Pre-Modern Appalachian Essay.
1. How is Appalachia statistically different from the rest of America in terms of income, health, home-ownership and educational statistics? The Appalachian statistics includes the states of West Virginia, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Tennessee. In these states 13.3 million people are living in poverty according to U.S. Census Bureau. The number of people in the region who did not have health insurance last year fell to 13.6 million from 13.7 million from the year before, and median incomes were up in all Appalachian states, where the median income ranged from a little over 36,000 in Mississippi to 68,080 in Maryland.
(Appalachia Statistics, 2008).
Nationally, the homeowner and rental Vacancy rate in 2010 were 2.4% and 9.2%. During the decade, the homeowner vacancy rate is increased 0.7% points, while the rental vacancy rate increased 2.3% points. (U.S. Census Bureau). The 2006 Mayor’s conference found that 51% of people who became homeless the year before were single men, 30% , were single women, 17% were families with children, and 2% wee un-accompanied youth.
As reported in the “State of the South 1998”, the increased number of single parent homes, decreasing educational participation by males, high dropout rate, low numbers of bachelor’s degrees, the aging population and the changing workplace needs while Kentucky has made progress in the elementary and secondary area.
Also post- secondary education and adult education/ the state still lags behind with too many under-educated adults. (South, 1998). 2. What does World System Theory contribute to our understanding of Appalachian distinctiveness? Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. (Bennett). By changing circumstances and recognizing career choices, can be limited by access to opportunities, personal obligations, and social barriers.
Also, people living with severe constraints, such as transportation, communication, due to lack of employment opportunities. ( World-Systems). Regions under-development was due to its isolation from the modern world. Cherokee culture reacted to and was changed by incorporation, followed by a discussion of the ways in which capitalist values came to change social relations between in habitants of the world. World System is seen as an invaluable interpretive tool for reformulating the historiography of this region.
Identification Terms: 1. Appalachian stereotypes in film-
Appalachia is portrayed as stupid, ignorant, inbred people in society and has been the butt of jokes in movies, TV shows, comic books, cartoons, books, television and radio. This is where negative stereotypes reinforce negative attitude of the Appalachia Mountains and the people. Best way to explain: Jed, on the Clampets, found oil on his land shooting at a possum and the rich west coast banker and out of state corporation, made him rich! Truth is, Jed didn’t get a dime, they flashed a mineral deed at him and had the sheriff come and lock him off his own land. His children did have to leave to find work that much is true. This is how the mass media and the public view us as if we are so ignorant that they can steal our land, blow up entire mountains and turn our creeks orange on every western on television.
To develop opportunities in life, jobs, advancement, education for betterment. We, as a society, also develop relationships with our children, parents, friends on a daily basis. It addresses issues of concern to developing countries relating to social and economic development. Development can also refer to land use, science and technology, social science, international and regional, Business and professionally, music. In the Appalachian Mountains, development would refer to change in the environment, family life and jobs.
3. The Ozarks-
Native American people first inhabited the Ozarks 12,000 years ago. The Spanish arrived in 1500s, native people- Osage, Missouri, Illinois, Caddo tribe. French pioneers became the first permanent settlers but Scott Irish settlers who migrated from Appalachia eventually dominated the Ozarks and created a Appalachian culture. The Ozarks are located in the southern portion of the United States and occupies territory in the states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri and Arkansa.
In Kentucky, we consider a bushwhacker as a person who lays in wait to rob or kill you or both. A person who is up to no good and is usually going to jail often is a bushwhacker for stealing cattle in every western I have ever seen. A guerrilla fighter named after William C. Quantrill of the Civil War. He led an attack on 150 people, who were shot, killed, or burned to death. His men were considered outlaws by Union forces, but they became an official Confederate troop in August of 1862. William Quantrill was considered the leader of what was to be called,,” Quantrill’s Bushwhackers”.
They migrated from Appalachia eventually dominated the Ozarks and created an Appalachian culture. They were considered the primary heritage of people of Celtic culture Scotts, Scotts Irish. 6. Pre-modernity-
Pre-modernity tended to see the events of life as being the result of the laws of nature, laws that could be understood by reason or rationality. In Appalachia, you can find people who tend to live according to many cultural values of the Celtics. Christians are more likely to be seen in and out of church and compartmentalize their lives. Living in clusters and developing their own communities where they live by whatever the laws of nature give them and be able to rationalize the reason.
To incorporate the cultural values, motives of another or group as thru learning with socialization. In school, students have accepted multi- cultural education more when they think their peers accept inter-racial dating. Working or spending time with people from other races can lower one’s level of prejudice. Smith and Bylunds ,(1983) survey found that Appalachians are less likely to believe that racism is a large problem in the United States. Appalachian students may be less receptive to multicultural education.
8. Encyclopedia of Appalachian-
Is the first encyclopedia dedicated to the region, people, culture, history, and geography of Appalachia. The encyclopedia has a collection of history, artifacts, and folklore and cultural and behavior patterns of the mountains. Included are history of the first settlers and ancestors and how they lived and raised their families.
9. Appalachian Museum/Norris Tennessee-
The museum is located in the town of Norris in Anderson County. They offer viewing of a collection of historic buildings filled with artifacts and folk lore associated with Appalachian. It was established by John Rice Irwin on 65 acreas. The museum has been featured in national travel magazines, the Smithsonian magazine, and national and international newspapers. One of the most popular events, such as “Christmas in Old Appalachian, which attracts hundreds of Appalachian people who are musicians and craftspeople will introduce you to the cultures, beliefs, craft-making, making of foods and jelly.
10. Settlement patterns-
Appalachia was slow to develop any substantial urban pattern. It shared with the rest of the south an emphasis on agriculture-that continued after other regions of the country had begun their rush toward manufacturing and urban living. People tended to stay where they were, and as time passed they became attached to the land, family and community.
Film: A hidden America-Children of the Mountains, a documentary on 20/20/ABC News. Feb. 10, 2009. For two years, Diana Sawyer followed four Appalachian children who sleep in vehicles, avoid thievery, alcoholism and despair of their family and conditions surrounding the family. What they did not emphasize was that one boy was determined to better himself and he got a scholarship from football to attend college. Or the mother who walked 16 miles roundtrip, four hours total to get her GED. Which she did!!!!!! Or men who work 9 to 12 hours, 6 days a week underground despite the safety concern since it is the best paying job in the region.
Also there are teachers, social workers, doctors and dentists reaching out and helping a population isolated by steep hills and lack of transport. They even showed a dentist who had converted a bus and traveled into the mountains to pull teeth, educate people on the importance of dental care. But what was discussed was the reason so many teeth had to be pulled out was that they drank too much mountain dew. This was stereotyping at its finest!!!!Most people I have ever known that was so poor that they couldn’t travel to the dentist, certainly didn’t have money to buy soda for themselves and their kids. It was usually” soupbeans and taters”!