Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for Americans

Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for Americans.

Readings: See Chapters 5 and 17-19 in Business and Professional Writing: A Basic Guide for


Task: In the Research Proposal, you will present what you plan to write for your research paper.

You may choose the topic for your research paper, but you must choose a topic that is of current

interest within your field. Additionally, students who are earning a degree within the School of

Business are required to incorporate some aspect or discussion of diversity into their paper topic.

Format, Genre: Memo, Proposal (see examples on pages 292-296 but use headings listed


Audience: Your audience should be a professional audience within your field of study.

Length: 3-4 pages single spaced

Research projects, reports, and papers generally begin with a proposal to do research. The

proposal serves several purposes: as a planning document for the writer as a decision making

tool for the audience (instructor, employer, thesis committee, book publisher, etc.) who decides if

the project and its plan are feasible and the resulting document (s) will make a significant

contribution to the company or field of study.

Use the headings below to structure your proposal. Follow the guidelines beneath each section to

help you decide what information to include under each section.

Introduction: Begin with a brief paragraph that explains your subject and purpose of your

research paper. Be concise but clear. Be sure that you have narrowed your topic to one that is

manageable in 5-6 pages (double spaced). Your research paper will be written for readers who

want a well-documented, thorough discussion of a subject.

Background: This section sets up the background of the problem, situation, or topic that you

have chosen to research. This section is important because here you give me any background

information on the subject I might need to understand your reason for researching this topic. You

also explain why the topic is important, both in general and within your field of study. You tell

what the current thinking is, why it is a current topic of discussion within your field, why your

audience should be interested in your research, and how they will use the information. You will

probably come up with other information that might be necessary for me to know. Also in this

section, you begin to prove your credibility as a researcher to me, so you must provide

researched and documented material in this section.

Consider answering some of the following questions as you prepare this section: Why is the

topic important to your field of study? How long has it been a problem? What will happen if the

problem/situation is not solved/dealt with? What do you expect the audience to do after reading

your paper? What background information does the research paper audience need in order to

understand the information in your paper?

Ultimately, this section should present the background needed for me to see that the paper has

value or relevance to your discipline or profession.

Note: This section should consist of at least three well-developed paragraphs.

Audience: Identify the primary audience for your paper. Your audience should be a professional

audience and will most likely be within your field. It cannot be a general audience. (For example,

‘teachers’ is too general an audience and would not be approved. A more specific audience might

be UHV students in the field of education working toward elementary school certification or

elementary school teachers within Victoria Independent School District who received

certification within the last three years.)

Describe how much your audience already knows about your topic. Explain the major priorities

and concerns of this audience. Analyze their attitudes toward you and your topic and explain

how you will overcome any negative attitudes they may have. Describe their reason(s) for

reading your paper and explain how you plan for them to use the information in the paper.

Note: You do not need to identify every type of audience that the text describes. Focus on the

primary audience in your discussion.

Topics to Investigate: Identify the main ideas or major topic areas of your paper. Then list the

major questions that you want your research paper to answer for your readers. Basically, you are

providing a rough outline for the body of your research paper. Indicate how deeply you will

discuss each topic. Explain the scope of your study: what areas of the subject will you cover;

what areas will you not cover and why you have made those choices. Think primarily of your

audience’s needs as you work through this section.

Methods: In this section, tell me how you plan to do the research in this section. Include specific

information about where you will research and what kinds of sources you will use (journals,

databases, Internet sources, etc.). You may use a variety of sources, but they must all be

scholarly. You must include a working bibliography listed in alphabetical order of at least 5

sources you have already read and plan to use in your research paper, at least 3 of these sources

must be scholarly journal articles. You also must include any sources you have cited in the

background section of the proposal in this bibliography. Please include a short (one to two

sentence) annotation of each source that describes its usefulness to your paper.

You may include one Internet source and must demonstrate its reliability and authority. (This

does not include databases or journals that are on the Internet, but also exist in hardcopy

somewhere. This only limits sources that can only be found on the Internet.)

I will be checking the proposal to ensure that your sources are varied, scholarly, and current.

Finally, use APA (all majors but history and English) or MLA (history and English majors)

format for your reference entries.

Qualifications: Provide any background knowledge you have in this area, including personal

reading you’ve done, classroom work/study, and work, jobs, or other activities that demonstrate

your interest and ability level. Also, you may mention any previous research you’ve done on this

or a related topic and how you are personally affected by this topic.

Note: Don’t use the list format. Write a paragraph about your qualifications.

Work Schedule: This section should begin with a short discussion of the work schedule you will

use to complete your research paper, highlighting any points of interest in the work schedule.

Next, list the major tasks needed to complete this project and the corresponding dates. You don’t

need to estimate hours. Don’t underestimate the importance of this section. This section is where

you show me your plan for completing the project in a timely manner. In addition to the tasks

that you devise, include when you will make copies of your sources to turn in with the final

version of your paper.

Request for Approval: Here you ask for my permission and for suggestions. The request for

approval is usually formulaic. Feel free to use or adapt the following sentence:

I ask that you approve my topic and my approach to it. I would appreciate suggestions on how

you think I might best proceed.

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Writing Assignment: Illustration Essay

Writing Assignment: Illustration Essay. Writing Assignment: Illustration Essay

You are required to submit the FINAL copy of this assignment, but you may first submit an optional
DRAFT. This will allow you to receive qualitative feedback that can inform your revision. You should
always avoid focusing solely on the grader’s DRAFT feedback; use the feedback as a supplement to the
course lessons and your own revision ideas. Always expect to revise beyond what the DRAFT grader
specifically notes.
In short, an illustration essay will use clear, interesting examples to show, explain, and
support a thesis statement (remember, your thesis is your main argument, or the main
point you’re trying to make). One key to an effective illustration essay is to use enough
details and specific examples to make your point effectively. In other words, descriptive
writing is key.
You have several options for this assignment, so you will need to choose one:
 Illustrate the ideal work environment. If everything was perfect at work, what would
it be like? Describe everything in this environment—perhaps from the dispositions of
your coworkers and supervisors to what clothes you wear to work.
 Illustrate what it means to be a “true friend.” What does being a “true friend” mean
to you? What “true friends” have you had, and how do their actions coincide with
being your definition of a “true friend?”
 Illustrate how your favorite team or player received their current standing or
ranking. How did the team or player do in the most recent season? What qualities did
this team or player demonstrate to earn this ranking?
 Look at your favorite poem or short story, and use illustration to explain what
makes it your favorite. Do you enjoy the author’s language? Do you enjoy the
storyline? What else do you enjoy that makes it your favorite?
 Illustrate the purpose of props on the set of your favorite media production. What
props are there? Why are they important?
 Illustrate how to create your favorite dish. What steps are required to create this
dish? Be sure that you take your audience through this process step by step!
 Illustrate how to play your favorite game. What steps and/or actions are necessary
to play this game? Take your readers through the motions, step by step.
The questions above are designed to help you begin brainstorming ideas; however, you are
free to develop your own brainstorming questions and use them to develop your essay.
Since the purpose of this essay is to illustrate, you should have enough specific details and
examples for your essay to be considered an illustration essay.
Many illustrations may come from your personal experiences. However, even personal
experiences should be supported by research in college essays. Thus, you must cite at least
one credible1
source to earn maximum credit for this essay. This resource from the course

1 Please note: Basic dictionary sources, user-edited websites (e.g., Wikipedia, eHow, etc.), and sites that house
databases of quotations are not considered “credible” sources. You will lose points in the Research category of the
rubric if your sources aren’t credible.
will help you understand more about evaluating sources. Failure to use and cite at least one
credible source will result in a point deduction from your grade. Properly cite your source(s)
in MLA format and include a Works Cited page (this resource from the course will help).
Review the rubric for this essay to get an idea of how your work will be assessed.
As with all college writing, your essay should have a strong thesis statement in addition to an
introduction, body, and conclusion.
Thesis hints: Here are some general and specific examples of how you might think about your
thesis for this assignment:
If you are illustrating qualities that make up something:
In order for a friend to be considered a true friend, he or she must be (characteristic 1), (characteristic
2), and (characteristic 3).
If you are illustrating a recipe:
(Add a range of ingredients), (add major utensils needed), and (add time necessary) are all that are
required to make (add dish).
If you are illustrating qualities that make up something:
In order for a friend to be considered a true friend, he or she must be loyal, honest, and trustworthy.
If you are illustrating a recipe:
Fresh produce, mixing utensils, and about a half an hour are all you need to create excellent
The guidelines for this assignment are as follows:
Length: This assignment should be at least 500 words.
Header: Include a header in the upper left-hand corner of your writing assignment with the
following information:
 Your first and last name
 Course Title (Composition II)
 Assignment name (Illustration Essay)
 Current Date
 MLA-style source documentation and Works Cited2
 Your last name and page number in the upper-right corner of each page

2 This resource may be helpful as you are making MLA formatting decisions:
 Double-spacing throughout
 Standard font (TimesNewRoman, Calibri)
 Title, centered after heading
 1” margins on all sides
 Save the file using one of the following extensions: .docx, .doc, .rtf, or .txt
Underline your thesis statement in the introductory paragraph.

Writing Assignment: Illustration Essay

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Writing Assignment: Media Analysis

Writing Assignment: Media Analysis. Writing Assignment: Media Analysis

You are required to submit the FINAL copy of this assignment, but you may first submit an optional
DRAFT. This will allow you to receive qualitative feedback that can inform your revision. You should
always avoid focusing solely on the grader’s DRAFT feedback; use the feedback as a supplement to the
course lessons and your own revision ideas. Always expect to revise beyond what the DRAFT grader
specifically notes if you want to improve your score.
For this media analysis, you will analyze how one part affects the whole media production.
Note that you should select only a single piece of media; you should not be discussing more
than one film, for example. You should choose one1 of the following parts to explore:
 Genre: Explain how the production you chose fits into its genre.
 Camera: Analyze how the camera’s use (camera angles, for instance) affects the
overall production.
 Lighting: Describe how lighting is used to enhance or detract from the production.
 Actors/Characters: Analyze how the actors OR the characters themselves enhance or
detract from the production.
 Symbols: Explain what the symbols are and how their usage affects the overall
 Music: Describe how the music enhances or detracts from the media production.
 Sound Effects: Analyze how the sound effects enhance or detract from the
 Special Effects: Explain what special effects are used and how they affect the viewing
 Comparison to a Literary Work: (Note: This option may only be chosen if the film you
chose is also in print form.) How are the book and film similar? How are they
different? Which is better, and why?
Your purpose in this assignment is to explain how or why something works; therefore, you
should not include a full summary of the media production. Instead, you can provide context
where needed so the reader understands what is happening. The body of the essay must

1 Please review the rubric and note that you will not earn full credit if you analyze more than one of these
focus on your analysis. You can use the ideas contained in the Media Analysis lesson
presentation and the Writer’s Handbook link to help you.
As with all college writing, your essay should have a strong thesis statement in addition to an
introduction, body, and conclusion.
Other than your chosen film, television show, and/or book, you are required to cite at least
one other credible2
source for this essay. This resource from the course will help you
understand more about evaluating sources. Moreover, if you use specific information from
the media production and/or print source, such as a quotations, you should include your
chosen media source on your Works Cited page, too. Use proper parenthetical citations or
signal phrases, and be sure to include MLA documentation and a Works Cited page for this
assignment (this resource from the course will help).
Review the rubric to see how your work will be assessed on this assignment.
Thesis hints: You might use these guidelines in crafting your thesis:
If you are analyzing elements in a production:
In (add your one chosen production), (add character 1), (add character 2), and (add character 3) were
used to (add how they enhanced the production or explained the production’s message).
If you are comparing/contrasting a book and film:
(Add book) contained (add one aspect that made the book better than the film), but (add film) used
(add one aspect that made the film better than the book) and (add a second aspect that made the
film better than the book) to better capture the reader’s imagination.
Here are more specific thesis guidelines:
If you are analyzing elements in a production:
In the movie The Lorax, the characters Lorax, Once-ler, and Alocius O’Hare were used to show how
environmentalists are fighting against profit-driven industries that are harming the environment and
depleting natural resources.

2 Please note: Basic dictionary sources, user-edited websites (e.g., Wikipedia, eHow, etc.), and sites that house
databases of quotations are not considered “credible” sources. You will lose points in the Research category of the
rubric if your sources aren’t credible.
If you are comparing/contrasting a book and film:
Even though the characters were portrayed mostly the same across the book and the movie in
Stephanie Meyer’s Twilight, the setting in the movie was much more detailed, which made the movie
a much better overall experience compared to the book.
The guidelines for this assignment are as follows:
Length: This assignment should be at least 500 words.
Header: Include a header in the upper left-hand corner of your writing assignment with the
following information:
 Your first and last name
 Course Title (Composition II)
 Assignment name (Media Analysis)
 Current Date
 MLA-style source documentation and Works Cited3
 Your last name and page number in the upper-right corner of each page
 Double-spacing throughout
 Standard font (TimesNewRoman, Calibri)
 Title, centered after heading
 1” margins on all sides
 Save the file using one of the following extensions: .docx, .doc, .rtf, or .txt
Underline your thesis statement in the introductory paragraph.

3 This resource may be helpful as you are making MLA formatting decisions:

Writing Assignment: Media Analysis

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Managing People And Organisations

Group Assessment: Groups will be set up randomly from within your tutorial group. You cannot change groups. This is a real-life simulation of what it’s like to join a project team in a new company. You don’t get to choose your work colleagues! You will have to use your best consulting skills to make the most of your experience in the group. Your group task is to find a multi-site (large or international) organisation which does not use the HR Business Partner approach. Imagine you are a group of HRM consultants being asked to advise them on developing the HRM function to assist the firm in achieving its mission. Then, assess the current state of that organisation and the HRM function. Finally, draw up your poster as a ‘pitch’ to

the Top Team of the firm indicating why they should implement the HR BusinessPartner approach across the firm. Your arguments should be based on theory taught in the lectures, explored inclass discussion and in tutor groups and applying practical experience(researched if not personal) and should be fully referenced. The assignment consists of three equally assessed elements as follows:1. Poster – infographic. The digital poster should be A4 in size and should contain creative imagery to depict your analysis. It might also include some text and headings to explain diagrams and images. Digital photographs, infographics, models and illustrations should be used to enhance the impact of the poster. All group members should contribute to the poster though some students will have more advanced digital skills than others and will naturally take more responsibility for this element. If you are working physically together, you can use a flipchart and physically draw the poster, then photograph it and then insert in a PDF or worddocument.2. Group poster Narrative. The group are required to draft a narrative to explain their poster. Highlighting the key points of the infographic and explaining what is being depicted. The narrative should be between 750 and 1000 words long, no more and no less. This should be referencedHarvard style and your references will not be included in your wordcount.3. Group Meeting Minutes and Group Contract. The group is required to create a ‘group contract’ on HOW the group will work together to achieve the set task. The group should also record a note of their meetings including who was present, what was discussed and action points agreed upon at the end of the meeting. You can also briefly share any group dynamics issues that emerged and how you tackled them. This should be in note form to provide some evidence of meeting together, relative contributions of individuals in the group, and the effectiveness of the group in tackling the ask of progressing group ideas to the final output. The groups will be randomly assigned from within your Tutorial groups. This may create some challenges with students being in different language groups (and for any remote students, different time zones). However, in todays global context, learning to work in international teams with unfamiliar colleagues is itself a great learning opportunity. These groups are fixed and you will not be allowed to change groups. If there is conflict in the group, members need to work togetherusing good management and HRM skills to navigate this conflict to a productive outcome. Please make every effort to engage and support your fellow students to make their best contribution to the work. Your lecturer and tutors will support you on how to get the best out of this experience. The final work should be uploaded BY ONE GROUP MEMBER on behalf of the whole group as one document by 11:45am on Monday, 03rd April 2023. There will be no presentation of the final poster, it will be assessed from your submission as itemised in the instructions above.I hope that you enjoy this assignment. It should be interesting and fun to work with others on this creative task.

I’m doing the conclusion part, follow my group members idea and do the conclusion, I uploaded their parts.

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Creative Brief

Creative briefs are important documents for providing direction on the creative elements that will be used to market a product or service.  Those elements include advertising, point of sale promotions, packaging, digital platforms (e.g. web sites, social media sites) and marketing partnerships.  A creative brief communicates the tone, style, positioning and key messaging for all creative that will be developed to connect with the target market for the product or service. For this assignment, you’ll create a one page creative brief to provide creative direction for your assigned product.  That creative brief should include all the elements mentioned above (tone, style, positioning…) as well as a definition of your target market and the challenges the product will face in the marketplace.

Assignment Requirements

To explore the creative side of marketing, you will produce a short (1-2 page) creative brief.  The brief you write will provide creative direction for a specific product (which will be assigned), and should include:

  • Background
  • Key Message
  • Target Audience Definition
  • Competitive Overview
  • Tone and Style of Creative Work
  • Positioning (what consumers should think when they see creative work for the product)
  • Image Representing Creative Tone of Work

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McDonald’s Corporation

McDonald’s Corporation

Overview: McDonald’s Corporation is one of the largest American fast food companies. It was founded in 1940 and served as a restaurant plus several other business practices to boost their service deliveries. Maurice and Richard McDonald in California, United States operate the corporation. The fast-food corporation has approximately forty thousand restaurants throughout the United States and worldwide. It celebrates its quality service delivery and customer relations. 

McDonald’s Corporate Mission: The corporation’s mission is to favor its customers away from drinking and eat.  The mission statement highlights customers’ importance as the primary business focus while ensuring that the company significantly influences beverage and food purchase decisions to meet their needs. In the mission statement, McDonald’s Corporation emphasizes being a target customer’s favorite; thus, it considers customers’ preferences as the primary determinant of its success in business terms.

McDonald’s Corporate Vision: The company’s mission is to move with more incredible speed to drive profitable growth. It becomes one of the best organizations in serving many customers with quality and delicious food worldwide.  The statement covers the company’s growth plan introduced in 2017and, maintaining a steady growth in the recent past.  The company’s new vision statement’s principal components were to move with velocity in driving profitable growth and serve more clients with delicious food as much as possible daily around the world to expand its operations (Rajawat et al., 2020). This is associated with opening several locations while improving its operational efficiency to maximize profit margins.

McDonald’s Corporate Values: McDonald’s core values are to place their customer experience based on all they do. They are also committed to their people and believe in the underlying systems. Similarly, the corporation operates its business ethically as it tries to give back to their communities. The growth of business profitability is based on a continual improvement of all their operations. The company encourages respect for people and its brand and a call to always work in a justified manner.

McDonald’s Corporate structure: The corporation has a divisional structure. The firm’s organizational structure defines its system and design through which its major components coordinate to realise and achieve the business objectives. According to Rajawat et al. (2020), the structure facilitates the foodservice market management based on performance levels. Notably, through this structure, McDonald Corporation has managed to roll new products to boost and heighten its performance in ensuring that its customers are satisfied without being limited in access to the necessary services.

McDonald’s Corporate Culture: McDonald’s corporate culture is associated with the numerous shared value systems that maintain standardized quality services to realize similar quality throughout time. The company has a vision of being the best employer across the world. In most cases, the restaurant is run as corporate itself or as a franchise.  McDonald’s employees entail a clean and neat dress code as they demand excellent time management at all aspects of their operations. Overall, the food must be safe for consumption always.

Degree of alignment in MacDonald’s Corporation: The company, through its vision, mission culture, and structure, exhibit exceptional alignment for the realization of outlined goals and objective. The coordination is high and concrete, and all its aspects are geared towards a common goal to create a sound operational system (Vignali, 2016). For instance, in terms of structure, the organization’s division is to handle specific functional areas or outlined objectives, thus limiting clash examples that might realize. Similarly, it is hierarchical to determine how most of its main structures emphasize corporate control in managerial processes and directions. Overall, following its mission and vision statements, most of its parts work in coordination to meet its customers’ needs. 


Rajawat, A., Kee, D. M. H., Malik, M. Z. B. A., Yassin, M. A. Q. B. M., Shaffie, M. S. I. B. A., Fuaat, M. H. B., … & Santoso, M. E. J. (2020). Factors: Responsible for McDonald’s Performance. Journal of the Community Development in Asia3(2), 11-17.

Vignali, C. (2016). McDonald’s: “think global, act locally”–the marketing mix. British Food Journal.

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Portfolio Package

Portfolio Package

Executive Summary

Cook County faces current and future risks of various natural disasters, including extreme heat, floods, earthquakes, and droughts. As a result, I understand that the Cook County Board (CCB) adopted and approved the updated version of the county’s hazard mitigation plan in September 2019. The Cook County Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan (MJ-HMP) is the most extensive ever disaster mitigation plan to be completed in the history of the United States (U.S.) (Preckwinkle & Barnes, 2019b). The current mitigation types listed and described under the Cook County MJ-HMP include prevention, property protection, public education, and awareness creation, natural resource protection, structural projects, as well as emergency services.

The plan divides the various mitigation actions into structural and non-structural. In particular, structural mitigation methods comprise dam and levee programs, retrofitting any existing structures to withstand events, and building hazard-resistant systems. Non-structural activities include tax incentives meant to discourage people from occupying or developing high-risk areas, land use plans, and subdivision regulations. While these mitigation measures and recent updates of the MJ-HMP make it useful in addressing a variety of natural hazards in Cook County, there is a need to make specific changes in the plan as a way of highlighting its priority focuses when it comes to risk assessment, mitigation, and management in the long run.

As the new Chief Resiliency Officer (CRO), I would develop a more robust mitigation plan that prioritizes offering solutions to hazards that present the biggest threat to Cook County. In this case and according to recent data provided in the MJ-HMP, the top seven dangers that pose the greatest threat to Cook County include severe weather, severe winter weather, flood, earthquake, tornado, dam failure, and drought (Mitigation Guide Organization, n.d.). The risk ranking score for each of these natural hazards is determined by their probability of occurrence and potential impact, with severe weather, severe winter weather, flood, and tornado scoring 54, 54, 36, and 28, respectively.

My new plan would be detailed but to the point, capturing and presenting realistic best practices to address the current plan’s weaknesses, such as conflicting mitigation programs. In particular, I plan to modify and implement proactive training and coordination of the county’s incident management team to cater to all mitigation needs, including the vulnerable population. Moreover, the plan would revolve around enhancing post-disaster action plans and strengthening their continuity to ensure effective mitigation of similar disasters in the future, reviewing and updating current debris management plans, addressing the pivotal role played by climate change in informing decision-making and suitable mitigation actions and expanding the county’s emergency response centers (ERCs) capabilities. Through these elements, I would be able to change risk management operations and associated activities in the CRO office.

Significant Components of New Mitigation Plan

Incident Management Team (IMT) training. The CRO is one of the key players in the IMT. As Fischer et al. (2019) put it, I am one of the leaders tasked with ensuring the continuous improvement of the team members’ competency in hazard mitigation. I would focus on expanding these and related programs by including county-wide emergency managers, individual elected officials, and other emergency department personnel.  To achieve this, I plan to integrate the various response plans, responsibilities, and roles into the training and coordination program to ensure harmony and consistency in the disaster mitigation process.

Through enhanced IMT training, the new plan would be both change-driven and goal-oriented because of clarity in every stakeholder’s roles and responsibilities. I would particularly have team members to become active participants in the revised Community Rating System (CRS). By participating in the CRS and similar training and coordination plans, the Floodplain administrators and players from the public and private sectors would evaluate and familiarize themselves with what constitutes a no-adverse impact mitigation activity. Given my firsthand experience with existing training programs, I can attest that First Responders do not receive adequate information regarding mitigating unprecedented and expected natural hazards. As a result, I intend to adopt and oversee the most progressive or up-to-date programs that offer mock exercises for the team members, including the Floodplain Administrator and fire brigades. Concisely, a simulated exercise gives individual stakeholders the rare opportunity to engage in contingency planning as it helps with replicating flood, tornado, and fire alerts.

Vulnerable population. I would ensure the new plan emphasises vulnerable populations because this group of residents is most likely to live in various high-risk places. Besides their likelihood to reside in physically weak areas, these people have difficulty accessing flood insurance and other forms of post-disaster covers (Mitigation Guide Organization, n.d.). Moreover, the location makes it considerably challenging to enjoy the stable infrastructure necessary for appropriate and early warning information (Horney et al., 2013). I would utilize my position as the CRO to include mitigation actions that target the county’s vulnerable population’s needs. One of these mitigation measures would comprise the identification of lead contacts that serve vulnerable people while at the same time, coordinating actions aimed at maximizing the information sharing process and their safety. Another mitigation strategy involves prioritizing and increasing public housing retrofitting and resiliency in any designated high-risk areas.

Proactive practices. Apart from developing a plan that focuses on the IMT training and coordination and vulnerable members of Cook County, I would select multiple best practices, especially those that address the significant hazards. Some of these proactive measures would include aggressive support to every homeowner education and awareness creation about disaster programs and a properly funded and closely monitored notification system for potential hazards, such as placing warning signage at outdoor events and locations, including local parks. Additional strategies would involve channeling more resources to the county emergency operations centers (EOC), adopting specific no-adverse impact natural disaster mitigation and mitigation policies, incorporating new funding sources (Chairman et al., 2014). For example, I would introduce stringent hazard mitigation fines and fees for developers who ignore regulations on publically –and privately-owned land. I understand that these specific actions, processes, projects, initiatives, and activities would eliminate long-term risk hazards for Cook County residents. Concisely, their implementation would allow my office to achieve the already-set mission of protecting life, property, the environment, and health.

Harmonious mitigation programs. While the Cook County MJ-HMP is considered one of the best practices, it is no exception when it comes to conflicts, which, in turn, lowers its effectiveness and efficiency score. In particular, the county has up to 130 different municipalities, with each city implementing various mitigation activities. Most importantly, these municipalities face other hazards at different times of the year. On the same note, the various natural hazards manifesting in varying degrees, which makes coordination efforts and associated activities considerably difficult (National Association of Counties, NAC, 2017). As a result, the plan fails to provide an integrated approach to preventing conflicts that result from the differences in the mitigation actions of local jurisdictions.

Some of the conflicts associated with mitigation programs include the following: while the zoning officers in different local jurisdictions discourage people from developing the floodplains, several estate developers are encouraging new subdivisions and development of these areas. Second, the newly adopted floodplain regulations under the plan require the elevation of any new building. These rules still fail to suggest provisions that would protect these new structures from swaying during high winds and earthquakes. Another conflict that the MJ-HMP fails to capture and address involve the different approaches taken by environmental groups and the various public works departments in local jurisdictions. In particular, the former want greenways, while the latter uses concrete to straighten and line ditches. Additionally, the leadership of Cook County and residents are increasingly complaining about hazard mitigation approaches to protect them. Unfortunately, the plan is yet to include proactive and fully funded awareness creation programs, which would educate locals on what to do at the individual level to protect themselves.

In response to the shortcoming of the current Cook County MJ-HMP, I would ensure that the new plan’s drafters take a comprehensive approach to review the FEMA guide on local hazard mitigation planning to incorporate complete program activities to tackle the conflicting aspects. I intend to have an inclusive plan that enhances each mitigation activity’s coordination with other community activities to achieve the desired short –and long-term goals. A typical case in point would involve benchmarking with more successful counties, such as the New Hanover County (NHC). According to Weber et al. (2018), the county in question boasts a wide range of best practices involving clear guidelines and measures for reducing development in floodplains.

Additional actions that I plan to incorporate into the new mitigation plan involve robust and localized education and multi-level coordination. In essence, the program would provide a clear and concise guideline on educating locals on climate change and the various natural hazards, including their effects and mitigation actions they can take to minimize their impact on health, property, and the environment. For instance, residents would be reminded of the importance of floodplains and swamps. Regarding coordination, the plan would present information about a need for emergency managers at the local, federal, regional, and state levels to coordinate and utilize effective communication as a way of ensuring consistency across their plans and achieving public support for proposed mitigation projects. If considered for the Cook County CRO position, I would engage every player in the adoption and implementation of the highlighted mitigation strategies. Ultimately, by doing so, the new hazard mitigation plan would go a long way in ensuring improved risk assessment and reduction while at the same time minimizing incidences of conflicts in municipal mitigation plans.


Chairman, W., Clemmens, B., Halverson, B. (2014). United States Army Corps of Engineers Chicago District.

Fischer, R., Halibozek, E., & Walters, D. (2019). Contingency planning emergency response and safety. Introduction to Security, 249-268. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-805310-2.00011-1

Horney, J., Nguyen, M., Cooper, Jr., J., & Simon, M. (2013). Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: Results of a survey of emergency managers. Journal of Emergency Management, 11(3), 201-11.

Mitigation Guide Organization. (n.d.). Best practices in local mitigation planning: Types of mitigation actions. Best practices in local mitigation planning

NAC. (2017). Managing disasters at the county level: A focus on flooding.

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Terror Attacks and Criminal Justice

Terror Attacks and Criminal Justice

International terrorism poses a problematic and dangerous threat to America. The rising cases of terrorism have exposed several countries to significant setbacks. Besides, today’s terrorist attempts seek to cause mass causalities. This they try to do to different people and entities in various parts of America. They are less dependent on the government’s support or sponsorship; instead, they form loose and transitional affiliations based on ideological and religious affiliation. As a result, the recent terrorist attacks have become more challenging to prevent and detect.  Countering the rising dangers posed by terrorists requires exceptional efforts to address and bring the situation to a rational whole. This paper focuses on a review of two recent terrorism incidents that occurred within the past three years and their impact that it has had on the criminal justice system as well as society. 

Maidan Shar Attack (2019)

The 2019 terror attacks claimed one hundred and twenty-six security personnel and approximately 70 others injured. The defence ministry official stated that the Taliban attacked one of the military checkpoints in Maidan Shar. The assault started when the attacker rammed a vehicle with numerous explosives in the compound before the other tow stormed the area and opened gunfire. They were later killed. The terror attack significantly affected the criminal justice system and society. The local criminal justice system argued that no official confirmation was associated with the causality toll evident among the troops and the NDS personnel. ANDS report also showed that the number of decided deaths indicates that criminal justice investigations require thorough explorations to stop similar incidents. According to Edney‐Browne (2019), President Ashraf’s office, which regarded the attackers as enemies of the country, revealed that the killing and injury recorded during the event marred progress in most societies. In his argument, the Ministry of foreign affairs stated that the killing of the security officials saw the criminal justice department of the country threatened and less effective. Additionally, reports also noticed that the increasing attacks and fear that culminated after the terror attack forced several society members to flee the town leading to economic reduction. Overall, the killing left society in a severe and prolonged mourning session.

Sayfullo Habibullaevic Saipov Attack (October 31, 2017)

The attack led to killing eight people, with more than twenty-four people injured in an incident where a middle-aged man in a rented pickup truck drives down one of the busy bicycle paths near New York’s World Trade Centre. Sayfullo Habibullaevic Saipov was the suspect in the incident. Saipov is an Uzbekistan. Though the experience was regarded as a terror attack, the report reveals that it was a cowardly act of terror aimed at innocent people and civilians going about their daily lives. According to Magnis (2019), the attacks adversely affected criminal justice. It involved scrutiny in determining the possible cause of the incident as other various bodies try to address its impacts. Categorically, the killing affects the society psychologically as the killed individuals try to adopt and accept the situation. The FBI’s involvement in the cases reveals that criminal justice was tested and that thorough and adaptive measures need to be initiated to prevent such incidents.


Edney‐Browne, A. (2019). The Psychosocial Effects of Drone Violence: Social Isolation, Self‐Objectification, and Depoliticization. Political Psychology40(6), 1341-1356.

Magnis, M. (2019). How the Foreign States and Terrorist Organizations Use Social Media to Undermine US Democracy. Albany Government Law Review12, 1-22.

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Prof. Doust, Afshin

12th Feb 2023

Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary: 3 2. Project Overview: 3 3. Network Diagrams: 3 4. Task Dependencies: 3 5. Resource Allocation: 3 6. Project Crashing: 3 7. Project Closure Report: 3 8. Conclusion: 3 9. Recommendations: 3 10. Appendix: 3

1. Executive Summary:

The executive summary provides a brief overview of the entire project report, including the project’s objectives, scope, and outcomes.

2. Project Overview:

The project overview provides a detailed explanation of the project, including its purpose, goals, and the benefits it will provide.

3. Network Diagrams:

This section includes a link to the exc

el sheet that shows the forward pass, backward pass, and critical path.

4. Task Dependencies:

Without Leveling

5. Resource Allocation:

This section includes links to two separate Projectlibre files; one file with resource overallocation and the second file showing after resources have been leveled.

6. Project Crashing:

The main motive behind crashing a project is to shorten the overall time taken to complete the project. It is done by reducing the time taken to complete individual task within the project by deploying additional resources. However, the project manager has to be varied of the deployment of additional resources and has to meticulously allocate the resources to the designated task in way that the cost of crashing the project is kept to the bare minimum.

In the project of Memory Caster, the owner has demanded us to complete the project within 30 days as she is very eager to start the business in the new location owing to increasing demand and overwhelming response from her clients.

In keeping with the demand from the owner of the Memory Caster, our team as the project managers have very meticulously calculated the possible ways the duration of the project can be shortened by crashing the project all the while containing the cost of crashing to the bare minimum, by following the below mentioned steps:

a) Identifying the Critical Task: The critical task in the project can be identified by drawing network diagram by applying the activity node method which uses arrows to identify the dependency of every task with each other. Then the Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start and Late Finish time is determined with the help of network diagram with help of the forward pass and back ward pass by using the duration allocated to each task. This will help us to determine the slack and the task which has zero slack time are the once that are identified as critical. The critical task are the tasks whose duration has to be shortened in order to efficiently crash the project. The below mentioned images identify the critical task in the network diagram:

Image: Network Diagram With all the Dependencies and Critical Task

The above image demonstrates the preparation of the network diagram using the activities on node method to identify the critical task in the project we are working on. All the activities in the blue box have a slack time of zero and hence they are identified as the critical task. The below mentioned tables highlights the activities and the slack time:

Activity CodeActivityPredecessorSlack TimeCritical Path
1.1Permits and Licenses for Business Incorporation 0Critical
1.2Acquiring of the Business Premises1.1 FS0Critical
1.3Permits and License for the Renovatioon of the Business1.2 FS0Critical
1.4Ceiling1.3 FS0Critical
1.5Structural Changes to the Premises1.4 SS2
1.6Electrical Fitting1.5 SS0Critical
1.7Plumbing1.6 SS2
1.8Painiting1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 FS0Critical
1.9Carpeting1.8 FS0Critical
1.10Furnitures and Fixture1.9 FS0Critical
1.11Digital Platform1.1 SS25

Thus, the critical path identified in the first stage are 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10.

b) Determining the cost of crashing and the maximum crashing duration for each task:

After identify the critical path we have identified cost of crashing and the maximum crashing duration for each activity. The same has been calculated as per the below mentioned table:

ActivityCritical PathNormal TimeCrash TimeMaximum Days that can be CrashedNormal CostCrash CostCrash Cost Per DayCost Incurred If the Project is Crashed to the Maximum Limit
Total 7568108481853.34288

In the above table the crash time denotes the minimum time required to complete a given task, with help of this number we have calculated the maximum number of days, a given task can be crashed. We have considered 150% of the normal cost while calculating the crash cost.

c) Calculating the impacting of crashing each critical path:

We have calculated the impact of crashing each critical task by one day in order to determine the task that can be crashed without baring on the cost of the project. Given below is the summarized table of Appendix_____ calculating the impact of crashing each critical task for a day:

Normal1.41.61.4 and
Project Cost45573456214570145901456694562145621
Project Duration33333331323232
% Increase in the Cost0.11%0.28%0.72%0.21%0.11%0.11%


i. Task 1.4: The normal duration of the project is 33 days1.4., crashing the critical task 1.4 does not have any impact on the duration of the project, this is because of its dependency with the task 1.6 which starts together.

ii. Task 1.6: Again, critical task 1.6 does not have any impact on the duration of the project as its starts along with the 1.4.

iii. Task 1.4 and 1.6: When both the task 1.4 and 1.6 are crashed by 1 day the duration of the entire project moves up by 1 day however the cost of the increases by 0.72%.

iv. Task 1.8: On crashing the critical task 1.8 the duration of the entire project gets crashed by 1 day and the cost of the project increases by 0.21%.

v. Task 1.9: On crashing the critical task 1.9 by one day the duration of the project gets reduced by one day and the cost of the project increases by just 0.11%.

vi. Task 1.10: Similar to the critical task 1.9, task 1.10 reduces the duration of the project 1 day and the cost increases by just 0.11%.

Thus, we came to the conclusion that crashing the critical task 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10 will be the best option to crash the project without having severe impact on the cost of the project.

d) Implementing the best option for crashing the project:

Thus after meticulously calculating all the prospects of crashing the project following is the calculation of the crashing after choosing the best possible options:

ActivityNormal TimeCrash TimeCrash Cost Per DayTFDays SavedDurTF
Cost   0 800 
Saving   0 152 
Project Cost   45573 46221 
Project Duration   33 29 
% Total increase in the cost 1.42% 

On crashing the task 1.8 by 2 days, 1.9 by one day and 1.10 by one day we were able to crash the project to 29 days with a increase of just 1.42% in the cost of project.

The Network Diagra after crahing of the project is given below:

7. Project Closure Report:

This section includes the project closure report, which outlines the project’s successes, challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations for future projects.

8. Conclusion:

The conclusion summarizes the key findings and outcomes of the project.

9. Recommendations:

The recommendations section provides actionable suggestions for future projects based on the lessons learned from the current project.

10. Appendix:

10.1. Crashing:

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Guided Essay

Guided Essay

You will write a “guided” essay on the following topics for this assignment. Use the McClellan and Dorn text as your starting point and effectively use at least one other scholarly source. Need help identifying appropriate resources? Use this APUS Library Online Research page to help.

Topic Choice: How did the Chinese government influence the development of Chinese technology and science from roughly 1600 BCE to 1644 CE? How did Confucianism do the same? Your answer should discuss specific Chinese technological and scientific innovations made during this period, including China’s lack of a Scientific Revolution.

Guided Essay: 1. Start with an introduction: this should be at least 3-5 sentences that summarize the main idea behind your essay. You will identify which topic you selected and make your main point. 2. Next you move into the body of your essay. You will write at least 3 paragraphs outlining specific evidence supporting your main point. 3. Finally, wrap it all up in a nice conclusion. This will be at least 3-5 sentences that summarizes your main point and evidence. Do not just repeat your introduction or use exact sentences from your body paragraphs. 4. Finish with references! Ideally, we want to practice APA formatting, so try to provide your references in that format. This APA Style Guide webpage is a great primer on APA formatting.

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