Why Was Germany Unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles Essay

Why Was Germany Unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles Essay.

The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that made peace between the countries involved in World War 1. These countries included Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany and United States of America. In the treaty, Germany lost a lot of land, which made a big blow on their empire. Germany’s ambry was limited to 100,000 troops, as the French were scared of being invaded from the border. Also the Rhineland zone, where the Rhine River flows, was demilitarized, so would not invade France.

Also they lost land to Poland, the new country made from the U.

S. S. R and Germany. They were given access to the sea through the Polish Corridor and were given access to a good trading port called Danzig. This made Germany even angrier, and upset. The German navy was limited to 6 battle ships, 6 cruisers, 12 torpedo-boats and 12 destroyers. Germany could not import/export weapons and poison gas, armoured cars, armed aircraft and blockade on ships were prohibited. Also, the Saar, place rich in coal was given to France to look after for 15 years.

Germany had to take the full blame for the war and had to pay 226 billion gold marks. It was later reduced to 132 billion, which nowadays, is ? 284 billion. The conference included David Lloyd-George, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson and Vittorio Orlando. Friedrich Ebert also attended, but was humiliated and made to stand up during the whole conference. What the Germans really resented was article 231 of the Treaty, which said Germany had to take full blame for the war.

Why Was Germany Unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles Essay

Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles Essay

Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles Essay.

The statement “It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the ineptitude and stubbornness of President Wilson that led to the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles” is false. Instead, Wilson’s unbending will and unwillingness to compromise brought about the ultimate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. All debate came from Wilson’s safeguarding of what he deemed a league to prevent all future war, the League of Nations.

Though many in the Senate, including Henry Cabot Lodge, called for reform, President Wilson would sacrifice anything to keep the League from ever seeing change.

Wilson approached asking for everything or nothing, and came out empty. One Democratic senator charged that the president had “strangled his own brainchild with his own palsied hands rather than let the Senate straighten its crooked limbs”. Wilson hoped to move forward with a potentially social, political, and economic entity capable of regulating the world, yet would up with political opposition and a moral dilemma.

Although armed immediately preceding the war with a frenzied, world-wide love and with three other nations with which to suppress Germany, Wilson’s own inadequacies would prevent an agreement between president and Congress, and ultimately crippled the effectiveness of the Treaty of Versailles. Perhaps the League would never have been such an issue if not for Wilson’s first blunder during the November 1918 Congressional elections. Hoping to gain leverage at the peace talks, Wilson personally appealed for Democratic votes, despite his “Politics Is Adjourned” policy.

The move badly backfired, allowing such individuals as Henry Cabot Lodge to step into the forefront. Republicans became increasingly annoyed with Wilson and his tactics when he decided to attend the peace conference in person, and then refused to include any conservatives in his official peace party. Wilson began agitating his opponents even before the League of Nations had been put under the microscope, toughening an already difficult task that was the ratification of such a league.

Wilson somewhat half-heartedly attended meetings concerning the distribution of former colonies and protectorates. He attempted to jam through an unorthodox combination of imperialism and Wilsonian idealism, all the while focused primarily on the creation of his brainchild world parliament. William Borah refuted the creation of the League of Nations, proposing it would use “force to destroy force, conflict to destroy conflict, militarism to destroy militarism, war to prevent war”, an unfashionable view of a league intended to guide through the practices of peace and consulting (Doc A).

Wilson would win a small victory in 1919, when Italy’s Vittorio Orlando, Britain’s David Lloyd George, and France’s Georges Clemenceau agreed to make the League of Nations and integral part of the final treaty. Now that League of Nations was officially the most important aspect of Wilson’s final Treaty of Versailles, Republican senators couldn’t wait to demolish and thoroughly dissect is proposal. Irreconcilables, such as Senator William Borah of Idaho or Senator Hiram Johnson of California, believed the League a “useless sewing circle” or “overpotent super-state”.

Wilson instead saw the committee as a diplomatic community where nations may interact and converse over significant topics. Upon a first voyage back to America from the Paris peace table, 39 Republican senators decreed that the Senate would not approve of this League of Nations in its present, imperfect state. While Wilson focused mainly on such a community, others involved in the resolution of WWI instead sought vengeance. France, a target of the Germanic states for hundreds of years, intended to crush them under their boot.

Clemenceau demanded the Rhineland and the Saar Valley, and debate between the four presiding nations ensued. France would drop its demand in exchange for the Security Treaty, where Britain and America pledged to aid France in another German invasion. Though well-intentioned and with the right ideas, Wilson would continue to advocate his idea of what the League of Nation should entail, despite cries of outrage from his own Senate. Many possessed differing feelings of the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles when it was handed to Germany at gunpoint in June 1919.

Jane Addams provided insight on women’s’ views of the League, mentioning that “The League of Nations afforded a wide difference of opinion in every group… The difference of opinion was limited always as to the existing League and never for a moment did anyone doubt the need for… an adequate international organization” (Doc I). W. E. B. Du Bois provided insight on African American’s view of the League, providing that “This is the most forward-looking event of the century.

Because of the idiotic way in which the stubbornness of Woodrow Wilson and the political fortunes of the Republicans became involved, the United States was not represented” (Doc H). Upon being shown the treaty that would determine the sanctions of the war, the Germans noted that only four of Wilson’s Fourteen Points were honored. They had hoped Woodrow would uphold the typical American democratic way, yet it was clear with Wilson’s preoccupation with his committee that the theme of the treaty was revenge. Returning to America again, Wilson was hit with a wave of political opposition.

Many called out that the new treaty refuted Washington’s policy of no entangling alliances, whereas other drew criticism upon the harshness of the document. An image depicts the “League of Nations” marrying Woodrow Wilson and “Foreign Entanglements”. The pastor has asked that anyone who see a reason for the two not to be joined step forward, and the “US Senate” holding “Constitutional Rights” is seen busting through the window (Doc E). Though criticism was drawn, the “Wilson League” was still supported by the majority of the people.

Lodge realized this, and intended only to “Americanize” the League. Lodge then delayed the process in order to confuse the public of their opinion, going as far as reading the 264-page treaty. The election of 1920 was not far around the corner, and Wilson began campaigning for votes, talking favorably of his League of Nations in as many cities as he could. Unfortunately, Wilson would suffer a stroke, leaving Senator Lodge at the helm to do as he pleased. Lodge introduced 14 reservations to the treaty, a parody of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.

He and others that opposed the treaty disagreed most directly with Article X of the League, which bound the US to aid any nation of the League under assault. Wilson backed Article X, never doubting his work. He stated, “When you read Article X, therefore, you will see that it is nothing but the inevitable, logical center of the whole system… If it should ever in any important respect be impaired, I would feel like asking the Secretary of War to get the boys who went across the water to fight,… and I would stand up before them and say,… You have fought for something that you did not get” (Doc C).

Unwilling to hand over their right to declare war, Congress used that as a sticking point as to why the League could not succeed. Wilson then displayed stubbornness in his own regard, unwilling to accept the revisions of a Republican. “I take the liberty of urging upon you the desirability of accepting the reservations now passed…. I have the belief that with the League once in motion it can within itself and from experience and public education develop such measures as will make t effective”, wrote Herbert Hoover, urging Wilson to accept the League with the added reservations (Doc D). Despite the advice, Wilson told all Democrats to vote no to the resolutions, and the revisions were promptly denied. It became clear that unless the reservations were approved, the entire treaty would be rejected. When the reservations were presented once more in March 1920, Wilson again told Democrats to veto the proposals. In this way, Wilson was directly responsible for the death of controversial and beloved brainchild.

Though it can be said that the Lodge-Wilson fight, traditionalism, isolationism, and disillusionment ripped apart the League of Nations, the brunt of the blame lies in Woodrow’s overconfidence in his ideas and unwavering mindset. Though the Senate was somewhat too convinced that the League of Nations was an atrocity and was unwilling to compromise its compromises, it’s clear that Wilson’s own behavior was much more responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles.

Acting impulsively, Wilson favored the creation of the League of Nations to all other parts of an ultimate resolution throughout Europe. His stubborn behavior, awkwardness, and incorrect mindset for a bill that required reforms ultimately derailed the creation of the League. Wilson allowed differences between himself and Henry Cabot Lodge to negatively influence his perception of Lodge’s reservations. Woodrow’s personal bias toward the left separated him from a largely conservative Senate, and ultimately led to the destruction of what could have been his finest contribution while acting as command-in-chief.

Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles Essay

Was the Treaty of Versailles a Success Essay

Was the Treaty of Versailles a Success Essay.

There are several ways in which the Treaty of Versailles was a success but there are also some which show it was a failure. The treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One. The treaty was signed in Versailles Palace near Paris-hence its name-between Germany and its Allies. The three most important politicians were David Lloyd George (Britain), Georges Clemenceau (France) and Woodrow Wilson (USA) also known as ‘The Big Three’. There were many territorial changes to Germany after the war, due to the treaty.

The most relevant one was the decision to give Poland a coastline, the Polish Corridor. This was a piece of land running through the centre of Germany, splitting it in two halves. By separating the rest of Germany from East Prussia, Germany was severely weakened as East Prussia had been a source of great income for Germany. An extra territorial change that the Germans did not expect was where the Saar coal fields were, they were to be given to France for fifteen years.

This was a great resource of coal for the Germans and losing it meant that they didn’t have a supply of coal and raw materials for its industries.

The Germans also had to de-militarize an area of their country called the Rhineland that was separating Germany and France. This was humiliating for the Germans as their military was not allowed in the land in which they owned. By giving back all the land that Germany had taken from different countries allowed power to be spread more evenly across the rest of Europe. It also gave smaller, developing nations such as Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary a chance to govern on their own without the Germans overthrowing them. However, there were often disputes between the countries, concerning the distribution of territory in the Treaty.

The Treaty of Versailles established nine new countries, and changed many boundaries, but there was still a debate about the fairness of the allocation. The nine, new smaller countries were weak as they contained Germans which lived in the countries. They wanted to take over the countries and as a result of the countries being weak, in some cases they managed to gain some power. John May hand Keynes said “This treaty threatens the health and prosperity of the Allies themselves. By making impossible demands it leaves Europe unsettled than it found it”. Another term of the treaty was that the Germans had to reduce the size of heir army and weaponry.

This limited the army to just 100,000 of voluntary soldiers, and they also had to melt down their weapons, they were forbidden to use any sort of air forces too. This had the affect of making the Germans feeling angry and weak and thirsty for revenge. Also Germany was to pay ? 6. 6 billion in damages which badly affected their economy. Article 231, in the Treaty, is commonly known as the “Guilt Clause”. This said that the Germans were responsible for the whole of the War. The Germans had no say in anything and just had to keep quiet and take the blame for everything.

The treaty humiliated the Germans. The war-guilt clause forced Germany to accept sole responsibility for World War I. And although the German military had played a major role in igniting the war, other countries in Europe had been guilty of provoking political crises before the war too. Another organisation which was also created, to prevent war, was the League of Nations. This consisted of a group of countries; the four most powerful countries that joined were Britain, France, Japan and Italy. Although the American President, Woodrow Wilson, came up with the idea, America was isolated from it.

In view of the League’s desire to end war, the only criteria that can be used to classify a success, was whether war was avoided and a peaceful settlement formulated after a crisis between two nations. An example of this was a dispute over the Aaland Islands. These islands are near enough equal distances between Finland and Sweden. Traditionally, they belonged to Finland. However, the residents on the islands wanted to be governed by Sweden. Neither of the nations could come to a decision so they asked the League of Nations choose. The League decided that Finland would remain the governors but no weapons would be kept there.

Both of the countries agreed and it was settled. However, the League had many down falls. In Article 12 of the League’s Covenant it stated: “Any war or threat of war is a matter of concern to the whole League and the League shall take action that may safe guard peace”. Therefore, any conflict between nations which ended in war and the victor of one over the other must be considered a League failure. There were many wars between many of the nations, for example, the war between Russia and Poland. The League was accused for not doing its job-which was to prevent war. Overall, I think that the treaty of Versailles was a failure.

I think this because the Treaty wasn’t really accepted by all of the countries. The British Prime Minister thought that the treaty was far too harsh and would ruin Germany altogether. He also predicted that there would be another war in 25 years time. It was the Versailles treaty which gave Hitler power, they looked for a saviour and they found Adolf Hitler. He promised to bring back Germany on the world stage, to create jobs and wealth. He did all this but this was because he ignored the treaty by starting to rebuild the military, making new occupations for the Germans. As a result the biggest failure was that another war happened.

Was the Treaty of Versailles a Success Essay