Dialogue “At the Travel Agency” Essay

Dialogue “At the Travel Agency” Essay.

L – Travel agent
O– Fiancé
S – Fiancée

O – Hello.
L – Good afternoon. Welcome to our travel agency. How can I help you? S – Hi! Oh! I’m so excited! We have our wedding in four weeks. I can’t help thinking of our living together. I assure you John, you’ll have the best wife in the world. O – Honey, I have no doubts about it, but let’s proceed to the main question. Mrs..? L – Not Mrs., Miss. Miss Andrews.

So I guess you are here because of your forthcoming honeymoon. Am I right? O – Yes, Miss Andrews. We have thought over all sorts of holidays. But anyway we can’t choose where to go.

S – We run round like squirrels in a cage. John and I have visited all travel agencies in London. O – Well, Georgina, don’t exaggerate. We have been only at two or three agencies. L – Ok, ok, calm down. I see. It’s always very difficult to take such a serious decision.

Nowadays there is a great choice of various destinations for newly married from traditional seaside resorts and sightseeing tours to camping and staying in countryside. O – Oh, it’s grand. Tell us please about them all.

S – No, camping is not counted. I can’t stand all those mosquitos and midges, the ground with a bump under your hip and a hollow under your head, tents which flap all night in the wind and so on, and so on. O – Hmm…I like camping, but really it sounds not very romantically for the honeymoon. L – Actually you’re mistaken about all those inconveniences you have mentioned. Times have changed. And now you have no need even to erect your tent. S – How is it?

L – You see, the tents at our campsites are already set up for you and you can find there spacious sitting, kitchen and two sleeping areas. O – Yes, it sounds interesting enough. And what about activities? Is it possible to combine adventures and passive leisure? L – Sure, one of our campsites is located in Brittany. You’ll find there deserted beaches, coves with light blue water, virgin forests. And in addition to that all the facilities of our campsite are available to the tourists, for example swimming pool, tennis court, billiard room, volleyball court and rented bicycles. S – Mmm…I think it’s very enchanting and breathtaking sort of holidays…for men and women aged 60 or 70. But we’re young people and we want something for young people. O – But Georgina, I’m sure that camping suits not only elderly people. Haven’t you heard that there is just a giant choice of activities for youth? S – Do you mean all those tennis and billiard facilities? Don’t you see that camping is not for us? We’ll be there only one young couple among families with their little screaming kids. I even have no desire to hear anything about staying in countryside.

O – But sugar, we have to examine all pros and cons. And only after that we’ll be able to make a decision. So what is the price of the two-weeks’ leave in Brittany? L – Well, it depends on size of your tent and its location. The nearer to the lake the more expensive. But the average price is 1000 pounds for two people. S – And what about meals? We’ll have to cook ourselves, won’t we? Household chores on the holidays…what can be more awful? L – Well, camping offers great freedom. It’s up to you to decide at what level you want to live. You can go out to local restaurants for all your meals or cook and eat everything at the campsite.

O – Have you heard Georgina? We’ll be able to go to restaurants. It’s awesome! Now tell us please about staying in countryside. L – Ok, you’ll get a small cozy cottage by the pond. A fruit-bearing orchard and kitchen garden will be in your disposal, besides you’ll be able to buy fresh dairy produce at your neighbors. S – Ugh! It sounds terrible. I hate doing gardening and I can’t stand this measured peaceful country life. O – But darling, don’t you know that I have been grown up in the country? I’m sure that staying in rural area will recall my vanished childhood memories. S – Johnnie, I see…but…(to travel agent)…where is your country located? L – In Wales, in county Pembrokeshire.

S – Have you heard? It’s located in UK. And I’m so tired of everlasting precipitation and winds! I want to lie on the snow-white sand under the soft sun somewhere in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean…or the Pacific Ocean at a pinch. O – But Georgina, it must be very expensive. To put it bluntly, we can’t afford such luxury. L – As I understand your fiancée wants something unforgettable and I totally agree with her. I believe that a honeymoon ought to be fabulous and paradisiacal. O – Don’t get me wrong, but we don’t have well-to-do parents and I have set up my own business only recently. So Maldives, Seychelles and world cruises are not for us. L – I get it. But not only Canaries and other islands kind of that can be unforgettable and fabulous. S – Aha! Exactly! I believe that in future we’ll be able to visit everyone spot on our planet, but now we can be content with the Mediterranean Sea or something like that.

O – Well, I don’t mind to spend holidays somewhere in Southern Europe. But I’d like also to combine beaches and sightseeing tours. L – You see it’s no problem. Let’s take Italy for example. You’ll make a tour of Rome, Florence or Milan, and after that you’ll be able to rest on golden beaches of Rimini. S – No, Italy doesn’t suit me. My granny lives in Naples and I visit her almost every year. So I’ve travelled all over Italy far and wide. L – Well, I also can recommend you Spain, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. O – Only not Turkey, there are too many Russian tourists and I can’t bear them.

S – I think that Spain is the best choice; I’ve always wanted to see traditional flamenco dances and try the Spanish cuisine: paella, gazpacho, tapas. O – It’s splendid, because I want to see bullfighting with my own eyes. S – But Johnnie don’t you think that it’s too cruel and bloody tradition. O – Yes, but it’s also a very ancient custom. Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice. L – That’s true. So Madrid, Barcelona and Seville are worth visiting without doubts. And you can find magnificent beaches in provinces Valencia or Catalonia. S – So it’s settled. We’ll go to Spain.

L – As an alternative I can offer you countries of Northern Africa. You can find a good many sights and first-class beaches there. O – What countries attractive for tourists Northern Africa consists of? L – Well, let’s enumerate them from west to east: Morocco, Tunis, Egypt. O – So, Tunis and Egypt don’t suit us. Public disorders have taken place there recently, and besides there are again a lot of Russians in these countries. S – So I guess we can choose Morocco, we can get acquainted with Arabic culture and customs. And do you know I just get a kick out of its style in architecture. O – But sweetie, what would you prefer Spain or Morocco?

S – I don’t know, I want to visit both Morocco and Spain. It’s so difficult to choose! L – Don’t get upset! We have a special offer only in September: you’ll have two weeks’ holidays in Spain. You can spend these weeks as you wish: lying on golden beaches of Valencia or making a tour of Barcelona. You’ll live in the five-star hotel by the sea coast. And in addition you’ll be able to make a trip to Morocco. O – Wow! But it must be very expensive.

L – Not at all! You can go there with a discount of 30%! The fact is that our travel agency gives a reduction to all newlyweds. S – Really? It’s marvelous! And what is the final cost of such tour? L – Well, the initial cost is 3500 pounds for two people and the final…let me count…yes, it will be only 2450 pounds. And the trip to Morocco will cost you only 1000 pounds! S – Johnnie, honey, we just should go there. Let me be a princess only for two weeks! Please.. O – Ok, you’ve persuaded me.

L – Well, we’ve come to an agreement finally. Do you want pay by credit card?
O – Yes, but can I pay only half the sum?
L – It’s possible, but in next month you must pay the remaining sum.

Dialogue “At the Travel Agency” Essay

Time Travel: If I Could Travel Back in Time Essay

Time Travel: If I Could Travel Back in Time Essay.

If i could travel back in time i would learn as much as i can. I would go to my child hood, important dates in history, and try to find important political dates in history as well. and try to find where did my family came from. I could enter a time machine, I would love to be able to go back in time when I was a child. Taking the knowledge I have now from the life lessons I have experienced, I would definitely be able to change my life and take advantage of things like my parents and a high school education.

Your parents try to explain to you the importance of school and an education when you are a child, but it is only after when you become an adult that you realize the value and importance it has and how it will benefit your life and future. I guess you can say as a parent, you are going back in time with your children, except you are hoping that they will learn from your experiences and live their life how you wish you could have.

I would go back to 1774 when Marie Antoinette became queen, and show her my history books, and beg her to PLEASE avoid diamonds, ignore her brothers-in-law, keep a sharp eye on the owners of printing presses, show less favor to her son Louis Charles in front of poor Marie Therese so that the little girl isn’t so prone to bitterness, follow the advice of her mom and Joseph II, try to keep Catherine II on her good side, be more gracious to Gustav III when he visits her later on after his tour of Italy, take no guff whatsoever from those nasty women from Paris, and most of all, be much more understanding and supportive to her husband, who was really a very good guy in my opinion.

If she took my advice, maybe that would change how things turned out in 1789, and the French Revolution either wouldn’t have taken place or at least wouldn’t have been so violent, bloody, unfair and irrational Throughout the Famine years, nearly a million Irish arrived in the United States. Famine immigrants were the first big wave of poor refugees ever to arrive in the U. S. and Americans were simply overwhelmed. Upon arrival in America, the Irish found the going to be quite tough.

With no one to help them, they immediately settled into the lowest rung of society and waged a daily battle for survival. The roughest welcome of all would be in Boston, Massachusetts, an Anglo-Saxon city with a population of about 115,000. It was a place run by descendants of English Puritans, men who could proudly recite their lineage back to 1620 and the Mayflower ship. Now, some two hundred thirty years later, their city was undergoing nothing short of an unwanted “social revolution” as described by Ephraim Peabody, member of an old Yankee family.

In 1847, the first big year of Famine emigration, the city was swamped with 37,000 Irish Catholics arriving by sea and land if i could bring the knowledge from the past to the present life wounld be so hard or maybe it wouldnt . We dont know what will happen with our fate, maybe its des? ny for us to fail, world needs ditch diggers too. but we will never know but we should always try to succsess in life or you can just go with the ? ow and see what happens.

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Time Travel: If I Could Travel Back in Time Essay

Global Distribution System Essay

Global Distribution System Essay.

Internet Distribution SYSTEM

Karyon strategically partners with internationally respected travel industry companies to provide you with the services, products and connectivity to build the operational backbone for single or multi-property distribution management.

As a result, Karyon enables you to increase revenue, improve guest loyalty, and reduce costs by centralizing and streamlining your operations while maximizing existing technology investments. Our distribution relationships enable Karyon to use the software products internally and offer you robust and flexible services. These services and underlying technologies have been designed and developed to manage a wide and diverse range of lodging properties’ entire rate, availability, and booking information through one system – regardless of your property management system – while maintaining complete control of a variety of individual distribution channels.

Internet Distribution System (“IDS”) connectivity encompasses hotel inventory distribution to hundreds of today’s most popular Web sites and travel portals driven through our connections to alternate channels such as the Pegasus Online Distribution Database (“ODD”) (e.g. Travel Web, Hotwire, Expedia, etc.

), and Hotel Booking Solutions Demand Partner Network (American Airlines Vacations, Group Travel Planet, Liberty/GoGo Travel, etc).

Web sites

Another way to use computers is to create a chain or property web site either as part of travel related net work or as an independent site.

Faxes and E mails

Updates on property promotions and special rates can be sent via fax as well as over the internet.

Hotel directories

Hotel directories provide the detailed information travel agents need to properly service clients. An agent can compare one property’s costs, location, amenities, and facilities with each other.


A property can also include large quantity of for agency clients in its information package.

Familiarization tour

Many properties offer familiarization tours to travel agents. These tours can be conducted during slack periods are an effective way to promote the property.


The kind of service agents receive from a property is an important factor in whether they will recommend that property again. Service to travel agents also includes service to their clients.

1. Toll free numbers
2. Travel agents clubs
3. commission payment plans
4. Providing good service for travel agents clients.


There are five resources that can help a property identify travel agents and agencies it may want to do business with

1. The official air line guide
2. The world travel directory
3. In house records
4. Industry mailing list
5. Travel industry trade shows


You can reach travel agents through hotel directories, trade magazines, direct mail, trade shows, and membership in travel agent association, personal sales and public relation efforts.


With the evolution of electronic ticketing, self-booking over the Internet, and the emerging trend of point-to-point airline services that can only be booked via telephone (including some that do not pay agency commissions), the question arises…

What is the Future of the Travel Agent?

The future for travel agencies is very positive … just not in the “mode” of today’s operations. Today, agencies are largely “order takers” and “ticket distributors” … even the majority of the leisure stores provide little more than these services. Agent’s “skills” are in the ability to access inventory — and to issue a document (tickets in the case of air; voucher or itinerary in the case of tours, cruises, hotels, etc.). In today’s travel world, agents are the “link” between the human consumer and the inventory systems that distribute the “product” manufactured by travel vendors. Airlines dominate the agent distribution system mainly because the airlines were the first to provide a fully automated distribution system, and more importantly, airlines provided an automated settlement process long before credit cards.

Other travel vendors have simply “piggy-backed” on the existing systems. The evolution of automation and technology being applied in the travel industry is rapidly assuming the very high “labor-driven” costs of providing “interface” to the inventory (and in the case of airlines, settlement) systems. Effectively, technology is decreasing or eliminating the need for “inventory access” and “ticket delivery”. The “role” of today’s agent is being replaced. However, the need for travel information is increasing with the explosion in distributed information and related expectations. The need for marketing “packages” that integrate travel information with destination (really, fulfilling consumer “dreams”) is concurrently increasing as information becomes more readily available and the “ease” of booking at lower prevailing costs further enables fulfilled consumer “expectations”. With “expectations”, comes the need to “consolidate” travel or build offerings that enable “flexible” travel opportunities.

This type of travel product into some form of “mini- packages” that meet broad specific demographic, niche, or business market demands … but retain some flexibility in length of stay or other related destination needs. With “mini- packages”, the need to distribute related information and access will increase. None of these are services easily performed or provided by the manufacturing “vendors” of travel product, even in today’s automated world. It is logical, therefore, to expect agents (and agencies) to assume these information and marketing services … and to take “risk” in providing “mini-packages” to the demographic, niche, or business markets. This would suggest that many agencies will shift their “selling” efforts to higher yield commissioned distribution of tour and cruise packaged products — and to service fees for becoming pure information providers or providing “unpackaged” booking services for simple destination travel.

It would also suggest that other agencies, particularly those with a large corporate base, will begin to negotiate “risk positions” with travel vendors for the virtually guaranteed destination travel of their known customer or client base (i.e., these agencies will buy the seats, rooms, and car rentals at discounted prices in advance and offer them in “mini-packages” — thus reducing the vendor’s risk and allowing the vendors to stabilize pricing). As certain agents consolidate air today, the theme presented above would suggest that agencies which serve specific destinations or demographics (ski, mountain, sea, desert, old, young, married, single, etc.) will also “mini-package” travel solutions focused to serve these target markets. The “mini-packages”, along with the today’s conventional tour and cruise “package” — will still need to be inventoried and distributed.

Some agencies that are automation literate, will evolve these automation skills and play an increasing role in “decentralized” inventory “warehousing” of “mini-packaged” products (and in providing links to the varied and many distribution channels that are evolving). For the next five to seven years, the GDS/CRSs will continue to provide the core travel distribution access. It can be reasonably expected that as the distribution channels expand, so too will the consumer base of travelers (as they have expanded to meet the increased air availability for lower priced point-to-point travel. However, with the shift to direct booking of simple travel, the GDS/CRSs will focus increasingly on distributing the sophisticated packaged and “mini-packaged” products — and in providing “switching” access of the “mini-packages” and other non-air related travel product.

The GDS/CRSs will certainly continue to offer air … because the “information providers” will need that resource to “package” their fee compensated itineraries. But the lowering of commission revenue combined with the increasing cost of labor at the GDS/CRS’s traditional “point of sale) will force a shift in the compensation revenue streams. The GDS/CRSs will “fight a balanced” shift in responding to the increased distribution alternatives such as direct vendor access, Internet, telephone, interactive television, etc. — and in a separate arena, with the banking system for the settlement of travel purchases. Still, with the “bullets flying overhead”, the need for “agents” will not go away.

What will change is the role that an “agent” plays in the distribution of travel product changes. For the agents and agencies that recognize and adapt early to these shifts — there are major profit opportunities. For those seeking the “traditional” security of commissioned sales, they only need to shift their focus from airlines to the “packaged products” of tours, cruises, and in the immediate future, “mini-packaged” target market offerings. For travel agents (or consultants, if you prefer the term), the future looks bright!

Global Distribution System Essay

Singapore Travel Writing Essay

Singapore Travel Writing Essay.

The little island country of Singapore has many nicknames. “The Lion City”, “Little Red Dot”, “The Fine Country”, but her most famous nickname is “Disneyland with a death penalty”. Chewing gum, spitting littering, homosexual acts between men, jaywalking, and simply leaving the toilet unflushed are all illegal in Singapore. An intimidating place to visit indeed, you might think.

But Singapore has that “Disneyland” in its nickname for a reason. With over one hundred shopping malls, eight nature parks, two integrated resorts, the world’s largest oceanarium, and an entire separate island just for entertainment and leisure in the mere area of seven-hundred square kilometers, “Little Red Dot” does not exaggerate when it says that it has become one of the most popular tourist hubs in the world.

Singapore is a thriving economic hub and has earned itself the reputation of being the financial hub of the Asiatic continent. It has been Southeast Asia’s most modern city for over a century and excels in trade and tourism.

It also happens to be one of the most modern cities in the world. But don’t just assume that Singapore is all work and no play. The younger generation of Singaporeans like to go by this quote “Work hard, play hard.” Let’s start with a few tourist attractions shall we?

Universal Studios Singapore; With the Mummy ride, the exceptionally realistic Transformers 4D ride and the Battlestar Galactica which propels riders fourteen storeys up into the air, this chain amusement park with over 20 attractions is a famous hotspot for all those Sci-fi and thrill- seeking fans out there. Not your thing? Prefer nature? No worries! I know just the place. The Singapore Botanic Gardens. This nature reserve has no admission fee and is filled all different sorts of beautiful plant species. Also located inside the park is the National Orchid Garden which houses over sixty-thousand orchid plants, consisting of four-hundred species and two-thousand hybrids.

Fancy a cool, icy cocktail and just dance into the night? Clarke Quay is the perfect place for you! With approximately seventy bars and restaurants in the vicinity, the former trading centre sits right beside the Singapore River overlooking the acclaimed Marina Bay Sands. Travelling with family? Not a problem. The Singapore Zoo, Night Safari and Jurong Bird Park hold in store many exciting experiences for both children and adults alike! With their latest addition, Kai Kai and Jia Jia the giant pandas from Suzhou, China, people from all over South-East Asia come here to visit these especially endangered animals. Let’s not forget it’s other half, Night Safari. Its doors open from 7P.M. to 12A.M. in the morning, giving everyone a chance to see the exotic animals at both work and play. The tram that travels through this night park takes visitors to explore Asian, African and South American habitats at night, without any visible barriers between them and the wild animals.

Let’s not forget the infamous Sentosa. The name Sentosa means “Peace and Tranquility” in Malay. To the natives, the initials stand for “So. Expensive. Nothing. TO. See. Actually.” Which is completely untrue. The popular island resort includes a two kilometre long beach, two five-star hotels, two golf courses and the Resorts World Sentosa which houses the Universal Studios Singapore. The peninsula offers many different varieties of attractions, museums and other facilities, such as The Zipline, iFLY, Fort Siloso, The Butterfly Park and Insect Kingdom and The Merlion Statue, Sentosa is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful places in Singapore. Sentosa is a popular weekend spot for families and people from our neighbouring country, Malaysia. Speaking of Malaysia, our brother country is only a 10 minutes drive over the bridge, with Legoland Malaysia only another 20 minutes drive away.

Oh dear, I almost forgot one of the most important things that Singapore has to offer. Its food. Singapore doesn’t exactly have a culinary or even cultural identity as of yet, being only a young country that’s been around for a little less than half a century. But Singapore offers one of the largest varieties of foods, from Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Western, Vietnamese, Thai and Indonesian cuisine. It’s also not uncommon to see expensive cars such as Lamborghinis, Porches and even Ferraris parked outside your local food court or coffee shop, more commonly known as ‘Kopitiam’s by the natives. Nearly one in every six households hold over 1 million dollars in assets, making it the densest population of wealthy households in the world.

Another helpful thing about Singapore is that nearly everyone speaks fluent English, being a former British colony. So don’t worry about seeking help or directions along the way, any local will be more than happy to help out. But one thing to keep in mind is that Singaporeans honestly care little about formal politeness. The local dialect and heavy Chinese influences may make our speech sound weird and rude, but saying “You want coffee or not?” is actually more polite in Chinese than plainly asking if you’d like coffee.

Singaporeans often whine and grumble about how besides shopping, dining and movies, there’s not a lot you can do. Ignore those spoiled comments. The must-see list for a first-timer is unbelievably long that will leave you begging for more time. What are you doing still reading this? Go book your ticket to Singapore now!!

Singapore Travel Writing Essay

Ottoman Architecture: A Travel Through Time Essay

Ottoman Architecture: A Travel Through Time Essay.

The Ottomans are among the great builders in history. Their architecture is basically focused on the building of mosques which were not only meant for religious purposes but also to undertake social functions. Among the architects who built a name in the Ottoman empire is Sinan, the imperial architect. As the head architect of the Ottoman empire during Sultan Suleyman’s reign, he designed mosques that exemplified beauty and grace. He derived his inspiration from the Byzantine Empire’s Hagia Sophia.

The paper contains a discussion of the development of Ottoman architecture. It traces the roots of the Ottoman craft from Iznik tiles and moves on to the classical period or the golden age Ottoman architecture, the period of Western influence, the revival of 14th and 15th century designs and the trends that affected 19th century Ottoman architecture. It also elaborates on the prevalent designs during these periods and how they were achieved. At the end of the paper, there is a short discussion of the Byzantine cistern, the Yerebatan Sarnici or the sinking palace.

Ottoman Architecture: A Travel Through Time The Ottoman Empire is considered as one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations that thrived in the modern period, encompassing the early fourteenth century lasting into the twentieth century. The empire’s moment of glory in the sixteenth century represents one of the heights of human optimism, artistry and creativity. They built the “largest and most influential Muslim empires of the modern world”,influencing the Muslim world as well and Europe in their military expansions (Hooker, 1996).

There are two sources of Ottoman architecture: the development of new architectural forms in Anatolia, particularly Manisa, Iznik, Bursa and Seeuk during the 14th and 15th centuries and Christian art (Telerama, n. d. ). The early Ottoman period which started in the 14th century was the peak of Turkish architecture. During this period Ottoman art was in search for new ideas to form a certain style it can call its own. In this quest for its own identity, single-domed, tiered and sublime-angled mosques were given birth (Sansal, 2008).

Many arts were also developed during this period such as the production of Iznik tiles, used in decorating mosques and other buildings. Artists from Tabriz introduced to the Ottoman empire the technique of creating the tiles. According to Goodwin (cited in Telerama, n. d. ), the floral motifs of Iznik tiles were utilized to symbolize a common motif of Islamic art—paradise garden. From Iznik tiles, Ottoman architecture gradually developed to give way to the classical architectural style or the of the “era of the domes”.

This period started when the Ottoman empire captured Constantinople, the seat of eastern Christendom and making it its capital. It is here where they introduced various innovations in the arts and architecture. The Ottoman rule in Constantinople led to the transformation of the great Byzantine church, the Hagia Sophia, to an imperial mosque. This architectural became the source of inspiration of the Ottoman architects (Yalman, n. d. ). The Great Mosque or the Ulu Cami which was built in Bursa is the first Seljuk mosque that was converted into a dome.

During this period, the building of Christian churches and the renovation of those in disrepair was prohibited by the Ottomans. The Ottoman rulers only tolerated the building of mosques for their Muslim faith. During this period, the plans of the mosques included inner and outward courtyards. The inner courtyard is inseparable from the mosque. More than just a place of worship, mosques during the Ottoman period were looked upon by society as an interconnection of city planning and communal life.

As evident in the pictures of structures during this period, beside the mosque were soup kitchens, hospitals, theological schools, Turkish baths and tombs (Sansal, 2008). The architectural style during the late 14th and 15th centuries illustrate mosques with a large dome on a drum over a prayer hall that has a rectangular shape. Others include mosques with two domes in a single line. Steirlin said that “the two main domes, set one behind the other, are the distinguishing feature of a form of mosque that prevailed in the Ottoman world (cited in Telerama, n. d. ).

Mehmed II, sixth successor to the Ottoman throne, ascended the Ottoman throne in 1444, ending his reign in 1481. During his rule, he introduced an ambitious rebuilding program for the empire. He tasked his architects to construct palaces and mosques, where the people could hold spiritual and social activities. Among the notable structures built during this period were the Old palace, the Topkapi palace and Fatih complex (Yalman, n. d. ). The Topkapi palace, built in 1478, served as the home of the sultans and the center of the Ottoman government for four hundred years.

Being the seat of power for a long time, the original design of the palace changed through time. The architects during this period drew inspiration from Byzantine, Turkic and Perso-Islamic artistic repertoires. Aside from these art forms, the Ottoman architects were also swayed by Renaissance art. Mehmed II was fascinated with the development of art in western Europe as well as Iranian art. As a result thereof, European and Iranian artists infiltrated the Ottoman court and affected the kind of art and structures that were built during this period (Yalman, n. d. ).

However, Mehmed II’s building programs only indicated the start of the flourishing of art and architecture in the Ottoman society. The Ottoman empire reached its zenith of splendor and power during the reign of Sultan Suleyman I, also known as “The Magnificent”. Being an avid fan of the arts and architecture, Ottoman architecture also began to take shape during his rule. Sinan, his architect, dominated Ottoman art. He patterned the structures that he built after Byzantine traditions and derived great influence from Hagia Sophia (MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2008).

Mosques and religious complexes were built by Sinan and hundreds of public buildings were erected throughout the Ottoman empire. These buildings contributed to the dissemination and flourishing of Ottoman culture to the world (Yalman, n. d. ). Sinan built more than 300 structures in the Ottoman empire. He constructed at least 120 buildings in Constantinople and another 200 widely scattered across the empire. As the imperial architect, he took Ottoman architecture to new heights of style and grace (Whiting, 2000).

Among the famous structures that he built were the following: the Sehzade kulliye (1548), and the Suleyman kulliye (after 1550) and his masterpiece, the Selim mosque at Edrine, Tur (1569-1575). These buildings reflect clarity and logic in plan and elevation. Every part was intended for a purpose and contributes to the whole structure, no unnecessary element was added. The central feature of architecture during the reign of Sinan is the dome; everything that was added to the building should complement and subordinate it.

A cascade of descending half domes buttresses and vaults as well as open spaces were the prevalent designs during this period. The masterpieces which Sinan created was “the final perfection of two great traditions: a stylistic and aesthetic tradition that had been indigenous to Istanbul since the construction of the Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia in the 6th century and the other Islamic tradition of domical construction dating to the 10th century” (The Ottomans, 2002). The simple yet aesthetic touch that Ottoman architects exhibited in their craft is due to their military training.

Sinan and other Ottoman architects were initially trained to be military engineers (The Ottomans, 2002). Sinan was the chief architect of the Ottoman empire. He drew his inspiration from the Hagia Sophia, a 1000 year old Christian Basilica of the Byzantine empire. In creating his masterpiece, the Suleymaniye Mosque (1550-57) in Istanbul, he achieved the effect of light through the use of 138 arched windows. He also used a rich marble sheathing and stalactite decorations. Sinan also adopted the design of Hagia Sophia, adding a little twist.

Instead of a central-domed square with two flanking half domes, he created a complete square and surmounted it with a big central dome which he set on a high drum and ringed it with smaller domes with minarets on the corners of the small domes (MSN Encarta online encyclopedia, 2008). The mosque which Sinan built was more than just a mosque—it was a complex of buildings housing baths, soup kitchens, schools and shops. The innovation that he introduced to the design of the Hagia Sophia eliminated the use of columns; thus, there are no obstructions to view, light and air (Roberson, 1998).

Windows, domes and arches dominated the 16th and 17th century Ottoman architecture. The Sinan style architecture emphasizes unity and coordination. No matter how small a part is, it is not neglected hence the architect sees to it that its design compliments with the whole. During this period, Ottoman architecture played a greater role than just building structures. The proliferation of building mosques and other edifice defined Ottoman power. The imperial architects followed a centralized design and implemented this throughout the empire.

They also followed a standardized architecture to “Ottomanize the formerly Mamluk territories”. However, the architectural designs that were prevalent in the provinces did not exactly copy the architectural designs of structures in the capital of the empire. The designs in the rural areas had to conform with the available materials and skilled labor. The structures which were patronized by the provinces were the fountains, avanserais and building complexes which transformed the functions of the cities. Most of the mosques also exhibited hemisphirical domes and pencil-shaped minarets (Zeitlian, 2004).

According to Baer (1989, p. 687), the highly articulated exteriors of Ottoman architecture reversed the standard Islamic preference in mosques which is to stress the interior at the expense of the exterior. However, the greatness of Ottoman architecture’s Golden Age waned in the 18th century, when architects deviated from classical architectural principles and adopted European styles. Baroque, Ampir and Rococo styles as well as excessive Western decorations influenced the architecture of the period. Fountains also proliferated the structures that were then built (Sansal, 2008).

Sinan’s influence to Ottoman architecture almost disappeared in the 19th century. During this period, Abdul Aziz and Sultan Abdulhamit II and other architects began to search for an international identity of Ottoman architecture. In their quest for this identity, the architects did not look back to the classic Ottoman architecture of Sinan but to earlier architectural styles—the 14th and 15th century style in Turkey, 12th to 14th century styles in Andalusia particularly Seville and Granada in Spain and the 17th and 18th century styles in Moghul India.

The innovations that 19th century architects introduced were more evident in the interior rather than the exteriors, which remained to be influenced by the West. They maintained an outward acceptance of western traditions and culture but kept the core and the heart of their craft to Islamic traditions. The prevalence of this kind of art exemplifies not just a simple act of change, but an indication of the empire’s visions. The Ottoman rulers in the second half of the 19th century stressed their leadership of the Sunni Muslims worldwide, thus the need to adopt foreign architectural styles and infusing it with Islamic traditions.

The style that prevailed during this period is known as the new Ottoman Caliphal Islamic style. This style employed carved and painted woods with Kufi calligraphy, onion domes, horseshoe arches, towers and finials, use of flat areas of low relief and an exterior style of tile work (Duggan, 2002). According to Kuban (2001), the 19th century Ottoman architecture was not only limited to the erection of mosques. This period also gave way for the building of churches; however, literature delving on this century of Ottoman architecture fail to touch this topic.

Ottoman architecture remained to be Muslim from the capture of Constantinople until the 18th century. During this period, the renovation and building of Christian churches was prohibited. Thus, no development on church architecture emerged. However, this rule changed by the end of the 18th century when legal and social rights were given to non-Muslims. By the 19th century, churches were built, some of them even adopting the styles that were employed in mosques such as the archs which were evident on the church’s interior.

However, before growth of Ottoman architecture in Constantinople, the city already housed great architectural works. Aside from the famous Hagia Sophia, a beautiful architectural piece by itself, the Basilica cistern was built. It is located about south-west of the famous Hagia Sophia and served as one of the historical structures of Istanbul. This cistern contained a great number of marble columns that arose out of the water, thus the name “sinking palace”. The cistern was built during the rule of Emperor Justinianus. It is believed that seven thousand slaves worked on the cistern.

The water that placed on such cistern came from the Egrikap? Water Distribution Centre in Belgrade Forest. The plan for the cistern was created by a group of German divers. Within the cistern are 336 columns which reflect the corinth and dor types, are nine meters high and are arranged in 12 rows. The support for the ceiling are cross shaped vaults and round arches. Since its foundation, the cistern has undergone numerous reparations and restorations. The cistern which can hold up to 100,000 tons of water, provided the water utilized in the palace of the Byzantine empire.

During the conquest of the Ottomans, the cistern supplied water to the Topkapi palace. However, after the Ottomans have established their own water facilities, they ceased using the cistern as they preferred to use running water rather than still water. The cistern remained to be a secret from the west until the discovery by Dutch traveler who was studying the remains of the Byzantine empire. The cistern was transformed into a museum after undergoing reparations and restorations from 1985 to 1987.

The cistern again went through deep cleaning in 1994 (Yerebatan Sarnici, n. d. ). Despite the numerous years that passed, the influences of Ottoman architecture still remain to be a source of awe and inspiration in the erection of buildings. The functional designs of Sinan, the employment of numerous windows to allow more air and light to circulate and the elimination of the use of too much columns in a structure to give more emphasis to the center serve as great contribution to modern day architecture.

Ottoman Architecture: A Travel Through Time Essay

Travel Agent Speech Essay

Travel Agent Speech Essay.

Lida just woke up and is pouring herself a cup of coffee. She turns on the TV and she can‘t believe what she is seeing. Two airplanes hit world trade centers. She reads underneath American Airlines flight 11 and United Airlines flight 175. Bob, her husband is somewhere on the east cost this week and she remembers he never email her his flight itinerary. Linda tries his cell phone and it goes straight into his voice mail. She quickly calls his secretary, but since Bob booked this on expedia.

com and never shared it with her either, she has no idea where he is.

Calling expedia did not help either, after she spend 1 hour on hold, they were unable to help her because the privacy act they can’t give out information about their clients. If Bob had booked his flight with a travel agent, his wife would be informed after only 10 seconds of panic that her husband was in Boston and was heading to New York the next day.

Bob and Linda are my friends from San Francisco and it took her 5 hours to talk to her husband, because he was in meetings and was certain that he emailed her the copy of his itinerary.

According to Cnn. com approximately 260000 people are in the air at any given point. While booking online might be faster and more convenient then booking with a travel agent it is not always cheaper and when it gets complicated, travel agents knowledge and expertise is crucial to you, especially if are a frequent traveler. Let me explain to you what extra services do travel agencies offer, the advantage of booking with a knowledgeable travel agent and how much it actually does cost you, the consumer.

Travel agent can arrange all types of domestic and international travel, hotel and resort reservations, ground transportation, car rental and tour packages. They can provide assistance with travel insurance, passport and visa applications. Services are tailored to meet business and vacations needs, personal interests and budget. They can also book meeting rooms, incentive and group travels, wedding packages, cruises, city tours. Some travel agencies only specialize in one destination, region or country, so they would be your best choice if traveling there.

I hope that you now understand what services do travel agents offer let me tell you why you should make use of their knowledge. If you travel to Australia in December what kind of clothes should you bring. Do you need visa? How long is needed to see Sydney and not to rush? These are the questions you could ask a travel agent and if they are any good they will give you extensive answer. Did you know you can’t chew gum in Singapore? You can’t even have it in your luggage because it is considered smuggling. According to bbc. o. uk they banned import and sales of chewing gum in 1992. In case you heard of a little country of Bosnia with Medjugorje , the great pilgrim city, and you want to travel there, I could be a great person to talk to. First of all cab does not cost $100 for 10 miles, because their median income is $300. But if they see you are an American and you don’t negotiate the fare before hand.. Good luck! You will pay $100. Travel agent will go the extra mile to help you and accommodate all your needs and requests.

They will also help by sharing their knowledge and expertise and probably save you some money and trouble. And when you are in trouble while there is blizzard in New York, volcano eruption in Iceland or earthquake in Tokyo, with your travel agent you are not alone. They will look for an alternative, change you ticket, fight the airlines, while if you booked through one of the webpage’s you are pretty much on your own. It all sounds very good, you are probably thinking but how much does this knowledge and expertise cost Well it all depends.

For domestic tickets travel agencies do charge ticketing fees and the costs vary. According to travel sense. org some travel agent charge flat fees and some charge percentage. Agency I work for charges $30 for tickets over $300 and $10 for everything under. Just remember, these are negotiable. Both travel agencies and travel web pages charge fees for changes as well, but while expedia. com or similar web pages charge their own processing fees along with airline fees travel agents usually don’t charge extra for exchanges, even though these are very time consuming.

While booking online might be faster and more convenient, it might not be cheaper and if it gets complicated the knowledge and expertise of your travel agent is crucial to you, especially if you are a frequent traveler. Traveling to new cities, countries and continents is great, but we have be aware of documents needed, costs, problems , religious and cultural customs of countries we are traveling to and who is better to ask about these then your travel agent. Make a new friend call your travel agent and save yourself some money and trouble.

Travel Agent Speech Essay

My Unusual Vacation Essay

My Unusual Vacation Essay.

Travelling has always been a passion of mine. Being an amateur photographer, I find seeing new places, meeting new people and getting to know different cultures, exceptionally inspiring. By the age of 32 I had already been to the majority of exotic places: the Emirates, Ethiopia, Turkey, India, Laos, Thailand, Japan, Egypt, Australia and Cuba. So, when a friend of my dad who was working as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Ukraine invited me to visit him for a couple of weeks.

But the problem was asking my parents if I could go with him, but then it was not a problem anymore when I asked them as he was a trusted friend of my dad and they were both thinking like me, I thought: “Why not?! I do not know what to expect from this country since I know very little about it. So, it will definitely be an interesting experience!” And we were so right about that.

Ukraine turned out to be completely different from everything I have seen so far.

A post Soviet Union country, it is still struggling to build a developed society. But, being an amateur photographer, I was far more interested in nature, people and sites, than in politics. Ukraine appeared to be a beautiful, even gorgeous country. Being slightly smaller than Texas, it is extremely diverse and is full of natural wonders that take your breath away. Kyiv, the capital city, appeared unexpectedly well-groomed, green and wealthy. Lots of bridges across the Dnipro River, a great number of beautiful parks, a couple of botanical gardens, and many, many flowers everywhere you go. A lot friendlier than you would think. Next we went to the western Ukraine with its own peculiar culture and atmosphere.

The Carpathian Mountains are gorgeous and very authentic, with small distant villages and little country houses that seem like the progress will never reach them. An amazingly romantic place! I had been there in late May, but my friend says these mountains are beautiful all year round – a great hiking spot for spring, a beautiful tent camp landscape for summer and autumn, with tiny fast mountain rivers that amazed me with their pureness, and a couple of perfect skiing resorts that do not yield to the Austrian or Canadian ones even a tiny bit. People of Western Ukraine amazed me as well, especially the elderly – very smiley, very positive and very active.

The west was basically the first place to which my dad’s friend took me, and it made me fall in love with the Ukraine completely. From the Carpathians we travelled to Lviv, a gorgeous medieval city that is somewhat similar to Prague yet is very special in its atmosphere: 800 year old castles, wooden churches, gothic catholic temples and palaces, flowers at every corner and on every window seal, original block pavement streets of the Old City (Stare Misto), and lots of people in beautiful national clothes – vishivanki (embroidered white shirts). Lviv is a magical city and it fuelled me with inspiration to see the rest of the country.

Next my dad’s friend took me to Zaporizhzhya – an Eastern city with an impossible to pronounce name and two thousand years of history. The city is built on two banks of the River Dnipro, and has an island in the middle – Khortitsa – the biggest river island in the world. The place is very spiritual – no wonder that so many centuries ago the wild tribes of skiffs and sarmates, and later the cossaks (famous Ukrainian soldiers of 1400-1600’s, that had a long moustache, a long forelock and wore wide red trousers), built their fortifications on the Khortitsa Island. The City itself seemed to me to be still very Soviet-like in its spirit and atmosphere, so it was interesting for me to take photos of their famous dam with the huge Lenin statue pointing at it, and the factories that were once the pride of the USSR and, amazingly, still successfully function for export purposes nowadays.

Our next stop was Crimea – a big heart-shaped peninsula that is washed by two seas – the Black Sea and the Azov Sea (the shallowest in the world, by the way), has beautiful mountains, fantastic crystal caves and scenic deep lakes. It’s a very picturesque place – so green, so virginal, so unlike anything I have seen before. The pictures I took at the Crimea I consider to be one of the best series in my photo collection. We also attended a wine festival in Koktebel, where they make pretty good local wine, visited Askania Nova – a marvellous biosphere reserve sanctuary established in the nineteenth century. A great chance to get a scope of what the country’s nature was like some twelve hundred years ago, still very much unpopulated and virginal. I knew all the facts about this place, thanks to my dad’s friend.

There was one thought that didn’t leave my mind, even for a second, during the whole time I spent in Ukraine: “I cannot believe that this country and its fantastic nature, history and culture are so unknown to the rest of the world!” Ukraine was a true discovery for me, and one of those times when your expectations are nothing like what you really see. I have wished to visit this country two or more times over again, and I’m extremely sure that anytime I go back there, my impression will get fuller and fuller. If you should ask me what place I can recommend to those avid and blasé travellers who seem to have seen it all, I’d say without a second of hesitation: “Go to Ukraine! Whatever you will expect, this will still amaze and astonish you!”

My Unusual Vacation Essay

The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide Essay

The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide Essay.

Nowadays, with the rapid development of people’s lives, the great popularity of travel has aroused a great deal of a? en? on. Have you ever thought about how to go on a voca? on that full of joyfulness? Is it the best way to travel in a group led by a tour guide? From my perspec? ve, however, this idea cannot totally acquire my acceptance. Although hiring a tour guide can provide us more informa? on for visitors, there are far more demerits than merits.

To begin with, leading by a tour guide takes risks in some degree.

As all of us know, security is the prior factor that we have to concern before taking a trip. However, the phenomenon of decep? on of travel agency is not rare to see currently. Nothing can be more obvious to support this view than the instance of my &rst hand. Last summer, I went to Hong Kong for a voca? on with my family.

We handled all of the procedures in the travel agency and they invited a conductor as our tour guide. We were supposed to have a wonderful ? me enjoying the *ourishing scenery.

By contrast, we were totally deceived by him all the ?me that we were forced to go shopping at a certain amount of money everyday. In this case, I clearly learned that following the tour guide without carefulness may walk us into the trap. Apart from this, travelling in a group by a tour guide restrict our liberty and privacy. For instance, If we go travelling by ourselves, we can choose the place where we want to live, wherever near the seaside or close to the downtown; We can choose what we enjoy ea? ng, seafood or western food;

We can control the ?me that how long we want to stay in the hotel or how long we prefer having fun in the amusement park. A variety of choices are harbored on our own. However, it is a completely di-erent story following the tour guides. They will deprive us of our ? me or right, even money for their own pro&t. Judging from all the evidence o-ered, although travelling with a tour guide may introduce more for visitors, it is not the best way because on the one hand, we may lose our safety; on the other hand, we are deprived of our liberty and privacy.

The best way to travel is in a group led by a tour guide Essay

Some people like to travel with a companion Essay

Some people like to travel with a companion Essay.

Travel is always the greatest recreation for most people. It can enable us to not only accumulate our knowledge about history, culture, geography, but also reduce daily stress and make ourselves relax. Some people like to travel with companions, other people believe that it is better to travel alone. From my point of view, I prefer to travel myself. And I will attempt to elaborate my opinions in following paragraphs. First, it is more free to travel alone.

I do not need to consider of others.

I can control my time and my destination myself. I can stay in a place for longer hours if I feel really enjoyable there. What’s more, while setting an itinerary, I am no need to negotiate with companions. For example, if you have a high passion to play bungee jumping, but most of your friends are afraid to do it. Then you are possible to be disappointed. To be contrast, you can go bungee jumping yourself and try it second or third times you want without feeling peer pressure.

Another reason why I prefer solo travel is that to travel alone makes the journey more interesting and exciting.

To try something new or something which can seldom be experienced in daily life is an important element during traveling. You can discover new pastime, food or skill that you would not get if you go with a group that has already setting the agenda for you. You can make new friends and get unexpected experiences in journey. It will be more fun than you could ever image. For the reasons mentioned above, I am more than convinced that solo travel is a more relax an exciting way to travel.

Some people like to travel with a companion Essay

Travel by boat or by train: Advantages and disadvantages Essay

Travel by boat or by train: Advantages and disadvantages Essay.


            Traveling is one of the most happy experiences on can have. But the high cost of travel and the time can tend to be an important factor in the choice of travel mode that we take. Usually, a trip will or might involve the options for a ride on a train or a ship or boat.  These modes of transport are, for the most part, fast and very common among travelers. But we must go and find  the inherent advantages and disadvantages if there are any,  and if there are any common things that can be found between the two.


            By train, even on the short trips outside the city or intercity routes, most travelers are going to take the train most of the time over cars or buses. Aside from being safe, the trains that are equipped with the latest in rail technology can compete in terms of speed and brevity of travel time.


            One example is the  Mag-Lev ( shortened for magnetic-levitation) trains found in some industrialized countries .

These magnetically-levitated propelled vehicles do not have surface contact that can sloe the down or cause friction with the tracks, so they can be very fast and require little maintenance. Some trains of this type have shown to exceed speeds of 350 miles per hour, while most jet airliners cruise at speeds up to 450 mph, so they don’t lose much in the speed game. Eventually in the future, these trains and others will eventually catch up with their flying counterparts. As it is electrically powered, there are no harmful emissions and eliminate traffic buildup.[1]


            If one should travel by boat, one of the advantages found in this mode is that packing and unpacking of your clothes and things don’t have to be at a moments notice. This means more time to spend on the things that you want and have to do, like enjoying the vacation and spending time with your travel companions or if you’re alone to just relax and have fun or mingle with the other passengers.


            Now comes the disadvantages of the two. While it is true that trains like the Mag-Lev are    running in some countries, the full implementation of the program might still take some time to be fully operational since the construction of the needed infrastructure for the trains are still a ways off and can be very expensive. And the technology being used is still in the research and developmental stages so for a little while, it will be confined to a small group of places and destinations.

            Boats or ships for that matter, are still the best way to go, but the environmental aspect must be taken into consideration. These can take in a significant amount of fuel needed for its operation, and produce a great deal of emission when they burn the fuel. Ships often just throw their wastes into the water before they come to dock, sparking a pollution issue in the countries where they dock.


            Both means of transport form an integral part of any transport network. They have their inherent advantages as well their drawbacks. Trains seem to be a little ahead of the game when it comes to resources, since they are most accessible to most          people and the benefits are readily seen.

But boats are coming along in terms of access with more people trying it out instead of buses and planes. In the future, we still have to await for any further developments into research and technology into these two modes of transport.

[1]    American Maglev Technology” Culture Artist: Public Transportation”November 14, 2007<http://www.railserve.com>

Travel by boat or by train: Advantages and disadvantages Essay