. They speak of wisdom and heavenly pleasures, not earthly.  Even though this has been proven Fitzgerald’s version is still the most popular Rubaiyat11. 



            Edward FitzGerald’s version of the Rubaiyat is a beautiful flowing poem that is very symbolic and meaningful.  His version is also loved by many people and shared throughout the world.  To call it a translation however seems somewhat unfair to the original author. The translation was admittedly change on purpose to make it more appealing to people in Europe, however the character and meaning of Khayyam were accidentally misunderstood.

            The true Rubaiyat is a non flowing collection of poems called quatrains.  These poems speak of the beauty of nature, a nature given to s by god.  They also speak of the limitations of science where faith is needed.  They are inspiring and well written by the most popular Persian poet ever to Quill a poem.



            As stated in my report above the most popular translation of the Rubaiyat is Edward FitzGerald’s.  I read his translation because it is the only one written in English.  I felt it was a very flowing and lyrical poem that stood better as a complete work than separate poems.  Yet every little quatrain had more than one meaning depending on the reader.  To express my opinion on Omar Khayyam I feel I will also express my opinion on Edward Fitzgerald.  I feel FitzGerald just read the Rubaiyat and decided to publish what it meant to him.  The only problem with this is that he published it as a translation and not an interpretation.

            The main problem with what he did is that he thought he was interpreting it as Khayyam thought it to be interpreted. What he really did was completely miss the content of Khayyam’s great work, and therefore this led to FitzGerald’s misinterpretation of Khayyam’s character.

            As for Omar Khayyam himself, based on my research, he was a very interesting and respectable person.  He was obviously intellectually superior to most people of his time.  His work and his life truly reflect all that FitzGerald claimed in his very brief biography to be false.  The true Omar Khayyam was devoutly religious and even though he was a scientist and a rational thinker he had no problem writing about the limits of science and the importance of religious faith.

            I found Omar Khayyam to be the most interesting author I have ever researched because it almost seemed like doing detective work.  When I located the Rubaiyat by FitzGerald I felt as though I found an excellent biographical source.  That is until I looked further into it and slowly unwrapped the mystery around this great world intellect. 


            1”Khayyam, Omar”.  Grolier Multi-Media Encyclopedia (Grolier Incorporated, 1995) 

            2Paramahansa Yogananda, Wine of the Mystic(Los Angeles: Self-Realization Fellowship,1994)xiii.

            3Literature World Masterpieces(New York:Prentice Hall, 1991)98.    

            4Edward FitzGerald, The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam(New York:Illustrated Editions Company)forward.

            5Yogananda xiv.

            6FitzGerald forward.

            7Yogananda xviii.

            8Poetry Criticism: Khayyam(London: Cassell and Company)142-145.

            9Yogananda xxi-xxiii.

            10Poetry Criticism 147-152

            11Yogananda xvii-xxi.


 FitzGerald, Edward.  The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam(New                                                  York:Illustrated Editions Company)forward.

            This book consisted of a brief biographical sketch of Khayyam that proved to be very useful.  It also contained FitzGerald’s translation of the Rubaiyat.


 Grolier Multi-Media Encyclopedia  ”Khayyam, Omar”.  (Grolier                                  Incorporated, 1995) 

            This very brief encyclopedia article gave me some specific dates I needed and informed me of the controversy over translations.


 Literature World Masterpieces(New York:Prentice Hall,                                              1991)98.


            This is our literature book in school.  It helped me about as much as the encyclopedia article.


 Poetry Criticism: Khayyam(London: Cassell and Company)142-145.


            This is where I obtained my literary criticisms and discovered of the other translations of the Rubaiyat.


 Yogananda Paramahansa.  Wine of the Mystic(Los Angeles: Self-                          Realization Fellowship,1994)xiii.


            The book sited above is a interpretation of the Rubaiyat by the author.  It helped me to more easily understand the greater meaning of Khayyam.  This book also contained a long biography.  This was easily the most helpful book I was able to locate.

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The Enlightenment was a seventeenth



            Enlightenment was undertaken in between the 17th and the 18th century. It was an international movement that was composed of sensibilities and ideas that concentrated on critical reasons as opposed to issues like the religious dogmatism.  It gave rise to scientific thinking that were different from religious concerns (Burns, Robert and Hugh 12). In most cases it concentrated on the nature as well as the natural order as a bank of knowledge. Enlightenment thinkers were able to defend religious freedom and tolerance (Burson 15). The motive behind human rights and intellectual freedom led to conflicts that later advocated for new information, ideas as well as gave rise to establishments in America and Europe amid other nations in the world. The Enlightenment was a better part of changes as opposed to negativity. 

            The Enlightenment is United States of America was reasonable than the one that took place in Europe. It was able to influence both political and religious organization and platforms through the nation. Many scholars have urged that its approach to religion acceptance was at its pick of fame in USA in greater part because not even a single group among those in the Enlightenment could garner enough votes to get themselves onto the fledging nation. Pioneers such as Benjamin Franklin were considered the supports of Enlightenment ideas (Eger 34). This is because to their thoughts it was a freedom-loving rationalism that was intended to bring up a foundation independence as well as the constitution of United States of America. Truly, this was the outcome of America’s Enlightenment as the country was able to garner its constitution as well as independence. 

            The rise of Enlightenment bred various religious dispute.  Many of the supporters commonly denoted as Christians, dismissed revivalist religion. They considered that this was a great awakening as well as an emotional excessive (Burns, Robert and Hugh 17). On the other hand, protestant noted that enlightenment ideals were risky to shy away from and was a mode of solidarity to free the nation as well as make it a budding country. It’s clear that Enlightenment was so passive in the United States that not a good number of Americans were exclusively bounded to its waves (Frazer 21).   

            It is evident that both the revivalist and the emotionalism as well as the rational individuals related to Enlightenment played vital roles in the American Revolution. The radicals were from all religious groups (Frazer 11). Most of them shared a common commitment to freedom of the American people as well as freedom of religion.  Though not all, the radicals or the revolutionaries took part in the enlightenment process not for the wholly freedom of religion in the United States but that of their individuals denominations. However, most of them eyed the nation’s freedom to independence. The enlightenment was a foundation to experiments in religious freedom. 


            The enlightenment was now part of American Myth. It has become a powerful source of information about the American origin. The movement acts as a storyboard that led to the creation of new Christian society, led to the birth of constitution and also independence of America; I conclude by saying that it is true that the enlightenment fostered positive change to America such as development of religious tolerance, American Revolution, and spirit of service. 


Burns, Robert M., and Hugh Rayment-Pickard. “Philosophies of History: From Enlightenment to  Post-modernity.” (2000).

Burson, Jeffrey D. The Rise and Fall of Theological Enlightenment. University of Notre Dame      Press, 2010.

Eger, Elizabeth. Bluestockings: women of reason from Enlightenment to Romanticism. Palgrave             Macmillan, 2010. 

Frazer, Michael L. “The Enlightenment of Sympathy: Justice and the moral sentiments in the       eighteenth century and today.” (2010).




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The Cherokee removal was an involuntary regulation application of the Native Americans and the Indians

The Cherokee removal was an involuntary regulation application of the Native Americans and the Indians. The implementation of the regulations act was an attempt to establish an independent country that would otherwise dominate the Georgian city. The proceeding of the law was enacted by the legislature that proceeded over the extended jurisdiction where Indian Cherokees demanded legal actions that would facilitate the functions of the petitioned supreme court of the United States of America. The populace of the Georgian region was undermined as domestic nations that were entirely regarded as a dependent nation that would not have survived of a trail of effective government formation. The circumstances demanded a legal intervention that would clarify the state and the save the population of the wrath of isolation and a possibility of land alienation. 

The formulation of the Worcester vs. Georgia cases were generally drafted as a federal protection schemes that would work in favor of the Cherokee population which was a composition of the Indian population and also an alienated population of the Native American. The success of the Cherokee removal was a documentation devised after the appropriated planning for the segregation of the Native race of the American population.  The mastermind of the entire schemes was President Andrew who had a hand in the enactment of the Indian removal act and thee enforcement of the same regulation. The Marshall’s decision was of no significance to the president’s game plane and this effected that the same would have been dully enforced on the Indian population of Cherokee. 


. The establishment of the treaties was a str5ategy to certify the federal government’s approach on the matter.   The approach to seal the treaty as amended and sealed by the use of the Cherokee chiefs who would have to comply with the rules of the land. This would effectively capture the Indian population occupying the land as this was a mandatory requirement. Through these protocols, the federal government would effetely control the native population and completely ensure that the regulations would have to be enhanced to all with maximum restrictions and observation of respect to the nation’s laws. The congress was widely used to activate the treaties signed by the Cherokee chiefs. This can be overviewed as a direct way to sabotage the functionality of the popular voice in a pattern to conquer the independent mind. The main objective of the plans was to declare victory of the removal of the Cherokee population from America despite the obstruction and overruled jurisdiction of the United States legislative systems


The removal of the Indians plan was characterized by major barriers and challenges from the main populations as spirited efforts were designed to ensure that the laws were tampered with the treaties dishonored. The relationship between the Native Americans and Cherokee Indians led to the development of collaborated resistance of the entire federal government scheme. The three key chiefs that signed the removal treaty were murdered by the Native American and the Indians so as to safe guard the interest of a larger population. The repercussions of the killings by the Natives and the Indians resulted to a massive retaliation by the Federal Government that pushed the populations into the West. The land which is presently referred to as the land of the trailed fears of land historical background became home to the Native Americans and Cherokee Indians.

The factors for the failure of the Cherokee nation can be traced back to a lack of a significant cooperation of the two involved governments. The forced resettlement of the Cherokee population to the west region of America was a great deviation of the nation’s population leading to a misunderstanding between the nations. The forced relocation impacted negatively to the current nation of America’s nation and has greatly eroded the American culture and identity of the minority population. The overall summary of the removal of the Cherokee nation has also impacted on the negative treatment by other races within the American nation due to the historical records that have been misinterpreted in the recent history and generation. 


The illustration of the Cherokee nation has been absorbed as a practical example of discrimination and misinterpretation of the law by supreme bodies or individuals who have a difference of opinion that generally discriminates against the less fortunate. The Cherokee removal was an involuntary regulation application of the Native Americans and the Indians. The implementation of the regulations act was an attempt to establish an independent country that would otherwise dominate the Georgian city. The analysis of the cases between Worcester v. Georgia has been criticized over the last years describing the outcome possibilities that would have been alternatively approved to salvage the minority races that would have enabled a peaceful coexistence between America. This would have also created a simple American history that would have appreciated thee different races and groups in America.






Work Cited
Gold, Susan D. Worcester V. Georgia: Native American Rights. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2009. Print.

Aaseng, Nathan. Cherokee Nation V. Georgia. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2000. Print.

Day, Charmaine L. Worcester V. Georgia: Cherokees, the American Board and the Nullification Crisis. , 2006. Print.

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A critical review of knowing when to doubt. developing a 200 pages article that was written by Mills Candice


     This paper gives a critical review of knowing when to doubt; developing a 200 pages article that was written by Mills Candice. In this article, the author tries to give an in-depth coverage of human traits and how it can be fruitfully used in the day-to-day interactions. In doing this, a lot of references will be made on Stephen Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (Antonakis, J. et al., 2004). Here, Covey presents the work of his research in which he explores particular behaviors which determine individual’s competencies, interactions and leadership capabilities.


Human being is a leader by nature. Despite this, not all people can make good and competent leaders. It is incumbent upon people to ensure that they act in a way which can put them in a better position of expressing control over others. As we all understand, it is not a good thing just to be a leader. However, it is good for leader to ensure that they plan well and do all that it takes to be overboard to stand a better chance of influencing others (McGrath, J. E. (2002).

     In this regard, I would like to agree with Covey that this does not merely rely on the fact that one has a position, but on the basis that one possesses right and appropriate personal characters necessary for exercising authority over others (Howard, A. & Bray, D. W., 2008). As he argues, there should be a dear and progressive distinction between independence and dependence, meaning that it should be clearly demonstrated that an individual is capable of making personal decisions without the unnecessary influence of any other external force. It can only be possible for a person to freely interact with others if he can have a personal control over himself.

     Being able to lead others requires a lot of commitments. It requires that a leader must demonstrate endurance and selflessness. The other important thing is focus. For a person to be able to succeed in whatever it does, it is paramount that they set up goals to achieve. However this should be realistically set in order to ensure that it can be accomplished with less constraint. In this case, there should be a self mastery and a proper understanding of oneself (Bass, B. M., 1990).

     According to Covey, the most pragmatic part of this paradigm is progressivity, self discovery, and privatization. This implies that leadership competencies stem from self-awareness the understanding of one’s immediate surrounding and proper planning of activities in a more informed manner, Autonomy is not bad thing. If one gets time to sit down and makes a proper plan on how to transform himself, he will surely make a remarkable contribution to the society. However, this will particularly work if time is created for making informed decisions appropriate for solving any problem at hand (Bennis, W., 2009).

     At the same time, it is significant to acknowledge the presence of other people. Even if Covey suggests that autonomy is paramount, interdependence precedes. In this scenario, one must accept that one lives in a society full of people, and they have different interests, world views and backgrounds. Hence, there should be the formulation of mutually beneficial solutions characterized by understanding, appreciation and tolerance (Hersey, P. & K.H.  Blanchard, 2012).

     I would like to agree with Mills for emphasizing the role of open mindedness and co-operation in offering remedial measures to the various problems affecting the society. His argument on the strength of positive teamwork holds water (Avolio, B. J. et al., 2010). No one can make any positive development as a lone ranger; there should be a change of attitude in order to ensure that people work as a united team for a common goal. Everyone should be mindful of whatever he does so as not to do anything contrary to the views of others. Such conflicts are not good because they do not have any benefit.

     Since nobody lives in total isolation, it is incumbent upon all to ensure that they collaborate at all times in order to execute anything good for the benefit of the entire society (Adair, J., 2008). It is other people that a person can come up with ideas relevant to the content under which they are operating. Surely, being a leader is a multitasking experience that can not be done without a through dedication. As Mills argues, nothing can be achieved so far without involving other people. It is advisable to recognize the presence of others so as to closely work with them in carrying out any kind of activity which needs to be done.

     Conclusively, I would like to agree with the ideas of both, Covey and Mills that self awareness and cooperation are the key pillars for any development. Everyone must accept that being self-driven is a good quality which if consciously applied in a logical and thoughtful manner, can imminently transform the society. Besides, a good leader should learn to listen to others, regardless of their social position. Unity is strength because it is an undisputed recipe to development.



Adair, J. (2008). Effective Leadership. London. Pan Books. 

 Antonakis, J. et al.  (2004). The Nature of Leadership, Sage Publications, Inc.

Avolio, B. J. et al. (2010). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual 

            Review of Psychology.

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and 

            Managerial Applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY, US: Free Press.

Bennis, W. (2009) On Becoming a Leader. Addison Wesley, New York.

Hersey, P. & K.H.  Blanchard, (2012). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing 

            Human Resources (2nd ed.) New Jersey/Prentice Hall.

Howard, A. & Bray, D. W. (2008). ManageriaL Lives in Transition: Advancing Age and 

            Changing Times. New York: Guilford Press.

McGrath, J. E. (2002). Leadership behavior: Some requirements for leadership training. 

            Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil Service Commission.

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Case Study: Joey is a 14 year who was just diagnosed with diabetes.

  1. Case Study: Joey is a 14 year who was just diagnosed with diabetes. Joey has never been in the hospital before and is scared. He has lots of questions but is afraid to ask. He is getting a lot of information but is having difficulty remembering everything. Consider Joey’s age and brainstorm innovative ways to educate Joey about diabetes.
  2. Compare patient education information presented in a nursing textbook and on a credible website for the same condition. 
  3. Consider your experience and learning about EHRs. What would it look like if you were to design a learning program centered on using EHRs? Consider this from the viewpoint of an educator, a student, a clinician, and a healthcare administrator.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
write this in 250 words APA format .need this as soon as possible 

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In the media introduction to this module, it was suggested that you as a nurse have an important role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

I will attach all links and articles for this week

In the media introduction to this module, it was suggested that you as a nurse have an important role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). With a focus on patient care and outcomes, nurses may not always see themselves as contributors to the development of new systems. However, as you may have observed in your own experience, exclusion of nurse contributions when implementing systems can have dire consequences.

In this Discussion, you will consider the role you might play in systems development and the ramifications of not being an active participant in systems development.

To Prepare: Things to consider

Review the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as presented in the Resources.

Reflect on your own healthcare organization and consider any steps your healthcare organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.

Consider what a nurse might contribute to decisions made at each stage of the SDLC when planning for new health information technology.

By Day 3 of Week 9


300-350 WORD -APA FORMAT-In text citation-Reference last 5 years, peer reviewed

*Post a description of what you believe to be the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.

*Provide specific examples of potential issues at each stage of the SDLC and explain how the inclusion of nurses may help address these issues.

*Then, explain whether you had any input in the selection and planning of new health information technology systems in your nursing practice or healthcare organization and explain potential impacts of being included or not in the decision-making -process.

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