Pre-Modern Appalachian Essay

Pre-Modern Appalachian Essay.

1. How is Appalachia statistically different from the rest of America in terms of income, health, home-ownership and educational statistics? The Appalachian statistics includes the states of West Virginia, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee. In these states 13.3 million people are living in poverty according to U.S. Census Bureau. The number of people in the region who did not have health insurance last year fell to 13.6 million from 13.7 million from the year before, and median incomes were up in all Appalachian states, where the median income ranged from a little over 36,000 in Mississippi to 68,080 in Maryland.

(Appalachia Statistics, 2008).

Nationally, the homeowner and rental Vacancy rate in 2010 were 2.4% and 9.2%. During the decade, the homeowner vacancy rate is increased 0.7% points, while the rental vacancy rate increased 2.3% points. (U.S. Census Bureau). The 2006 Mayor’s conference found that 51% of people who became homeless the year before were single men, 30% , were single women, 17% were families with children, and 2% wee un-accompanied youth.

As reported in the “State of the South 1998”, the increased number of single parent homes, decreasing educational participation by males, high dropout rate, low numbers of bachelor’s degrees, the aging population and the changing workplace needs while Kentucky has made progress in the elementary and secondary area.

Also post- secondary education and adult education/ the state still lags behind with too many under-educated adults. (South, 1998). 2. What does World System Theory contribute to our understanding of Appalachian distinctiveness? Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. (Bennett). By changing circumstances and recognizing career choices, can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers.

Also, people living with severe constraints, such as transportation, communication, due to lack of employment opportunities. ( World-Systems). Regions under-development was due to its isolation from the modern world. Cherokee culture reacted to and was changed by incorporation, followed by a discussion of the ways in which capitalist values came to change social relations between in habitants of the world. World System is seen as an invaluable interpretive tool for reformulating the historiography of this region.

Identification Terms: 1. Appalachian stereotypes in film-

Appalachia is portrayed as stupid, ignorant, inbred people in society and has been the butt of jokes in movies, TV shows, comic books, cartoons, books, television and radio. This is where negative stereotypes reinforce negative attitude of the Appalachia Mountains and the people. Best way to explain: Jed, on the Clampets, found oil on his land shooting at a possum and the rich west coast banker and out of state corporation, made him rich! Truth is, Jed didn’t get a dime, they flashed a mineral deed at him and had the sheriff come and lock him off his own land. His children did have to leave to find work that much is true. This is how the mass media and the public view us as if we are so ignorant that they can steal our land, blow up entire mountains and turn our creeks orange on every western on television.

2. Development-

To develop opportunities in life, jobs, advancement, education for betterment. We, as a society, also develop relationships with our children, parents, friends on a daily basis. It addresses issues of concern to developing countries relating to social and economic development. Development can also refer to land use, science and technology, social science, international and regional, Business and professionally, music. In the Appalachian Mountains, development would refer to change in the environment, family life and jobs.

3. The Ozarks-

Native American people first inhabited the Ozarks 12,000 years ago. The Spanish arrived in 1500s, native people- Osage, Missouri, Illinois, Caddo tribe. French pioneers became the first permanent settlers but Scott Irish settlers who migrated from Appalachia eventually dominated the Ozarks and created a Appalachian culture. The Ozarks are located in the southern portion of the United States and occupies territory in the states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Arkansa.

4. Bushwhacker-

In Kentucky, we consider a bushwhacker as a person who lays in wait to rob or kill you or both. A person who is up to no good and is usually going to jail often is a bushwhacker for stealing cattle in every western I have ever seen. A guerrilla fighter named after William C. Quantrill of the Civil War. He led an attack on 150 people, who were shot, killed, or burned to death. His men were considered outlaws by Union forces, but they became an official Confederate troop in August of 1862. William Quantrill was considered the leader of what was to be called,,” Quantrill’s Bushwhackers”.

5. Scotch-Irish-

They migrated from Appalachia eventually dominated the Ozarks and created an Appalachian culture. They were considered the primary heritage of people of Celtic culture Scotts, Scotts Irish. 6. Pre-modernity-

Pre-modernity tended to see the events of life as being the result of the laws of nature, laws that could be understood by reason or rationality. In Appalachia, you can find people who tend to live according to many cultural values of the Celtics. Christians are more likely to be seen in and out of church and compartmentalize their lives. Living in clusters and developing their own communities where they live by whatever the laws of nature give them and be able to rationalize the reason.

7. Internalization-

To incorporate the cultural values, motives of another or group as thru learning with socialization. In school, students have accepted multi- cultural education more when they think their peers accept inter-racial dating. Working or spending time with people from other races can lower one’s level of prejudice. Smith and Bylunds ,(1983) survey found that Appalachians are less likely to believe that racism is a large problem in the United States. Appalachian students may be less receptive to multicultural education.

8. Encyclopedia of Appalachian-

Is the first encyclopedia dedicated to the region, people, culture, history, and geography of Appalachia. The encyclopedia has a collection of history, artifacts, and folklore and cultural and behavior patterns of the mountains. Included are history of the first settlers and ancestors and how they lived and raised their families.

9. Appalachian Museum/Norris Tennessee-

The museum is located in the town of Norris in Anderson County. They offer viewing of a collection of historic buildings filled with artifacts and folk lore associated with Appalachian. It was established by John Rice Irwin on 65 acreas. The museum has been featured in national travel magazines, the Smithsonian magazine, and national and international newspapers. One of the most popular events, such as “Christmas in Old Appalachian, which attracts hundreds of Appalachian people who are musicians and craftspeople will introduce you to the cultures, beliefs, craft-making, making of foods and jelly.

10. Settlement patterns-

Appalachia was slow to develop any substantial urban pattern. It shared with the rest of the south an emphasis on agriculture-that continued after other regions of the country had begun their rush toward manufacturing and urban living. People tended to stay where they were, and as time passed they became attached to the land, family and community.

Film: A hidden America-Children of the Mountains, a documentary on 20/20/ABC News. Feb. 10, 2009. For two years, Diana Sawyer followed four Appalachian children who sleep in vehicles, avoid thievery, alcoholism and despair of their family and conditions surrounding the family. What they did not emphasize was that one boy was determined to better himself and he got a scholarship from football to attend college. Or the mother who walked 16 miles roundtrip, four hours total to get her GED. Which she did!!!!!! Or men who work 9 to 12 hours, 6 days a week underground despite the safety concern since it is the best paying job in the region.

Also there are teachers, social workers, doctors and dentists reaching out and helping a population isolated by steep hills and lack of transport. They even showed a dentist who had converted a bus and traveled into the mountains to pull teeth, educate people on the importance of dental care. But what was discussed was the reason so many teeth had to be pulled out was that they drank too much mountain dew. This was stereotyping at its finest!!!!Most people I have ever known that was so poor that they couldn’t travel to the dentist, certainly didn’t have money to buy soda for themselves and their kids. It was usually” soupbeans and taters”!

Pre-Modern Appalachian Essay

Ethnic Conflict Essay

Ethnic Conflict Essay.

Ethnic Conflicts are a very important issue that can affect a whole country/state. Ethnic conflicts within a state belong to identity conflicts that are a type of internal conflicts. Sometimes the term ethnic conflict is used to describe a large range of internal conflicts .Before talking about ethnic conflict, it is important to know the meaning of ethnicity. . Ethnic groups usually have collectivity or psychological communities who share a combination of historical experience and valued cultural traits – beliefs, culture and religion, language, ways of life, a common homeland .

Ethnic conflicts can be defined as conflicts between ethnic groups within a multi-ethnic state, which have been going on some time. Many ethnic conflicts result in a significant loss of life, a serious denial of basic human rights and considerable material destruction, some escalating into inter ethnic or internal war. The desire for secession or independence from an existing state, the demand for greater power within a state, or recognition and protection of minority interest within a society are three general issues of ethnic conflicts.

An ethnic conflict is usually between two major groups fighting for the power or sovereignty of a country, state, or territory.

The protagonists in the most intense ethnic conflicts want to establish their independence . A minority group might insist on seceding and establishing its own independent state. It might demand an independent state within a confederation of states, or might insist on an independent political entity within a new federal structure. The antagonist ethnic groups will not be able to agree on new constitutional ideas or a peaceful separation because the group does not want to lose its power over the other group. These kind of ethnic disputes consequently become violent, some escalate into all out war which tears the country/state apart.

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Ethnic Conflict Essay

Ethical Implications for Human Trafficking in the United States Essay

Ethical Implications for Human Trafficking in the United States Essay.

Ethical Implications for Human Trafficking in the United States Human trafficking is a type of modern-day slavery in which millions of people, regardless of gender or age, around the world are forced into. Human trafficking is the trade of human beings for the purpose of forced labor, sexual exploitation or illegal profits and usually involves the use of violence, fraud, or coercion to recruit, hide, and transport people illegally (Act Now).

According to the United Nations is both a definition of human trafficking is “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs.

” (UNICEF) The traffickers use different types of strategies to exploit the “slaves”. There are two types of slavery: those who are forced to work for money and those who are kidnapped and forced to work for food (“Human Trafficking”).

Trafficking primary involves exploitation which comes in many forms such as forcing victims into prostitution, subjecting victims to slavery or involuntary servitude, compelling victims to commit sexual acts for the purpose of creating pornography and misleading victims into debt bondage (Do Something). Of the 27 million slaves around the world, 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation, and 19% involves labor exploitation (Do Something). Many of the people who are victims of human trafficking are people who voluntarily enter the business but under false pretenses.

These people leave their homes in order to change their quality of life but many of the times they are lied to about the conditions of the work they are intended to do. Due to monetary problems or joblessness, people try to find better opportunities out of the country. Poverty is a huge contributor to human trafficking as well. Mostly in third world countries and sometimes in second world counties, family members will sell females and children for cash.

Females can cost around US$100-2,500 depending on the country, the age of the female and if she has had a child or not (PBS). Then they must work off the debt they accumulate, which includes costs of food, shelter, and other expenses with interest which can take years to settle. Homeless children or children who come from broken families are more susceptible to the sex industry to survive economically. These innocent victims put their trust on “manager” or the “middle man” who promise them a higher paying job in a better area.

Many women leave their homes in order to find better opportunities for a high paying job for their family but when they arrive to the new city, they are forced into an exploitative job. They way human traffickers secure the “slaves” is by making them dependant on them by taking their passport away, making them into drug addicts and with emotional and physical abuse. Although 110 countries have signed and approved the document, implanting the policies and law proves most difficult. The challenge lies in targeting all the criminals who target innocent and vulnerable people who organize the human trafficking ring.

In March 2007, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) formally launched a Global Initiative to fight Human Trafficking meaning they will help draft laws and help implement policies against human trafficking. The biggest international milestone to date has been the adoption of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women, and Children (Act Now). The reason why it is so difficult to eradicate human trafficking is due to economical reasons.

In economic terms, by increasing the amount of product in the most cost effect manner, the cheaper the product which is favorable for all consumers. However, putting it in simpler worlds, to provide lower prices for consumers, human traffickers reduce the cost of production by providing cheap labor to the factories. In order to find a better opportunity for their life, many people are being trafficked voluntarily. This means that they sign an “indentured servitude” agreement in which they are smuggled from one country into another.

Even though this is illegal and exploitative, it allows people to move to a place that might have more resources to sustain them, which could balance the burden of human population. Because human trafficking allows some companies to produce goods and services at a lower cost, the other companies that compete legally will have to innovate and improve their businesses to stay competitive. Meaning human trafficking encourages the development of more efficient and innovative technology by providing cheap labor.

Human trafficking dehumanizes the victims and rewards the perpetrators. With 50% of all slaves are under the age of 18 years, two thirds of them suffer from physical abuse from their handlers and it affects them in the long run (Do Something). They are more likely to develop metal health problems, engage in substance abuse, engage in prostitution and either commit, or be a victim of violent crimes (Do Something). We may think that things like this could never occur where we live but Orlando is the perfect example of how human trafficking in everywhere.

According to Giselle Fernandez of the Coalition Against Human Trafficking, Florida is the number two destination for human trafficking due to the theme parks. Many of the girls work at the hotels, become prostitutes or end up in pornography. In order to prevent such a heinous crime, females must be educated so they are less susceptible to false hopes. Increasing police pay in certain destination areas so they are less likely to be bribed by traffickers. Only with efforts from the government, private companies, and especially communities will we be able to eradicate human trafficking.

Ethical Implications for Human Trafficking in the United States Essay

American Dreamer Essay

American Dreamer Essay.

Bharati Mukherjee’s essay about an “American Dreamer” was brought across with a strong positive point which I agreed with for the most part. After reading over her essay numerous times I finally got a hold of what she was trying to get across to the reader. On one hand she explains that she admires the bill of rights and what our nation was founded upon. I think a lot of people would agree with this considering how far our nation has got with it, but then again you have those who oppose.

On the other hand she expresses how she feels about being called Indian-American.

The way she conveys her opinion about it makes me want to agree with her more. Her writing is very persuasive and I have to say I not only agree with her because opinion, but for the reason that if I were to go to another country, and have to work as hard as she did to become a legalized citizen.

Another thing were on the same page on is having to put a hyphenated status even after becoming a fully legalized citizen. Mukherhee comparison of her culture to the United States was interesting to me. I have never seen a person express how much they value their cultures strict laws and regulations.

This makes me think about how I take advantage of all the great things my country has to offer. She described her culture clearly and one of the things that lingered in my head was that the parents chose who you married. This made me grateful of the many freedoms I have in my country also. America has a lot to offer but the main reason people migrate to United States is because of the freedom. I can understand why they decide to come here, but I have always wondered why you don’t see Americans migrating to other countries as much.

There are many reasons they don’t go and I comprehend them, but if there was freedom in those countries I question would it be different. Over the past twenty-five years twenty million people have migrated to the United States from other countries. That is a vast amount and it makes me speculate if that amount continues to increase will we be overpopulated in the years to come. I think America should start limit the amount of people that desire to become Americans, and start to clean out the immigrants who have decided to not be responsible and become legal citizens.

I am not saying this to be racist or defrading, but I am stating this because people who come to America illegally take a lot of what our great country has to offer and use it like it was in there possession already. For example I have head of many illegal immigrants that come to America and obtain free medical care and welfare checks that our taxes pay for. All I inquire is that they become legal and not take what our great country has to offer and take advantage of it.

That is my personal view of the subject though I found myself having almost the same view point as Mukherjee. This issue about any hyphenated status as an American is a controversial one, but Bharati Mukherjee has a point and it needs to be heard. After working hard to become a legal citizen you shouldn’t have to hyphenate racial status. Although some might object and have a total diverse opinion I would reply with a simple suggestion to read this short essay, because it had a positive effect on me and I hope it will have the same on you.

American Dreamer Essay

Why Celebrate Constitution Day Essay

Why Celebrate Constitution Day Essay.

On September 17, 1787, thirty-nine of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, held in the summer heat of Philadelphia for four long months, signed the document for which they had labored so hard to produce. During both the drafting of the Constitution and the ensuing debates over its ratification, the struggle to procure the new system of government was not an easy one. But in the end, America came down in support of what has endured as the oldest working constitution in the world today.

Thus the U.S. Constitution has a long history behind it—it is part of our American tradition, and we should be proud of it. But we should not respect the Constitution simply because it is tradition. There are, after all, bad traditions. Rather, as American citizens we have a duty to understand the Constitution as fully as possible—which means understanding the principles upon which it was built.

Today there are two competing schools of interpreting the meaning of the Constitution.

There are those who say the Constitution is a “living document,” and that what is good about the Constitution is that it is infinitely malleable, allowing itself to change as circumstances require. This interpretation was described most succinctly by the late Supreme Court Justice William Brennan: “The genius of the Constitution rests not in any static meaning it might have had in a world that is dead and gone, but in the adaptability of its great principles to cope with current problems and current needs.”

This interpretation has been the constitutional vehicle by which most of the social and welfare programs, as well as affirmative action and other “group rights” measures, have been implemented. The problem with this understanding, in addition to the fact it is untrue, is that it means, ultimately, the Constitution has no meaning. Or rather, it means whatever we want it to mean. But then, why should anyone be bound by someone else’s understanding of the Constitution, be that someone else a judge, a Congress, or a President?

In opposition to the idea of an “evolving Constitution,” and the derivative expansions of governmental power, some legal scholars and politicians have advanced the need for a jurisprudence of “original intent.” The argument is that until we consciously change (or abolish) it through the amendment procedure, we are bound by the intentions of those who wrote and ratified the Constitution—we cannot make of the Constitution anything we please.

But this argument immediately raises the question: What were the intentions of the Framers of the Constitution? Here, most proponents of “original intent” have not a clue. Our current Chief Justice, William Rehnquist, for example, has written that the liberty and rights of individual human beings have no “intrinsic worth.” And Justice Scalia said in a 1997 speech that under the Constitution, minorities have rights “only because the majority determines that there are certain minority positions that deserve protection,” implying that if the majority so chooses, the minorities forfeit any or all their protections. This is to assert no more than might as the measure of right. Whatever can be said of such arguments, they certainly bear no resemblance to the arguments made by the Framers of the Constitution.

The Constitution was based on the idea of an unchanging human nature. That idea is best captured in the Declaration of Independence, and its statement that all human beings possess equal rights by nature. The idea of equal natural rights is not only the ground for government by consent, but also sets the limit for what that government may rightfully do. If rights precede the formation of government, the primary goal of government is to secure those rights. It cannot grant them, nor can it violate them. To achieve this, government must protect individuals equally under the law.

Speaking of the Declaration’s statement of human equality, Abraham Lincoln wrote, “The assertion of that principle, at that time, was the word, fitly spoken which has proved an ‘apple of gold’ to us. The Union, and the Constitution, are the picture of silver, subsequently framed around it. The picture was made, not to conceal, or destroy the apple; but to adorn, and preserve it. The picture was made for the apple—not the apple for the picture.”

The fact that slavery was offered protection under the Constitution meant that the Constitution—and more generally the American Revolution—was incomplete. But it was the principles of the Declaration, enshrined in the Constitution, that made the elimination of slavery a moral and political necessity. In fact, only by understanding the Constitution in light of the moral truths expounded in the Declaration can we distinguish the principles of the Constitution from its compromises.

The self-evident truth of human equality, and its corollary principle of individual natural rights, is the basis in nature for the reasonableness and goodness of the Constitution. As Alexander Hamilton wrote in The Federalist, the Constitution serves justice by its “inflexible and uniform adherence to the rights of…individuals.” It is an unchanging moral truth, then, that infuses a political document like the Constitution with goodness, and makes the Constitution deserving of our respect and reverence.

Why Celebrate Constitution Day Essay

The Mistreatment of Indigenous Women in Canada Essay

The Mistreatment of Indigenous Women in Canada Essay.

As Canadians, we proudly wave our multicultural flag and try not act superior towards our American neighbours. Living in such a lush and accepting country, it is hard not to glance upon the maple leaf and feel some sense of nationalistic pride. Canada is generally an inclusive and safe country, however not everyone has the luxury of enjoying this level of comfort. The thought of our country ignoring the cries of violence against Indigenous women and girls, is downright absurd.

The Canadian government has acknowledged the severity of the threats to Indigenous women and girls, but have no current plan in action to help these women.

Indigenous women, especially in a respected country like Canada, have the right to be safe and free from violence. According to an Amnesty International report, “Indigenous women are five to seven times more likely than other women to die as a result of violence.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada has documented more than 580 cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women in Canada.

” (No More Stolen Sisters: Justice for the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women of Canada. September 29 2013. http://www. amnesty. ca/our-work/issues/indigenous-peoples/no-more-stolen-sisters) When an indigenous woman, let a lone a group of indigenous women, are targeted for racist, misogynistic attacks and are not properly assured protection, a range of their fundamental rights are violated.

As previously mentioned before, Canada’s diversity is celebrated globally, but their lack of action towards Indigenous women is not only shameful but breaches their rights to be protected against torture and ill treatment. As stated on Rabble, many nations including “Cuba, Iran, Belarus and Russia [have criticized] Canada’s human-rights record, as the Canadian envoy rejected calls to develop a comprehensive national review to end violence against aboriginal women.

” (Canada’s Rejection of Inquiry into Violence Against Aboriginal Women is a National Disgrace. September 29 2013. http://rabble. ca/news/2013/09/canadas-rejection-inquiry-violence-against-aboriginal-women-national-disgrace) It is appalling that the likeliness of a woman being attacked is increased if she is of Native American descent, but with decades of government intervention in Indigenous homes, it has left.

The Mistreatment of Indigenous Women in Canada Essay

Clothes In Latin America Essay

Clothes In Latin America Essay.

Clothes in Chile and general Latin America Clothing styles throughout Latin America vary from region to region and have been influenced through several different sources. Fashion in Latin America today and traditional fashions of Latin America differ dramatically. Climate, location, isolation, population, economy, history, colonial influences are many of the sources that have helped to contribute to these changes. Traditional Latin American fashion varied form region to region but maintained a distinctive appearance. Traditional and new aged Latino fashions are generally easy to decipher from each other.

Modern fashion in Chile and most of Latin American have lost their traditional roots and are similar to North American. It has become the norm to see a citizen of Chile walking the street in Gap or American eagle. The amount of traditional roots left in clothes largely depends on the location. Rural Latin American and Chile clothes are much more traditional than in the cities. Rural Chileans and Latin Americans who live in tropical climates prefer lightweight cotton clothing in general.

Men usually wear lightweight cotton clothing and loose fitting cotton shirts.

The majority of the woman dress in long skirts and blouses. In contrast, people who live in mountains or places of high elevation need heavier clothing for protection against the cold. Both men and woman alike wear ponchos or will simply use blankets with a slit for the head. Woman also dress in full skirts, long sleeved blouses, and shawls. Different lifestyles require different sorts of fashion. Farmers wear straw or felt hats to protect themselves form the sun. In the highlands men often wear coarse hand woven shirts and baggy pants.

Rural people generally go barefoot or in sandals, and some even make shoes out of automobile tires. Despite modernized fashion Chileans and other Latin Americans, will dress more traditionally for special events or occasions. Chilean cowboys (Hausas) wear big flat-topped hats, heavy ponchos, colorful sashes, fringed leather leggings, and boost with spurs. This is a traditional outfit for Hausas in Chile. The clothing of the Araucarias Indian women of south-central Chile includes brightly colored shawls and heavy silver jewelry.

Many Indian groups wear brightly colored clothing with traditional patterns. In such groups, each area/village has its?? own special designs and colors. Colonials played a large and important role in the alteration and adaptation of Latin American fashion. The cultures different styles of clothing mixed together and became more European/American as time went on. Over the years factories have bee built throughout Latin America and Chile, many of which produced clothes, influencing fashion further. Media greatly promoted the Americanization of clothes in the Hispanic culture as well.

Different regions have held on to their native clothes styles better than others. Traditional clothing, however, can still be found in certain areas of Latin America today. Areas that are more isolated than others have a better chance of holding on to their traditional way of dress. Because these regions are isolated they have not been as colonized as other areas and are visited by outside locations less often. Even if a location isn?? t necessarily isolated the physical characteristics and weather can cause traditional dress to continue.

Extreme heat of cold, high winds, and a rocky area of land are examples of factors that cause modernization to decrease. Clothes worn in Latin American countries today differ greatly from region to region. In Ecuador the Otovindions are well known for their distinctive weave pattern, bright colors, and sharp depiction of figures in their clothing. Clothes in Ecuador and many other Latin American countries are hand made to a larger extent than in America. Bolivia is very much in touch with their traditional roots in clothing today.

Many men and boys wear brightly colored knitted caps with earflaps, which help to keep them warm in the highlands. Due to warm weather in certain areas of Bolivia many Bolivians wear lightweight fabric, especially lightweight cotton. Despite the changes in civilization the many native Bolivian Indians are able to maintain their traditional style of clothing and customs. The woman wear their hair in long pigtails with a soft derby hat on their heads. Bolivian women will wear an apron over a bright skirt with many underskirts, which are cool.

Clothes In Latin America Essay

United States and North America Essay

United States and North America Essay.

1) Broadly trace the major phases of pre-Columbian Native American history as charted by archaeologists and anthropologists. 2) Contrast the views of Europeans of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with those of Native Americans and Africans they encountered on such topics as the environment, social relations, religious beliefs, and slavery. Which group do you consider “savage/ “heathen/ or “barbarian”? Explain. 3) What factors contributed to the rise of modern Europe and an age of expansionism from 1000 to 1600 C. E.?

Contrast the political and economic changes in England with those of her European counterparts during this time.

_ ESSAYS p 2o-‘2–? 4) Within a single generation of Columbus’s death, Spanish conquistadores explored, claimed, and conquered a vast American empire. How was this possible? 5) The “Columbian Exchange” introduced new plants, animals and microbes to people on both sides of the Atlantic. Assess the positive and negative consequences of that exchange. In your opinion, who benefitted most, those living on the western side of the Atlantic or those on the eastern side?

“Spanish conquest of major areas of the Americas set in motion two of the most far-reaching processes in modern history.

One involved microbes, the other precious metals. ” Explain. Consider the experiences of the typical African slave. Where did the person come from? Where would he or she be most likely to go? What happened between the moments of capture and arrival in the western Atlantic? 8) Analyze the backgrounds, ideologies, goals, and modes of settlement among European immigrants to North America that produced distinctly different societies along the Atlanticseaboard in the seventeenth century.

9) Explain the pragmatic as well as the psychological reasons that led white American colonists of the seventeenth century to transform the black servant from a human being to a piece of chattel property. 10) What aspects of Puritan beliefs do you see in contemporary American culture? Are these remnants of Puritanism “good” or “bad” for American society? 11) Did European colonists “settle” North America or “invade” it? Analyzethe areas of, and reasons for, both successful and failed relations between the colonists and the Native Americans.

12) Analyze the reasons for and the results of the attempts of colonial elites to foster stability in the American colonies during the seventeenth century. and political 1 L______________________________________ 13) Discuss the factors that contributed to a population explosion in North America from 1680 to 1750. How and why did immigrants of the eighteenth century differ from those of the previous century? Did America prove to be their land of opportunity? 14) Discuss the various ways by which slaves might have resisted the institution of slavery in the American colonies.

What impacts did religion and family have upon slave resistance? 15) How did population growth, economic colonial cities during the eighteenth century? and new ways of thinking affect life in American 16) Analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Awakening. Was the Great Awakening a “conservative” or a “liberal” movement? 17) Discuss the causes and important developments of the Seven Years’ War in North America. Analyze the consequences of the war for the various “winners” and “losers.

” 18) Discuss the proposed program of George Grenville in 1764-1765 to raise revenue to reduce England’s debts. How and why did the Stamp Act politicize American colonists as never before? 19) The Tea Act was passed in 1773 by Parliament to save the British East India Company from bankruptcy. How and why did it precipitate the final plunge into revolution for the American colonies? 20) What made republicanism a revolutionary ideology in the eighteenth century? What criticisms did revolutionary Americans level against the British monarchy? 2.

United States and North America Essay

Older Than America Essay

Older Than America Essay.

1. Film Information: The title of film we watched this week is Older than America. The lead actors and actresses are Adam Beach, Tantoo Cardinal, Bradley Cooper Georgina Lightning, Bradley Cooper, and Tantoo Cardinal. movie was released Oct 12, 2010 by the IFC Films studio. The length of the film is about one hundred minutes. The film genre is trying to expose the history with horror atmosphere. The director of the film is Georgina Lightning . 2. Brief summary: A woman’s haunting visions reveal a Catholic priest’s sinister plot to silence Rain’s mother from speaking the truth about the atrocities that took place at her Native

American boarding school. The story along with her daughter, Rain haunted by visions that led to her own mother’s forced institutionalization. The film mixes the true story of the US’s forced boarding of Native American children, subjecting them to a wide variety of abuses. The film is not that easy to follow up because it started with some suspension and wired dreams at the beginning.

As the story goes along, more and more clues reveal. It is hard to believe what the boarding school did to Native American kids based on my perception to boarding school.

The film has enough twists and turns to keep my attentions while watching it. 3. Identify the main problem(s) or issue(s) addressed in the film: The problem is mainly addressed in boarding school. They remove children from the influence of their families and culture and assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Father Bartoli paralyzed Rain’s mother in order to hide the truth about atrocities in boarding school. The Native American kids were beaten, whipped, raped and killed in the school. Later on, Father Bartoli also tried to convince Auntie Apple to keep Rain in captivity in order to stop memorizing the truth from the past.

Rain was somehow rescued from tying up her hands by a spiritual guy who is her classmate in boarding school. She intellectually escaped from the room when the cleaner opened the door. Rain and Jonny decided to discover the truth in the mysterious cellar. After Father Bartoli knew Rain had escaped, he decided to go to cellar to kill her. Finally, Rain collected all the clues and memorized all the things happened in boarding school. Father Batoli was tangled up with all the lost soul who were abused and died under his hands. He got punished. 4. Main characters review: The main characters are Jonny, Rain, Luke, and Father Batoli.

Director and co-writer Lightning also plays Rain, the lead role in Older Than America. Rain lives with her police officer boyfriend Johnny (Adam Beach) in snowy, rural Minnesota. Adom Beach plays her boyfriend. Luke (Bradley Cooper) is a government geologist investigating reports of a recent earthquake on his own time; Steve Klamath (Glen Gould) has returned home to run for mayor on an anti-development platform, opposing the incumbent, developer Paul Gunderson (Chris Mulkey). I think the actors are good in these roles especially Johnny because I can feel his love to Rain. They play believable roles, but I was confused about those spiritual figures.

They are not quite believable, though. Those children in the board school make me sympathetic. There is no “Hollywood stereotypes”. 5. Portrayal of authority: Father Bartoli is a typical guy who has authority in religious figures. He is a priest minister who controls all the regulations in boarding school. Auntie Apple (Tantoo Cardinal), who raised Rain, leans heavily upon local Catholic priest Father Bartoli (Steve Yoakum). The two of them shake their heads disapprovingly when Rain and Johnny do not immediately agree to having a Catholic marriage ceremony.

The boarding school is a nightmare to Native American children. Priests tried to remove their identity and assimilated them into American culture. I dislike Father Bartoli. He did not only a lot of bad things to the Native American children but also silenced Rain and her mother to erase the past crimes. 6. Discuss the role of gender in the film: The major players are not predominantly of one sex. Johnny has the subordinate role. I think Women and men are not drawn as variations of stereotypes. Rain plays a kindergarten teacher. She is portrayed as a perceptual and strong Native American woman. She cares about her mother very much.

The matriarchal female roles are not recognized in the film. Jonny is her husband. He loves Rain very much, too. He cares about everything regarding Rain including family. He behaved anxious and crazy when Rain is disappeared. 7. Discuss the role of class and nation: I did not see any characters do anything for living. Jonny works in police office and Rain works in kindergarten. They seem pretty knowledgeable about their work, and they valued for what they do. There is no very obvious class hierarchy in the film. They are all kind of middle class people in modern society. The film did not spend a lot of attention to portray the poor. 8.

Discuss the identity of the Native/tribal/ethnic groups portrayed in the film: I did not really often hear the Native American characters mention something about their identity, but I can feel the sense of strong ethnic tie between real physical characters and those spiritual characters. The souls are the things make this film so special to us. Those souls imply some sort of spiritual culture to Native American. Although they are already died, they still got together and help their companions or ethic group to get through the obstacles.

They are likely to be seen in Native Americans’ perspective. The relationship between them is really subtle but meaningful. The live characters try to expose the truth hidden in the boarding school whereas the spiritual characters keep helping them get through the crises. They somehow interact with each other and make the whole story looks reasonable. It is pretty interesting and makes audience want to watch it. The movie really empathizes with the identity issues although the ethnic characters are not actually from the portrayed ethnic group because basically the film tells the repulsive atrocities and assimilation behind the boarding school back 1900s.

It wants to remind Native American audiences to recognize the history and do not lose the cultural identity no matter what. 9. How are social and familial relationships portrayed: Throughout the film, Native Americans always have a strong family tie and hold together. In the film, I can feel Rain really loves his mother. She takes care of her a lot even she has got some mental issues. She is also really respecting her mother because she comes to her mother and tells her mother every decision she is going to make. In modern days, she still inherits a lot of traditional Native American woman’s traits. Those spiritual figures also give us a strong background of ethnic sense.

They have a connection with Rain to keep reminding her past, and they help her to find the clues of the truth and get her through crisis. Jonny is a good and reliable boyfriend, too. He also really loves Rain. He is sharing of confidences with her and giving care to her when Rain faced up difficulties. I am able to relate to the familial roles and experiences in the film because film makes it really touch my heart. 10. Language: There are few scenes that other language other than English spoken in the film. It is used effectively.

The boy spoke Native American language when the teacher forced them to declare to be Americans in the classroom. He did not want to lose his own culture identity. The use of another language bears a lot value to the film. It exposed the atrocities in boarding school. You would be beaten to death even if you say an Indian word. It set off the inhuman behaviors they did to every Native American child in boarding school. It is ironic that person who actually behaves a savage wants to civilize Native Americans, they called “savage”. 11. Personal likes and dislikes: This movie really is not a view of life in boarding schools, per se. I don’t believe it was intended to be.

It is a metaphor for the effects still felt today by nearly all Native Americans here in the U. S. The movie “is” a period place. All of the issues that the story touches base on are those that Natives all over Indian Country are dealing with today. It is not the direct reflection of one single reason why Natives today face the afflictions of poverty, alcoholism, abuse, unemployment, illiteracy, and loss of identity as a culture, but the culmination of many. Forced attendance into an institution specifically designed to strip away everything it means to be “Indian” just so happens to be the primary area of focus in this film.

The sub-plots add depth to the characters as well as much needed comic relief. Even though this film is classified as a drama, it should be shown in every history class across the United States. 12. Research connection: The story of American Indian boarding schools needs to be told. In the past Indian children were taken from their parents, often forcibly, and put into highly- regimented schools designed to eradicate all signs of their “savagery. ” Use of Indian languages in these schools was forbidden and harshly punished.

This movie probably should have been a “period place” showing the experiences of an Indian child thrust into the soul-killing world of the boarding school. Perhaps it was feared this approach would limit the size of the audience. In any case we get a modern-day story, set in northern Minnesota, in which a boarding school is glimpsed only occasionally in brief flashbacks. Surrounding these flashbacks lie a plot cluttered with a bewildering number of elements: the arrogance of the Catholic Church, shock treatments, commercial development of sacred Indian lands, an election for mayor pitting a white man against a red man, gambling casinos, a love story, hallucinations and visions, family secrets leading to tensions.

Older Than America Essay

The European Conquest of the Americas Essay

The European Conquest of the Americas Essay.

One of the primary reasons for exploration was the search for the Northwest Passage, an imaginary path that could be used to reach Asia without having to go around Africa, or through the Middle East. The Panamanians proved that travel was possible around Africa with a new kind of boat that utilized wind better, but the Spaniards and other Europeans were more interested in a more direct approach to reaching Asia. So they began to head westward.

The Queen of Spain commissioned Christopher Columbus to lead an expedition westward to reach Asia, and he instead stumbled upon the most successful failure in history, The Americas.

He reached the islands of the Bahamas, and thinking that he was indeed in the Indies, he named the inhabitants Indians. Ironically, after making the greatest discovery of the past millennium, his tombstone marked him as a failure, due to the lack of the Northwest Passage.

Once the queen of Spain realized the goldmine (quite literally), that was before her, she sent basically an entire army of conquistadors to seize the assets of the natives, and secure it for the Spanish empire.

The three “G”s are what the Spanish conquistadors sought after. God, Gold, and Glory, all of which they could find in the native inhabitants possession. They “harvested” the souls of the natives by converting them (whether they liked it or not) to Catholicism, and at the same time, took all of their gold and silver, and for this cultural rape, they got their precious glory. Even though the natives were devastated by the diseases brought by the Europeans, and the loss of all natural resources, and the loss of culture, and the loss of their religion, language, land, and dignity, they submitted to the conquerors.

Now let’s discuss for a little bit, the real discoverers of the new world, who aren’t credited for the discovery, but definitely should be. There are many different accounts of why Lief Ericson traveled to the new world, but the end result is always the same, no matter what version of the story you hear. He arrived in this beautiful land filled with plenty of grapes and lush forests and named the new land Vinland (after the amount of grapes). He made a small settlement that only lasted for 2 years, and then returned back to Greenland. It was recorded in sagas by the nords and in folklore, but still by most, Columbus is given credit for the discovery.

After the nords and the Spaniards came the English. The English settled the new world for land. Some were looking for new land to farm and harvest crops with, some were searching for freedom from religious persecution, and others were just looking to start a new life in a new place. They didn’t arrive there planning on turning their backs on the crown, or disobeying the empire in any way, and up until the last few years that the 13 colonies were under British rule, there was no need to revolt.

The new English settlers were still under the empire’s control, however, the colonies and settlements were for the most part self-governing, and relatively independent. The only problems arose when the crown decided to impose taxes on the colonists that were unfair and unjust and the colonists got sick of it and decided to lead a full-fledged revolt against the thrown, resulting in massive bloodshed and an entirely new nation with a unique constitution compiled from bits and pieces of other nations constitutions and blended with perfect harmony to create our United States of America.

So, really there were many different reasons for the exploration, settlement , and conquest of the new world, and all of them came from different nations. All in all, the outcome was the creation of several new nations which would all eventually break away from the nations which brought them to be. Some would become super powers and others would become 3rd world countries, but without the voyages made by the Spaniards and Nords and English, we wouldn’t have any of this.

The European Conquest of the Americas Essay