Generational Differences in the Workplace Essay

Generational Differences in the Workplace Essay.


This article attempts to describe the different age groups composing each of the categories of generations in the current U.S. workforce and their distinguishing characteristics. The piece also seeks to analyze how each group’s differing traits may impact an organization. The main purpose of the paper is to teach management how recognizing these differing views may help them to better motivate and satisfy the members of each group.


So who are these different generational groups? The author has broken today’s workforce down into three identifiable groups by birth year.

These groups are Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. They will be described in more detail in the following paragraphs.

The first, and oldest group, are the Baby Boomers. This category includes those born between the years of 1946 to 1964. The Baby Boomers are the largest group and many of them can be found throughout the managerial ranks. They are reputed to be self-absorbed and have a feeling of entitlement.

This group is said to value success, teamwork, inclusion, and rule-challenging. They are open to change and loyal to their employer.

Generation X is comprised of those born between 1965 and 1979. This group is concerned with career options and a balance of work and home life. They seek fulfilling work but are cynical of corporations and government. This cynicism leads themnto being less loyal than their predecessors (the Baby Boomers). Generation Xers are computer literate and demand fulfilling work while still craving a fun work environment.

The third group is Generation Y. This includes those born from 1980 to present (per reports made in 2005 and 2006). According to the author this group is optimistic but realistic, globally aware, and inclusive. They are very technologically inclined and diverse in their attitude. They yearn for a work/family balance and independence though they need feedback from their employer. They are also curious and results oriented. This generation can become disenchanted with presented with entry level jobs for they seek challenges.


The author used a number of other studies to reach his conclusions. The Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) seems to have been the main instrument in gathering information. This study allows participants to rank the measures they find most valuable.


In the “Implications for Managers” section of the paper, the author makes suggestions for how a manager should treat each class. He has used the research to draw his conclusions. His suggestions seem based on the traits and behaviors each group tends to exhibit. For the Baby Boomers he states that they can be motivated with money, overtime, praise, and position. He enforces the idea that this generation is loyal. For Generation X he suggests making work fun and meaningful. He also thinks lending an understanding ear to this group could be helpful. Generation Y needs exciting and relevant work, says the author. Make sure they have opportunity for career advancement. Also a manger should be mindful of their need for feedback.


The main idea of this article is that the difference in values and beliefs of each generation can have an impact on the job. Understanding these differences and how to make the most of them is key to satisfying and motivating each group. The paper seeks to explain these differences, why they tend to occur, and how to use those differences to the employer’s advantage.


One main drawback to the ideas set forth in this article is assuming everyone in each generation holds the same values and beliefs. In this vain, managers may be able to cater to a large majority of employees but can miss satisfying the wants and needs of certain individuals. Although the research may encapsulate certain behaviors and traits of most of the people, there will be variables that it does not take into account.


The author’s conclusions may serve managers well. His conclusions based on the research and following suggestions seem to be based in logic and geared toward getting the most out of and retaining employees. It probably does help to understand how best to motivate others if you understand why they feel the way they do. Although generation and age may not be the only mitigating factor in an employee’s attitude, it seems to be a good starting point.


As stated previously, age (date of birth) can not account solely for a person’s values and beliefs. As in anything else, there are always variables that can skew data. Some variables that are not reflected in the data are financial status, marital status, locale, and a wide variety of other things. However, if it is possible to meet the needs of many while only having to concentrate on a few “one-offs” then these recommendations can only serve to ease a manager’s position.


I am probably one of the “one-offs” but I’ve always marched to the beat of a different drummer. I have, however, been witness to many of these stereotypes. I have worked plenty of jobs where the generational differences were quite apparent. Sometimes the “old-timers” actually relish that name and take pride in it. The difference in attitudes and values can be glaring. I defintiely think it is good that there is information out there to help managers understand these differences and help to deal with them.


Generational Differences In The Workplace: Personal Values, Behaviors, And Popular Beliefs. The Clute Institute, 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. .

Generational Differences in the Workplace Essay

Fedex Corp. vs. Ups Study Case Essay

Fedex Corp. vs. Ups Study Case Essay.

Set in June 2004, this case invites the student to assess the financial performance of FedEx Corp. and United Parcel Service, Inc (UPS). The two firms have competed intensely for dominance of the overnight express package industry. This case is intended for use in an introductory discussion of corporate value creation and its sources.

Questions for Students

1. Contrast between Corporate excellence and Financial excellence. If you had to identify one of those companies as excellent, which company would you choose? On what basis did you make your decision? More generally, what is excellence in business?
2. Explain and assess EVA (economic profit).
3. Compare and contrast financial ratios.
4. Prepare to describe in class the competition in the overnight package delivery industry, and the strategies by which those two firms are meeting the competition. What are the enabling and inhibiting factors facing the two firms as they pursue their goals? Do you think that either firm can attain a sustainable competitive advantage in this business?
5. Why did FedEx’s stock price outstrip UPS’s during the initiation of talks over liberalized air cargo routes between the U.S. and China? Assuming a perfectly efficient stock market, how might one interpret a 14% increase in FedEx’s market value of equity?
6. How have FedEx and UPS performed since the early 1990s? Which firm is doing better? In class, prepare to discuss the insights you derived from the two firms’ financial statements, financial ratios, stock-price performance, and economic profit (economic value added or EVA). Also, prepare to describe how EVA is estimated, and its strengths and weaknesses as a measure of performance.

Fedex Corp. vs. Ups Study Case Essay

Gdp Is Not a Perfect Measure of Economic Essay

Gdp Is Not a Perfect Measure of Economic Essay.

By definition the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is a measure of the income and expenditures of an economy. Also, it can be defined as the total market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.

Base on GDP definition and base on many economist points of view regarding to the definition of well being. I understand that GDP is not a perfect measure of economic well being of a nation for many reasons:

1. The gross domestic product (GDP) is not a sufficient measure because it fails to capture important ingredients of prosperity, such as health, personal freedom, and security. 2. GDP excludes the value of leisure: Leisure is an economic good. All other things being equal, more leisure is better than less leisure. But all other things are not likely to be equal when it comes to consuming leisure. Consuming more leisure means supplying less work effort. And that means producing less GDP.

If everyone decided to work 10% fewer hours, GDP would fall. But that would not mean that people were worse off. In fact, their choice of more leisure would suggest they prefer the extra leisure to the goods and services they give up by consuming it. Consequently, a reduction in GDP would be accompanied by an increase in satisfaction, not a reduction.

3. GDP excludes the value of non-market activities, even though these activities are productive and important. Examples: child-rearing, volunteer work. 4. GDP excludes the quality of the environment: without regulations, firms might be able to produce more (which raises GDP) while worsening the environment. For example, companies might produce an additional $200 billion in goods and services but create pollution that makes us feel worse off by, say, $300 billion. The GDP accounts simply report the $200 billion in increased production. Indeed, some of the environmental degradation might itself boost GDP. Dirtier air may force us to wash clothes more often, to paint buildings more often, and to see the doctor more often, all of which will tend to increase GDP.

5. GDP does not indicate transactions occurring outside the market called underground economy. For example, a carpenter might build a small addition to a dentist’s house in exchange for orthodontic work for the carpenter’s children. Although income has been earned and output generated in this example of bartering, the transaction is unlikely to be reported for income tax or other purposes and thus is not counted in GDP. Illegal activities are not reported for income taxes for obvious reasons and are thus difficult to include in GDP.

In conclusion, G.D.P. does not take into account some of the negative effects of economic growth, like pollution. It does not factor in leisure time, or parts of the “informal economy”: like parents’ unpaid care for their own children that have value but not necessarily measurable, marketable value. It does not give any sense of how equitably distributed a country’s wealth is; a country could theoretically have both the world’s highest G.D.P. and the world’s highest poverty rate simultaneously. It also does not reflect quality of life or happiness in any given country. Robert Kennedy articulated this concern in a speech in 1968 when he lamented that GDP “measures everything .except that which makes life worthwhile.”

1. by Libby Rittenberg and Timothy Tregarthen (2009). Principles of Macroeconomics, 1st edition. 2. Jack A Chambless (2005). An Applied Approach to Macroeconomics, 2/e 3. Catherine, Rampell. (2008). Alternatives to the G.D.P. The New York Times: Business. 4. Roger Bate. (2009). What Is Prosperity and How Do We Measure It? AEI Outlook series .

Gdp Is Not a Perfect Measure of Economic Essay

A Good Filipino Citizen Essay

A Good Filipino Citizen Essay.

Music today is very influential to teenagers. Some may even say they cannot live without it. The reason could be because of the artist singing their favorite songs, the beat or instrument used. Or it could be the message of the song. I like music, too. How a song would make me feel, the lyrics to be exact, is what is important to me. I usually listen to foreign artists like Taylor Swift and Jessie J. Lately, I took notice of Noel Cabangon’s music.

His voice and guitar skills blend perfectly. His song writing is also something else.

I first heard Mr. Cabangon perform during President Noynoy Aquino’s inauguration. His songs promote nationalism. He identified his work as “noise” that he hopes will awaken dignity in us. One that stands out is “Ako’y Isang Mabuting Pilipino”. The lyrics provide examples of how to be a good Filipino citizen. This inspired me but it is not so usual to find a Filipino to be all that is described in the song.

And the question came to me – what does it take to be a good citizen, or a good person, at least?

I am reminded by my values education class where positive values are emphasized. We are instructed well about these, yet it seems like we do not exhibit them. Why do I say this? I have been hearing a lot of bad news about the country. There are never-ending issues about manipulated elections, second-hand choppers allegedly sold as brand new by the former First Gentleman to the Philippine National Police, officials blaming each other, road accidents involving violence and resulting to death. These happenings seem to indicate that we are losing the values we were raised with.

Concern for others, discipline, obedience and respect – where did all these go? It appears that government officials who cheat and steal people’s money have no shame for themselves. What about the values we Filipinos are known for, like hiya? Even private citizens give the impression that we have no concern for one another. We became used to bad news that it appears as if it is part of daily life. It seems so common in our society that it is hard to trust those around us. Could it be that our values are compromised by selfishness? When shall I hear more good news than bad?

In August of this year, a 12-year old girl named Janela Arcos Lelis carried the Philippine flag across floodwaters and rain. What she did was hailed heroic, in honor of the national symbol. She was given recognition and awarded a cash prize. Thinking about that, I believe that what she did may be done by anyone else put in the same situation. But why did she catch so much attention? Perhaps it was because she was too young to be expected to do that. Or maybe because no one would rely on it at a time when saving one’s self must come first.

Time and again, we are amazed that some people are actually good. We learn about our Army personnel sacrificing their lives to rescue flood victims of typhoon Ondoy; taxi drivers returning tourist bags filled with money despite poverty. These give me hope and make me realize that all is not lost. It is possible to rediscover Filipino values that may have faded away. But where do I start looking? Change is quite difficult for us, the youth, when we observe that those we look up to are the very ones who lack the ideals we should imitate.

Then again, I come back to Noel Cabangon’s song. It advises me to listen to my parents, study hard, fall properly in line, avoid prohibited drugs, and to cross streets in designated areas. These would reflect discipline and respect. I will value honesty and encourage my friends to do the same. Soon, when I reach legal age, I will protect and fight for my right to vote. My ways may be simple, but they can go further. If we all start with something small, we may be able to change things around us.

Drivers shall obey the rules, traffic enforcers shall refuse bribes, and civilians shall take responsibility of their trash. Those in power shall be guided by their conscience in doing their duties. If we look inside ourselves, we may find something to contribute to this cause. We may even inspire others to do the same. I hope this may also be your realization. I love my country and I advocate for the return to time-honored Filipino values for my sake and for the sake of the future generations. I may not be as influential as Mr. Noel Cabangon, but I can be a good Filipino. We all can be.

A Good Filipino Citizen Essay

Federated Science Fund Negotiation Essay

Federated Science Fund Negotiation Essay.

Summary: This was a multiparty negotiation, which involved 6 players all with very different negotiation styles. It was an exercise in which teams easily form a coalition. There were concessions about the value added each team would bring to the “table”, and my team in a situation of power saw how negatively the other teams reacted in name of fairness and how important was to share the pie.

During this exercise there was a 3-stage process: individual assessment, team’s assessment and negotiation.

1) During my individual assessment: I did a thorough analysis of what I believed it was Stockman’s fair value. My reservation price was $215,000 as I did a mean value between 230,000 and 197,000. However I was prepared to accept 197,000 in case my counterparties had convincing arguments or/and have used the Sharpley’s method for distributing the pie.

2) During Stockman’s assessment, my team: My partner was comfortable with my analysis and we rapidly agreed on the strategy. He was very favorable of having a cooperative attitude.

As a team, we decided to start negotiating as a group of 3 in order to expand the pie to everyone.

3) During the teams’ assessment when we reassembled: There was a consensus that we were better off together than separately, and we decided to do a simultaneous negotiation in order to guarantee that no one was left out of the deal. Everyone wanted to have an even participation. There were two main breakpoints that change the course of the negotiation: the anchoring and a vertiginous switching of power positions.

What did I do right?

– I did the anchoring of the thought process; I presented the scenario that was more favorable to Stockman, my team. As below:  – I Assumed that 480 total was the fair value and started backwards by subtracting the added-value from the person that left the deal. Based on this analysis Stockman was the biggest contribution to the pie, it represented 56.25% of the conjunct agreement. – United was not receptive to this deal, and they were not impressed that at my eyes they were worth only 12.5%. United instantly turn to Turbo for a deal. That attitude was surprising to me as I was expecting a more aggressive tactic of United to do a collision with Stockman.

– My initial splitting did not convince United and Turbo as in total they had less than partnering together. I knew and acknowledged that, so I offer Turbo and United some of my 270 share. That was the right thing to do, however I should have reclaimed something in exchange. One should only give up a share of the pie if it has something in return. “Free lunches turn out to be expensive lunches” in the means that people will always ask for more if they don’t feel they need to compromise. – I was not favorable at all to divide equally the pie. I knew my value and was determined to not let go what I considered my fair bit.

What did I do wrong?

– I started to get nervous and eventually I panic when I realized that Turbo was starting to be more interested to negotiate with United. United in the midst of an angry Turbo, took advantage and ask for a bigger pie to continue with Stockman. This was a crucial moment, which I internally panic. I should have asked for a break and set again my direction with my partner. Internally I needed “some minutes in the balcony”, to decompressed. – When I saw that Turbo and United were building up forces, I put in a table a completely new negotiation, which was very disruptive, compared to the previous one:

– In this negotiation scenario, United saw their share increasing from 60 to 90 and Turbo would remain more or less the same. Turbo felt berated and betrayed, based on the equity theory they did not accepted and demanded for more. – I learn a big lesson, never radically change negotiation positions.
Doing such a radical change underestimates the seriousness of your previous arguments and injures radically your position. One should take the time to negotiate and not feel compelled to do quick decisions. In this particular exercise I should have listened more. I got exposed for trying to control and leverage my position of power. Nevertheless, I managed to do a deal still within my initial reservation price.

What would I like to do different?

– My Stockman partner was sitting on the bench next to United I guess that made me feel in a certain point of the negotiation isolated. Adding to that, I was the only one in the negotiation with calculations and without my phone to add up and do the recalculation of the values on the spot. – I would mirror the behavior of my colleagues next time, if no one shares calculation sheets I will not show any that I have made. Next time, I will push myself more to be more spontaneous and try to use more persuasive arguments than analytical calculations during the negotiation. – Next time I will listen more and try to understand what is considered as “fairness”, for instance United just being part of the deal might have been fair per se. I lost a good opportunity to stay only with my first analysis and just duel on a psychological construct that United was a small company that developed research in an area that was not Stockman’s main interest, so being part of the deal for United was already a bonus. (I had a better relationship with Turbo).

– At the end of the negotiation I just wanted to protect my reservation price at all cost, I lost control and got in the frame of the yes bias. Maybe I am not as much of a risk taker as I thought I was. – Next time, I will get in line with the intentions of my counterparty and announce my intentions and which are the concessions that I think are reasonable. It is always good to start conceding little and slowly progressively do some concessions. People love to feel they are doing progress in their negotiation and it should be gradual – higher satisfaction for the people involved. – It was good to have done an analytical analysis, however next time I will not share entirely my thought process. I should have used my good planning for my advantage during the negotiation.

Federated Science Fund Negotiation Essay

Sentimental Value Essay

Sentimental Value Essay.

“That which we obtain too easily, we esteem too lightly. It is dearness only which gives everything its value.” This quote by Thomas Paine is saying that everything we can get our hands on easily is appreciated too much, and that the value of the things we get should be measured by the amount of effort we put forth to obtain it. I too, like Thomas Paine, believe that the things that people value the most is those things which they have worked hard to obtain.

This sentimental value can and should be more important to people than the objects monetary value.

When people work hard for something, it feels really good when you achieve your goal. For example, let’s say a student received a car for his birthday. It could be a very nice, expensive car, and while he would highly appreciate it, he may feel a bit embarrassed to have not done anything to deserve such a gift.

Now let’s say that same student, instead, got a job and worked for a car. He may not be able to afford a nice car, but he would take pride in his accomplishment of buying a car for himself. This shows how working hard to get what you want can be more rewarding than simply receiving it.

Without putting forth effort to get what you deserve, you are simply getting what you want served on a silver platter. In the real world, this doesn’t happen too often. It is nice to enjoy what you have obtained through luck for otherwise, but no matter what, it will always feels better to obtain things through hard work. People who do not ever need to work for what they want will often become lazy and dependent on other people. People will become annoyed with you, and may stop bothering with you altogether. This is why people must value what the accomplished, as opposed to only valuing what they can get from others.

It is clear that the value of things in this world should not be measured by the amount of money it is worth, but rather the amount of work it took to obtain that money. In this world, there will always be people who will take their fortune for granted, but yet there will always be the people who worked hard to get where they are today. Hopefully, everyone will eventually realize that the most valuable things in this world are those things which people worked the hardest to obtain.

Sentimental Value Essay

Net Promoter Scores Essay

Net Promoter Scores Essay.

The Net Promoter Score is calculated by taking the percentage of Promoter customers and subtract the percentage of Detractor customers. The following is an example of a net promoter score calculation. 21 customers responded to their satisfaction of Product X on a 0-to-10 point scale. The results were 9,4,7,4,2,0,10,9,3,6,8,7,3,9,8,8,7,9,10,4, and 2. There are 6 Promoters, which is 28.6% and 9 Detractors, which is 42.9%. The percentage of Detractors (42.9%) subtracted from the percentage of Promoters (28.6%) is -14.3. This score means that there are more customers who are very unhappy with Product X and would not recommend it to others.

This feedback could be relatively bad for the company that manufactures Product X. The NPS assists in the value of a company because it is greatly influences business growth.

One criticism of using Net Promoter Scores is that it is a measure of little value because it misses the predictors of future sales and growth. It is a substitute measure for satisfaction and quality. Highly interesting products will generate passionate customers, while other products are not interesting, nor are they discussed.

This shows that the net promoter score does not report actual product “buzz”. Another NPS criticism is that the values are not numerically unique in meaning. For example, a company could have 60 percent promoters and 40 percent detractors, so the NPS would be 20. Another company could have 20 percent promoters and 0 percent detractors, with a NPS of 20. They both have an NPS of 20 but the companies are very different when comparing the percentage of Promoters and Detractors. This information concludes my Net Promoter Score paper assignment.


Net Promoter Scores Essay

Concept of Value Proposition Essay

Concept of Value Proposition Essay.

The concept of value proposition is often used in marketing literature [Anderson et al. 2006, Clarke III 2001]. Value proposition is understood in this paper as a composition of values delivered to customers by a company in order to satisfy their needs. Values are delivered to customers through products or services, other instruments of marketing or in other ways (e.g. by corporate credibility). They can be differently categorized. Probably the simplest categorization of values includes functional and symbolic values. In the traditional economy a very common rule of value proposition formulation is combining the price level with the values for customer.

According to this rule, companies offering inferior values charge customers lower prices than companies offering superior values. Hence, there can be several strategies of value proposition distinguished (e.g. inferior value – low prices, superior value – high prices). The application possibilities of this rule on the Internet are constrained.

The rule explains well the strategies of companies taking part in a monetary value exchange, such as online stores.

Among them there are companies selling a product with inferior customer service and charging low price and other companies that enrich the same product in great customer service and expect higher prices for it. Referring values to price level may not always be used on the Internet for several reasons. In the online environment many companies offer superior customer values for free. To these companies belong newspapers publishing content or companies offering communications services on the Internet, such as e-mail or instant messaging providers.

Moreover, according to Kim on the Internet the strategy of offering superior values and charging high prices is rarely adopted [2004]. In traditional economy this strategy is most often used when marketing high quality, well-branded products to affluent customers. Author distinguished five following strategies of value proposition on the Internet: strategy of efficiency, free values, complete customer solutions, unique values and value co-creation. It is worth mentioning, that these strategies have been formulated according to different criteria and may be merged.

Strategy of Efficiency

Efficiency strategy consists in offering values to customers, which are to lower their transactional, interaction and other costs and in this way allow savings of time and money. The examples of companies adopting this strategy are online auctions. Due to supply aggregation they offer wide range of products, which leads to lowering customer transactional costs within offer search and analyses. Moreover, these companies decrease also customer costs by reduction of information asymmetry. This phenomenon occurs when one of the transaction parties has greater knowledge than the other party and is able to take advantage of it.

Usually, this is the seller who has greater knowledge, which is the best seen on the second-hand market. Online auctions reduce the information asymmetry using the seller’s evaluation performed by buyers. It is worth mentioning that online auctions also deliver knowledge on buyers, which allows reducing the risk and the transactional costs of sellers. Research of Garciano and Kaplan showed that transactional costs of buying or selling a used car with the use of Internet is twice as low as without it [Zott, Amid, 2001]. Many Internet companies apply the efficiency strategy while offering values related to communications. These solutions such as e-mail services, instant communicators, social networking websites also reduce the transactional costs of a customer.

Strategy of Free Values

Free value strategy is based on offering values to customers, for which they are not charged. This strategy has been popular since the early years of commercial use of Internet. As a consequence many companies, among which newspapers, charge customers outside Internet, while offering these values for free online, which in turn leads to problems with generating income. Strategy of free values can be a part of a broader business strategy assuming the revenue generation. This can be performed twofold: revenues can be generated by another group of customers or the company can charge customers for premium values. The first concept assumes that the company is acting on a multisided market and needs at least two distinct groups of customers to generate revenue [Evans, 2003]. Internet portals have two distinct groups of customers. The first one are final users who take advantage of values offered by the portal for free such as news, e-mail or search engine.

The other group of customers are advertisers, who provide the portal with revenues, for which they can display advertisement. In this case the free value strategy is used in order to build customer base, on which company will offer paid services for the other group of customers (advertisers). The other method of offering free values is based on acquisition of customers, who take advantage of free values and are also offered premium values, for which they have to pay. This strategy is often called freemium, which is the composite of free and premium. This strategy may seem to be very attractive, however its biggest challenge is the necessity of offering so precious values, for which customers – who already receive free values – will be willing to pay.

Strategy of Complete Customer Solutions

Strategy of complete customer solutions relies on offering a broad scope of values from certain categories[*]. Internet technologies enable presenting a high number of products in online stores, which results from low technological constraints. As a consequence online stores often shape their offer according to the long tail rule, which assumes offering both best-sellers, as well as niche products. Moreover, many companies offer values based on the economies of scope. This concept consists in offering products from different categories.

A travel agency taking advantage of economies of scope would also offer insurance, car rentals etc. An often quoted example of complete customer solution is The company offers wide range of products (long tail) including niche products, and at the same time offers products from other categories such as household electronics (economies of scope). The strategy of complete customer solutions describes well also the strategy of Google. The company delivers different sets of values (products) allowing search, exchange and management of information in the online environment.

Strategy of Unique Values

The next of formulated is the strategy of unique values. A company follows this strategy, if it offers scarce values on the market. This situation is very attractive, as it allows charging high prices and thus taking advantage of high margin. The greatest disadvantage of this strategy are difficulties in creating scarce values and then sustaining the scarcity in long term. The adoption of unique values strategy may result from innovations, privileged access to resources or operating in a niche. Innovations in value offerings may lead to situation in which a company offers unique values to customer. Examples of companies following this strategy are Skype and Google with its search engine. A company may offer unique values which result from a privileged access to resources.

This strategy is adopted by media companies, such as newspapers, TV or radio stations, that offer online content unavailable on other websites. Uniqueness of values offered may also result from operating in a niche, in which consumer needs are different and should be satisfied with different composition of values. Acting in a niche is often combined with a low competition pressure and a higher level of margin. A example for this strategy may be an online store offering shoes in large sizes. The strategy of unique values is attractive as it allows to burden customer with higher financial and non-financial costs.

It means that a company may charge higher prices or impose higher transactional costs on them (such as slowly operating website). In an opposite case, when a company offers common values, which are also offered by a numerous number of competitors, reduction of monetary and non-monetary customer costs may be a method of increasing values for a customer. This is easily to notice in the sector of online stores offering household equipment, books, music or websites allowing hotel reservation or airline ticket purchase. In these industries, companies often compete on the Internet with low prices, which may lead to deterioration of their margin.

Strategy of Value Co-Creation

The strategy of value co-creation assumes that customers actively participate in shaping the value proposition, which will be delivered to themselves or to other customers. According to Prahalad and Ramaswany, this is the value co-creation with customers that is the essence of competition in modern economy [2004]. The scope of the strategy is broad. It includes the situation, in which a customer co-creates composition of values with a company for himself. The customers may also create values orientated not at themselves, but at other customers. In both cases, the process of value co-creation must be developed on the basis of mutual commitment [Dobiegała-Korona, 2009]. In the first case, customer’s activity can be described as mass customization. According to Kleeman and Voss mass customization refers to „isolated activity of individual customers (..), not to the collective activity of many individuals” [2008].

Within the mass customization the value exchange can be described as one-to-one and the participation of other customers is not required. The examples of implementation of mass customization are numerous. Consumers may build their own computer, change the equipment of a car or design clothes. Value co-creation orientated at other customers assumes that a customer actively participates in activities aimed at creating values for other customers. The scope of these activities is also broad. They include creating and publishing content on the Internet, interaction and communication with other customers in social networking websites or software development in the Open Source movement. Usually a numerous number of customers (users) create values for other more numerous group of customers – recipients. The value exchange can be described as all-to-all, as opposed to the former one-to-one.


Competing on the Internet requires an adoption to the new environment. The way in which companies shape their values propositions is also a subject of change. Author proposed in this paper five strategies of customer value proposition. The proposed strategies are an alternative to the traditional approach combining values for customer with price level. Porter’s competitive strategies comply with the traditional approach to value proposition. According to his conclusion a company should act either as a price leader and offer low value for low prices, or as a differentiator and offer differentiated values for higher prices. New approach to value proposition on the Internet requires then new ways of achieving competitive advantage. A research combining the proposed strategies with new approach to competitive advantage may be a continuation of this paper.

You may also be interested in the following: mcdonald’s value proposition

Concept of Value Proposition Essay

American Civic Values Essay

American Civic Values Essay.

In America our society has always been a morals run country, from our domestic everyday lives. Our society, groups with different civic values with who have a lot of power on our lives that we live everyday which includes schools and religious groups. There are some individuals who hold our civic values to a higher standard than those who have no regard for other members in their community. When it comes to undermining American civic values our media has a lot to be blame for as they promote and glamorize violence and illegal activities and does not show how communities can help each other adhere to civic policies.

It is important for large groups to have set behaviors to adhere to, and civic values are important in keeping America a peaceful place that is safe for us as well as children. America has become a haven for special interest groups. If people don’t like something you say or do, plan on your freedom turning inwards and being used against you.

Our society is no longer based off a country and its people as a whole, but by individual groups. The American civic values have dropped as special interest groups are in favor of political ground.

There are several penalties that fail to adhere to the civic value such as “blue laws” these laws regulate behavior and restrict activities or the sale of goods on a Sunday to accommodate religious means. For an example in parts of one county here in North-East Florida we are not allowed to purchase alcohol on Sunday this day is constituted for religious matters. Another example of a blue law is the law in Pennsylvania where hunting is prohibited on Sunday’s as this day is recognized for a day of rest according to the religious groups.

American Civic Values Essay

Personal and organizational values Essay

Personal and organizational values Essay.

What are personal and organizational values?

Values are one of the most special achievements as human beings. A person acts not just in service to personal needs, but also out of a broader sense of what is important, purposeful and meaningful (Cynthia D. Scott, 1993). Values are the building blocks of organizational culture. They represent an organization’s basic guidelines about what is significant; how business is conducted; how people relate to one another; its clients and customers relationships; and its decision making strategies.

Values affect every aspect of the organization, and take years, constant attention, and perseverance to change. Values serve to inspire and foster commitment, motivation, innovation and trust around principles of conduct that are held inviolate.

They reflect intentions and provide guidance for every action when there is a gap between intentions and reality. When actions do not comply with stated intentions, the gap becomes a source of cynicism and loss of confidence and momentum toward change and innovation.

Values are represented in decision making processes, interpersonal interactions, leadership actions, reward structures, supervisory styles, and information and control systems. Each plays a role in sustaining the structure of a value, and each serves as a lever of change. To stimulate an organization toward change, we must minimize or fill the gap between the stated values and value actions (Rodney Napier, 1997).

Conflict between personal and organizational values and goals

How do organizational and personal goals differ? Organizational goals are carefully and logically determined. Frequently, this must be discussed with other people in order to define them exactly. An organizational goal is one that we understand and commit to intellectuality. A personal goal, on the other hand, is a private and often purely emotional commitment (Merrill E. Douglass, 1993). Value conflicts arise when people are working in a situation where there is a conflict between personal and organizational values. Under these conditions, employee may have to struggle with the conflict between what they want to do and what they have to do (Diane F. Halpem, 2005).

This can be a distracting experience as you face changes, contrasts and a few surprises, and have to make some sense of all this (Henry Tosi, 2000). For example, people whose personal values dictate that it is wrong to lie may find themselves in a job where lying becomes necessary for success. Successful job performance may require a bold lie, or perhaps just a shading of the truth.

People who experience such a value conflict will give the following kinds of comments: “This job is eroding my soul,” or “I cannot look at myself in the mirror anymore knowing what I’m doing. I can’t live with myself. I don’t like this.” If workers are experiencing this kind of mismatch in values on a chronic basis, the burnout is likely to arise. However, a Machiavellian individual, who believes that the end justifies the means, will have a better fit with a job in which lying is essential to success and will probably not experience value conflict and many other situations (Diane F. Halpem, 2005).

Value-driven management

Value-driven philosophy is designed to develop effective and value-driven leadership at every level in the organization. The decision making and leadership styles of effective business leaders are value-driven men and women who create value for their organizations that goes far beyond mere stockholder value. This is not to suggest that they should disregard profitability as an important corporate goal, but it is instead to state that the financial bottom line—as a value—is integrated with other value drivers in their leadership behavior. Value Driven Management and value driven leadership are interactive and synergistic.

Value-driven organizations will tend to develop value-driven leaders, and value driven leaders will create value over time for their organization and their organizations are becoming more valuable and fulfilled, and continue to grow and thrive throughout their lifetimes. This view is especially significant in today’s growing force of high employment, knowledgeable workers, and the concept of measuring and managing organizational knowledge as intangible financial assets.

There are 8 value drivers that impact organizational and individual decision making. These value drivers are to some degree interrelated and overlapping, but in total, they encompass the universe of the organization, combining the internal and external variables it must confront throughout its existence:  external cultural values, organizational cultural values, individual employee values, customer values, supplier values, third-party values, owner values and competitor values. When these value drivers are used systematically and properly in the company’s decision processes, and when their individual and collective impact is weighed and balanced, in organizational decision making, the firm will create value for –itself over time—particularly in the long run (Randolph A. Pohlman, 2000).

Collegial vs. meritocratic structure of value

Better fit between individuals’ and organizations’ values predicted higher levels of satisfaction and commitment and lower turnover. Leadership organizations have a tough, but not, harsh, view of change. They focus on accountability for actions and give some emphasis to the discussions of goals and means. Although these organizations are still basically compliance-oriented, their documents portray the change process less impersonally and more persuasively, seeking to encourage employees to comply with the requirements rather than simply expecting it. In the meritocratic value structure, this appears to be a much greater emphasis on motivating employees to play a constructive role in change.

This emphasis involves explaining both the goals of change and the means for bringing it about. Meritocratic structures can be characterized as trying to challenge or energize employees. Change, although difficult, is associated with achieving important goals, and the organization signals that people’s efforts and achievements are recognized and appreciated.

This is characterized by themes of striving, effort, goals, achievement, motivation and recognition. Only collegial organizations view change in a positive way and emphasize employee participation. Collegial ones do not challenge their employees to achieve organizational goals; instead, they emphasize the benefits change brings to internal and external stakeholders and depict an enthusiastic, responsive orientation to change (Boris Kabanoff, 1995).

Entrepreneurial vs. bureaucratic values (differences in social origins, including gender and cognitive ability)

Differences in social origins, such as gender and cognitive skills create different sets of belief concerning the qualities of a good job. According to Miller and Swanson theory (1958), the theory identifies two major value systems—the entrepreneurial and bureaucratic. These values are oftentimes merged, and thus form beliefs about the desirable attributes of jobs, by comparing expected returns against expected risks in the search of opportunities for future economic wellbeing.

Some people may embrace either of the entrepreneurial or bureaucratic orientation is determined mainly by entrepreneurial skills and attitudes towards risk, which in turn can be affected by family background, schooling, gender, and cognitive skills. The adult achievements are favored by early family and schooling forces, and the very same personal qualities that give in to advantages for achievement, also creates expressions of preference that favor entrepreneurial type over the bureaucratic job properties.

Cognitive ability and gender, being the most powerful sources of variation in job values, are followed by years of schooling. Parental education, occupational status, self-employment and income all geared towards entrepreneurial over bureaucratic job properties. Significant other’s influence, educational aspirations and years of schooling, aside from favoring entrepreneurial over bureaucratic values, create a very strong preference for esteem over all other job properties and is significantly related  in the value system geared towards  achievements (Halaby, 2003).

Cultural values on problem solving, teams, gender, stress and ethics

National culture plays an important role and leads to differences in how problems are solved and in the quality of the solutions. Chinese employees are more likely to delay informing a manager about a problem until the manager sees the problem on his or her own. The employees are also likely to minimize the seriousness of the problem. In western cultures, managers are more likely to appreciate and give credit to an employee who draws attention to a problem, and therefore, problems are more rapidly identified and brought to the attention of management.

  The result is that Western managers are more likely to speak directly about the problem. In collectivist cultures, decision making is more likely to rely on consensus while managers from individualist rely more on their own experience and training when making decisions. It is also  found that Australians prefer a decision making style based on having a selection choices that require careful individual thought, whereas the Japanese prefers styles that require more references to other people. In Japan, individuals are likely to measure their personal success by the success of their team and organization (Siverthome, 2005).

Impact of technology

While technology has increased the ability to communicate, one might question whether it has increased or diminished the capacity to connect with co-workers in the workplace. It is through feeling this connection that we derive our sense of teamwork, community, attachment, and belonging—all essential aspects of what humans needs to feel: valued, respected and acknowledged. It is these core social and emotional elements that lubricate human beings and keep them going in times of difficulty, be it a personal, professional, or even a national crisis (Lewis, 2006).

Dealing with value conflicts

What can be done to alleviate burnout? One approach is to focus on the individual who is experiencing stress and help him or her to either reduce it or cope with it. Another approach is to focus on the workplace, rather than just the worker, and change the conditions that are causing the stress. The challenge for organization is to identify interventions that target those particular areas (Diane F. Halpem, 2005). What implications these have for managers?  Value configurations may motivate and support the organization’s coherence, strength, and stability. They also offer managers a framework for conceptualizing the nature and purpose of organizational change. One possible explanation for the high failure rate of company mergers and acquisition is “culture incompatibility” and “culture collisions.” (Boris Kabanoff, 1995)





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SIVERTHOME, C. P. (2005) Organizational Psychology in Cross-cultural Perspective, NYU Press.

Personal and organizational values Essay