The French and Indian War Essay

The French and Indian War Essay.

Prior to 1754 French & Indian War, the 13 North American colonies that would eventually become the United States of America were at a rate of rapid increase. Colonial trade with England has increased by over 360%, all colonies were reproducing successfully, with a rate of natural increase of 3%, and the population doubling every 25 years, and on top of that, colonial power increased with the idea of Salutary Neglect, and colonial assemblies. The French & Indian War had cause a multitude of changes and shifts in America, on political, economical, and ideological levels alike.

For a start, the French and Indian War altered the political aspects of the 13 colonies. Prior to the French & Indian War, due to the idea that it was beneficial or healthy for the 13 colonies if they had some sense of freedom, independence and self-governance, this was dubbed Salutary Neglect. The main form of political governance in the colonies was the colonial assemblies.

These assemblies were responsible for governing their respective colonies through city courts.

These courts would make decisions that pertained to each of the colonies, like appointing members to the unicameral and bicameral assemblies. Building on this knowledge, after the war ended in 1763, with the Treaty of Paris 1763, one of the main consequences was the end of Salutary Neglect. Most colonial assemblies were shut down as a result of this, giving the colonial Royal governors more power than they previously had. Another consequence of the Treaty of Paris 1763 was the French losing every last bit of their land in North America (Doc. A). The French originally fought in the French & Indian War for control of the Ohio River Valley, which was an important area for trade and growth. Progressing away from the political aspects that were altered by the French & Indian War, the economical aspects were also altered ultimately.

Before the beginning of the French & Indian War, Britain didn’t have any major taxes imposed onto the colonies. That was before the war. After the French & Indian War was fought, and the Treaty of Paris 1763 signed, the Stamp Act was imposed in 1765 by George III to help pay for the deficit created by the French & Indian War, as well as King George’s War (1739-1748). This act was passed as a result of Britain needing more revenue, as for the revenue coming from the colonies prior to this act was “not yet sufficient to defray a fourth part of the expense necessary for collecting it.”(Doc. F). The Stamp Act, mind you, wasn’t a tax on stamps, but rather a tax on printed documents, such as newspapers, journals, deeds, letters, et cetera. The Stamp Act required all printed documents to be stamped with a special imprint, which certified the document. Failure to do so would most likely result in a fine, or confiscation of the merchandise, which is why it faced so much opposition from the colonists, even though it only affected a certain few.

Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter, addressed to John Hughes in Pennsylvania, suggesting the repealing of the Stamp Act (Doc. G). If he refused to repeal the Stamp Act, Franklin warned him that it would make him very unpopular among the colonists, and refuted that he should try to reconcile the colonists after the war, instead of taxing them. Benjamin Franklin truly feared violent opposition to the Stamp Act. This eventually led to the Stamp Act crisis, which resulted in Liberty Trees being planted. At these liberty trees, officials sent to collect taxes in more severe cases were tarred and feathered as a form of public humiliation. The Virginia Resolves were also passed as a result of the Stamp Acts, which claimed it as unconstitutional, and they could not be taxed without representation in Parliament. This type of violent opposition led to the repealing of the Stamp Act in 1766, and the passing of the Declatory Act in 1766 which gave Britain the right to make laws for the colonies.

This concept is called parliamentary sovereignty, and went against the right of consent of the governed, and the colonist’s natural rights of life, liberty, and property, or alternatively, the pursuit of happiness. The British also assumed the colonists Virtual Representation. This is the idea that the colonies were represented in Parliament indirectly. Also, before the French & Indian War ended with the Treaty of Paris 1763, which resulted in the Proclamation Line of 1763, which ran from the West of the Appalachian Mountains to England, Native Americans were getting defensive about their land, and warned the colonists to remove themselves from their area, as for they had no right to settle (Doc. B). The Chief of the Iroquois Confederacy, Canassatego, told the representative bodies in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia that basically, their motives are transparent, and the Native Americans knew the value of their land and instructed the representatives to promptly remove their men from their land (even though it wasn’t rightfully theirs) because they had no right to settle, and they felt greatly disrespected.

After the war ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, the Proclamation Line was drawn to prevent all British colonists from settling West of the Appalachian Mountains to prevent all future tensions with the Native Americans, even though proceeding the war, a large deal of their land was already lost. The war ultimately created economic stress in the colonies, because it resulted in more taxes (Doc. F), and isolated trade with the Native Americans, as for we usually traded fur pelts with them. This also could’ve foreshadowed their refusal to join the colonists in an alliance during the Albany Plan of 1754, as well the problem of westward expansion with Chief Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763, which resulted in the senseless murder of thousands of British colonists. Adding on to other economic problems created by the war, the mercantile policies of the Navigation Acts were beginning to become heavily enforced again.

England buckled down on the colonies to raise revenue (Doc. F.). This put a major halt on smuggling of goods to the 13 colonies. With the passing of the Writs of Assistance, the quartering British soldiers had a right to enter a colonist’s home at anytime and confiscate anything they suspected of being smuggled. Smuggled good were rarely found, but it enraged the colonists that the British had a right to do this on their land. To initiate the final point, are the altered ideological aspects that were altered as a result of the French & Indian War. Preceding the French and Indian War, some of the colonists were sycophant to Britain. During the war, in 1755, George Washington wrote a letter to Robert Orne, wishing to join the militia. He was eager to serve under General Braddock, who would soon bring on the humiliating defeat during the failed capture of Fort Duquesne (Doc. C). George Washington’s loyalty and respect for Britain would soon change, like many other colonists ideological values about their “mother country.”

Sources like the Massachusetts soldier’s diary dated 1759 proved British to be neglectful of their soldiers. The people who were once eager to serve under Britain now wanted out. The British Parliament refused to supply proper winter clothes, and liquor. To him, this is being denied “Englishmen’s Liberty.” The soldiers were not allowed to leave, so they may as well have been slaves at that point. (Doc. D). That’s just one ideological value changed as a result of the French & Indian War. As I said before, many colonists thought highly of Britain as a mother country, with over 60,000 loyalists living the colonies, until the French & Indian War. Rev. Thomas Banard’s sermon in 1763 praised Britain in an usually optimistic way. He assumed the end of the war meant the colonist’s could be free and happy. No animosity could be sensed towards Britain. (Doc. E.) That was until the British decided to tax the colonists to increase revenue. (Doc. F.).

That resulted in the Stamp Act, which as you know, was every controversial and lead to violent oppositions, riots, and acts like the Virginia Resolves. Benjamin Franklin warned Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act before any of this opposition took place (Doc. G). In October 1765, on a new paper masthead was a very iconic image. There was a skull and crossbones stating “The TIMES are Dreadful, Doleful, Dismal, Dolorous, and DOLLAR-LESS.” It also read “Adieu Adieu to LIBERTY” which can be translated to “Goodbye to Liberty.” (Doc. H). Mind you, these are the same colonies that kissed up to Britain before the war. Acts in the same nature of the Stamp Act faced opposition of this sort. This substantiates the evident shifting and altering of ideological values that resulted from the French & Indian war.

In final analysis of this essay, one may think that the French and Indian war heavily altered the relationship between Britain and the American colonies. They’re right. The French & Indian changed the relationship on a economical, political, and an ideological basis. The politics were changed during the disbanding of the colonial assemblies, doing away with of Salutary Neglect and the French losing all their territory as a result of the Treaty of Paris 1763, the economical situation was pressed one, with the Navigation Acts now being heavily enforced, cutting down on smuggling, with the new taxes on top of that, and isolated trade with the Native Americans and Britain, and most definitely on an ideological level, seeing the major shift of emotion and feelings towards Britain after the war, from optimistic, loyal, and respectful, to slandering them in a hostile manner. The tensions created by this war, and the abandoning of the debt on the colonist’s foreshadowing the heavy colonial resistance that was to come, that would blossom into the American Revolution.

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The French and Indian War Essay

“War Photograph” and “War Photographer” Essay

“War Photograph” and “War Photographer” Essay.

In the poem War Photograph, Kate Daniels immediately expects us to know which photograph she is talking about as soon as she gets past the first verse (which describes the photo in question) which explains why it is so short. The first stanza is describing what we see, immediately in front of us from this photo.

After this, she explains in the second stanza about the rest of the war; what we can’t see from the photo. After reading it you see that what you can see in the photo is like looking through a keyhole into a room.

You only see a small part of what is going on, but you get a better idea of whats going on after reading this poem. Showing us that in the picture we see only what they want us to see.

The idea that she is also “running from the gods who have changed the sky to fire and puddled the earth with skin and blood” makes us think how she is and they are running from the ‘All-powerful’ Americans – not gods – and that shows just how helpless those people are.

Or they could be referring to the elemental gods.

Daniels talks about how the war is being fought in the “Other World” which makes it sound like they are talking as though it has nothing to do with the Americans as it is so far away, but Daniels could also be referring to being communist.

“She keeps on running, you know, after the shutter if the camera clicks.” The extra “you know” sounds almost dismissive, saying is in a matter-of-fact way. “She is running to us… for how can she know what we really are? From a distance we look so terribly human.” This explains how the Americans are to blame and how the Vietnamese didn’t know.

In the poem War Photographer, the idea of the photographer being “finally alone” makes us think how he could be using it as a form of sanctuary for himself after being in all the chaotic destruction and panic of the war in which the photos he has taken are subject to. The Photographer takes solace in his his room where “the only light is red and softly glows” This could be in comparison to the harsh glare of explosions, bright sunlight or the symbolic, dark aftermath of the war and the light could be in contrast to that darkness.

The Fact that his room is compared to a church could be to show the realistic contrast between the mayhem from war to the quiet bliss of his studio. After this, it names great wars, “Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh. All flesh is as grass.” The last sentence shows how all the the blood, gore and people who fought are strewn across the battle field, and like grass, is normal, insignificant and unimportant.

“He has a job to do” shows how none of it matters. He just has to get on with it. “hands which did not tremble then, though seem to now.” says that, as he is looking back remembering, he might be feeling pain, remorse or guilt, for not doing anything but taking pictures. “Home again – to pain which simple weather can dispel” makes us see how, when he is looking back, his problems are minute, small and insignificant compared to all of the things which went on when he was taking the pictures. “to fields which don’t explode beneath the feet…” as he is looking at his surroundings, it’s almost as though he feels he is still there, in the midst of all the mayhem of the war, and that “Rural England” is quiet, almost painfully so.

“In a nightmare heat” could show that to this photographer, it almost feels like a nightmare but that it is also physically hot. “A half formed ghost” could show that he might be dead, rather than the fact they are developing which gives the appearance of a ghost.

“How the blood stained into foreign dust” shows how, as a stain, it won’t come out, and that the damage is permanent. The word foreign could be to do with the detached aspect of it having nothing to do with the photographer, wherever he is from. “A hundred agonies in black-and-white from which his editor will pick out five or six for Sunday’s supplement.” this could show how you don’t see the bigger picture, just what the magazine/ newspaper wants you to see, almost giving you the idea of looking through a keyhole in a door, you only see a small part.

“Readers eyeballs prick with tears between bath and pre-lunch beers.” this shows sarcasm, and how the war makes no difference to anyone reading this article in the long run, and how the reader, after the article, doesn’t really care. “They do not care” shows how, again, the war is, in the eyes of most people who aren’t there, insignificant.

Both of the poems are similar and dissimilar in there own ways. Things like how both of the poems show how if you haven’t been to the war, you don’t see it all. No matter what pictures you look at, most of them will give a keyhole effect, for example, in War Photograph that is the main theme of the poem. On the other hand, War Photographer mentions this keyhole effect briefly, and then moves on.

War Photographer shows the bigger picture in a way that also shows how people don’t realize that what they are seeing isn’t the full story, as there are two sides to each and every story. The pictures he takes shows different views on things. In contrast to this, War Photograph shows this directly, letting us look through the keyhole, then opening the door, letting us see the whole thing.

Where War Photographer shows us memories of a person, captured through photos, War Photograph shows us what happens after a single picture is taken, giving us a more realistic view of the war in question. This therefore gives it more impact.

Both poems try to show us the bigger picture beneath the picture we see, which is a small snapshot that doesn’t really show anything in comparison to the whole war, and is like – I say again – looking through a keyhole.

In conclusion, War Photograph, to me, gives the best detail, and has more overall impact in comparison to War Photographer due to the use of language and structure, how it seems more dramatic, especially when Kate Daniels compares, subtly, the Americans to gods in the quote, “and she is also running from the gods.” Also how she compares the war happening as not only in another country, but in the “other world” showing just how detached they seem.

“War Photograph” and “War Photographer” Essay

The Contribution of India Towards World Peace Essay

The Contribution of India Towards World Peace Essay.

India is a peace – loving country and has been the member of the United Nations from the very existence of the United Nation Organisation. India has always played a key role in bringing peace to various countries on war and thus fulfilling the objective of the UNO. It has also been an active member of the various agencies of the UNO like the UNESCO, the WHO and the UNICEF. Once the President of the General Assembly of the UNO was Mrs.

Vijayalakshmi Pandit. India has also been elected as a member of the Security Council. Soon after the World War II, it was observed that many countries of the world got divided into two major groups.

These two groups of various countries could not tolerate any development or progress of the member nations of the other group which was lead by the then Soviet Union. Many countries were tempted to join these groups based on the military pacts. It was appearing that there could be another war the way things were moving.

Such a war would have stopped the progress and new development activities taking place in India. Poor countries were poised for a great danger to their existence. It was our late Prime Minister Panidt Jawahar Lal Nehru who foresaw the danger and was deeply concerned.

He started consultations and discussions with leaders of various countries like Egypt and Yugoslavia. At the same time, he began to caution the poor nations about the disastrous impacts and consequences of the war and danger to the freedom of these nations. Thus leaders of these countries joined under one umbrella and jointly laid down five principles of cooperation with each other. Thus the Non – Aligned Movement took birth and it became a big movement. The starting of Non-Aligned Movement at the initiative of India prevented the small nations from joining military pacts and leading to world peace.

With the passage of time, more and more countries realized its importance and joined in this movement for security of their country. As on date, more than one hundred member nations of the UNO are the members of the Non – Aligned Movement. All these countries want to have peace and get assurance that their freedom is not lost. India has contributed its maximum in echoing the concern of the poor and small nations in the United Nations. During the conflict of Iran – Irag, India had sent its forces to ensure peace. At the request of the UNO, India deputed its soldiers in Korea to bring about peace in that part of the World.

Similar work was also carried out in Zaire. India has always raised its voice against injustice taking place anywhere in the world so that each one has peace. The oppression of the Blacks by the Whites minority in South Africa was strongly opposed by India. A world opinion was formed against South African policy of apartheid (discrimination based on colour) for the Blacks. It argued for equal rights for them and no discrimination against them. Even the cause of freedom for Palestinians from the Israel has been widely supported by the Government of India.

The Contribution of India Towards World Peace Essay

Level of Awareness on Philippine Independent Films Essay

Level of Awareness on Philippine Independent Films Essay.

Rationale

Movies have been an important part of everyday experience for more than a century. Most people already know a great deal about it. But majority of viewers appreciate those on the mainstreams without giving prior notice to the existence of independent films. The chances for an indie film to elicit at least a semblance of ‘mainstream response’ remains very low. Independent films are largely ignored by ordinary movie-goers in the Philippines, but the genre has become the “in thing” in the country as it gains international acclaim and generates the worldwide interest.

(Onscreen Asia, 2009) According to Maslog (2007), independent films which is also known as “indie films” can be in a form of short or full-length cinema which expresses self-expression and creativity different from mainstream cinema.

The very nature of an independent film appears to be easier and cheaper since the allotted budget for its production is minimal. But, although the budgets are low, some of these films have been screened and awarded by local and international film festivals.

Though independent films are becoming successful locally and internationally, there are also negative connotations when independent movies are mentioned. There are doubts coming from Filipino themselves because of the usual topics of indie films: poverty, homosexuality, prostitution, the underworld, and life in the margins, which exploits the image of the society (The Daily Guardian, 2012).

As communication students and future media practitioners, the study will provide a profound understanding about independent films to appreciate better the ways of such films through its messages and to raise everyone’s awareness on the said genre of film. Since, the researchers and respondents are both in line with the practice of media; this study will prepare them into the world of film industry, specifically, Philippine Independent films.

Statement of the Problem

The study was conducted to investigate the level of awareness on selected Philippine Independents Films of AB Communication students
Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1, Age
1.2 Gender?
2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents on the following selected Philippine Independent Films in terms of: 2.1, (2009) Last Supper No. 3
2.2, (2010) Wag Kang Titingin
2.3, (2011) Ang Babae sa Septic Tank
2.4 (2012) Victor?
3. What is the level of awareness of the respondents in the selected Philippine Independent films in the traits and messages as observed in terms of : 3.1, Nationalism
3.2, Social Reality
3.3, Freedom of Expression
3.4, Exploitation of Poverty
3.5 Homosexuality?

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for the study on the level of awareness on selected Philippine Independents Films of AB Communication students Level of Awareness to Selected Philippine Independent Films

-Construction of questionnaire regarding Philippine Independent films. -Distribution of questionnaires
-Collection data
-Interpretation of the gathered data

Selected Philippine Independent Films
– Last Supper No. 3
[2009]
– Wag Kang Titingin
[2010]
– Ang Babae sa Septic Tank
[2011]
-Victor
[2012]

Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be beneficial to the following: AB Communication students. The study would greatly affect them since this is much related to the topics that will be discussed in their course. The study would help them to be critical in thinking and be a good observant on what is happening around them most especially to the industry that they will be engaged to in the future. This would furthermore explain things that should be taken consideration of.

Film Industry. This study will help in creating good impressions on how film should showcase the society through creative, sensible, fair and intelligent representation.

Film Producers. This would help them on how they should be keenly aware and ethical in producing films. The study would remind them on the impact, influence and effect of their films to the viewers as perceived by Communication students.

Future Film Producers. This study would give them knowledge and understanding on how to be creative and critical in producing independent films. This will provide them insights on ethical standards, limitations and violations when it comes to the following issues being discussed in relation to the themes of movies produced.

Future researchers. This study will be useful to the future researchers who would conduct a similar study in a larger scope, because this could be a means of an additional source and baseline data to explain further ethical issues regarding Philippine Independent Films as perceived by AB Communication Students. This research, likewise, may serve as a reference for future studies. If needed, the results of the study can be verified and tested. Researchers. The would be an opportunity for them to utilize the knowledge they have learned from their study since they would be a part of the mass media world in the future. This would serve as their basis of practice if they will be inclined on the field of media, particularly, the film industry.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined operationally and conceptually: AB Communication Students- It pertained to the bonafide students enrolled in the course, Bachelor of Arts in Communication major in broadcasting which presents opportunities for writers, performers and producers. Ang Babae sa Septic Tank- 2011 Cinemalaya’s Best Film in the Full Length category. Directed by Marlon Rivera. A comedy about misguided ambitions, the art of making art and the romanticization of poverty. Awareness- It is defined in the study as the level of knowledge or being mindful on certain subject, issues, situation and others.

Cinemalaya- A film competition and festival that aims to encourage the creation of new cinematic works by Filipino filmmakers – works that boldly articulate and freely interpret the Filipino experience with fresh insight and artistic integrity. Film- Also called a “movie” or “motion picture”, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. Full Length Film- According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, American Film Institute, and British Film Institute, a feature film runs for 40 minutes or longer.

Last Supper No. 3- 2009 Cinemalaya’s Best Film in the Full Length category. Directed by Sherwin Dayoc. Based on a true story, Last Supper No. 3 is a humorous look at the circuitous path our legal system takes to justice.

Mainstream Cinema- Defined as commercial films that are made by major entertainment studios or companies that are owned by international media conglomerates. Philippine Independent Films- Also known as “indie films” can be in a form of short or full-length cinema which expresses self-expression and creativity different from mainstream cinema. Short Feature Film- A “short film” is any film not long enough to be considered a feature film. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as “an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits”.

Victor- 2012 Cinemalaya’s Best Film in Short Feature category . Directed by Jarell M. Serencio. A film that showed glaring realities of faith, beliefs, etc. and how Filipinos and foreigners embrace the tradition of “Semana Santa” (holy week) as an attraction to this town. Wag Kang Titingin . 2010 Cinemalaya’s Best Film in Short Feature Category .Directed by Pam Miras. The film was about a girl’s attempt beyond death and destruction to maintain for her younger sister a semblance of peace and order amid so much violence and conflict that seems to reflect today’s Filipinos.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The researchers have found the following studies and literature relevant to the study being proposed. The review of the literature for this study focuses on the level of awareness on selected Philippine Independent Films of AB Communication students Importance of Demographic Profile

According to Gauntlett (2002), media and communications are central element of modern life, whilst age and gender remain at the core of how people think of their identities. With media containing images and messages about men, women and their sexuality, it is very likely that they have a great impact on peoples’ sense of identity. Age and gender are variables that affect exposure and perception according to the study conducted by Linda M. Woolf, PhD. The study states that older people perceive more negatively than younger people and females tend to absorb more from media than males.

Independent Films

As an art form, independent film is a great tool to express advocacies to their viewers for public awareness. Filipino independent filmmakers are steadily growing and are likely to continue to do so by virtue of its facility for innovation, diversity and originality. Whether they are about social commentary, political statement, psychological study, or keen insights into human relationships, all of these topics represent controversial subjects that are catered to feed the audience intellectual hunger (Mon-alon, 2011).

San Diego (2010) stated that 2009 was a watershed year for local independent films. Based on cinemalaya.org, from year 2009 to 2012, the following films have been awarded by Cinemalaya as Best Films:

A. Last Supper No. 3

Won the Best Film in full- length category on 2009. It is based on a true story about a humorous look at the circuitous path our legal system takes to justice. Assistant Production Designer Wilson Nañawa is tasked to look for a Last Supper to use as props for a television commercial. He finds three, but loses the one owned by Gareth Pugeda. B. Wag Kang Titingin

A film directed by Pam Miras bagged the top price in Cinemalaya 2010. The story is about a father and his two young daughters who travel through a war-torn area. The father explains to his eldest why they need to shield the youngest from what is really happening around them. The eldest finally understands and vows to protect her sister. C. Ang Babae sa Septic Tank

Won the Best Film in the year 2011 in full-length category. It was also chosen as the Audience Choice Award, Best Direction by Marlon Rivera and Best Performance of an Actress awarded to Eugene Domingo. Ang Babae sa Septic Tank chronicles a day in a life of three ambitious but misguided filmmakers as they set out to do a quick pre-prod at Starbucks. They believe that they have a winning script, the energy and the drive to make to make their dreams come true. This is a comedy about misguided ambitions, the art of making art and romanticization of poverty. D. Victor

The Best Film under short feature category in Cinemalya 2012 directed by Jarell M. Sarencio. It is a story about life as a big show. For ten long years, Victor religiously offers himself to be nailed on the cross every Holy Week. Like other people, this has been a long time “panata” for he believes that God will forgive him for all and grant petitions after crucifying himself on the cross.

Awareness to Philippine Independent Films

Independent films are gaining widespread attention these days. Every day Filipinos alike want their stories told through a different lens and through films made with creativity beyond the demands of commerce. To students, indie films are an eye opener, giving youth a better appreciation and understanding for art. It gives an interest about the realities of our society and the creative execution in cinematography, video editing by our local filmmakers. On the other hand, Communications graduate Ogy Yap added, “There have been efforts to give awareness to Independent cinema, but these have not been successful. Robinsons Galleria has dedicated a theatre for independent cinema, but ticket sales are less than impressive. The duration of the film’s showing is also not as long as those in the mainstream world.” (Gonzales and Libre, 2012).

Synthesis

When the indie fever swept the movie industry, corresponding weak points interlaced with it. People involved in the indie trend are not really concerned about their subjects or the theme – they are just vehicles to fame and fortune. Poverty, homosexuality, prostitution, the underworld, life in the margins are the usual topics of indie films. These themes and subjects are exploited to the fullest not for social transformation or for the benefit of the poor, the deprived, the oppressed or the marginalized but in order to “make it.” This is called poverty porn – the exploitation of poverty and its effects, squeezing it to the last drop for money and glory (The Daily Guardian, 2012).

Aside from the poverty porn issues of Philippine Independent Films, pink films are generally recognized today as erotic films produced by independent production companies for specialized sex film theatres. The low-budget pink films were produced quickly to be shown outside the mainstream venues of exhibition. This provided the opportunity for a few interested filmmakers to use their pink films to make ironic political commentaries on the contemporary social situation (Nochimson, 2010). Independent cinema’s biggest advantage is the uniqueness that can be observed in their films.

Local mainstream films depict almost the same stories, (or copied plot from an international film), the same themes (mostly romance), and the same actors. This is because mainstream cinema would stick to what the “masa” wants. There is no room for change. It is independent cinema’s biggest advantage because each director’s creativity will be showcased. People would most likely explore in to something new like these independent films, rather than watching local mainstream which is not that exciting anymore because it lacks originality.

Another advantage of independent films is that it gives way to new breed of artistic and creative filmmakers. New breed of directors can express fresh ideas in making their films. Independent cinemas give their audience something to look forward to: different style, different genre, and new actors.. Through the growing support for these independent films, viewers of independent films can support, encourage, and recognize gifted Filipino independent filmmakers. Many of these independent films have already been recognized internationally (Anglo, et.al, 2011).

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the method and procedures that were used in this study, it discusses the research design, the respondents, research locale and instrumentations to be used. Data gathering procedures and statistical analysis of data was also presented.

Research Design

This study has used the descriptive method. The researchers also utilized a self-made survey questionnaire. The method involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation on the perception of a certain group of students. It includes the following processes: induction analysis, classification, enumeration, measurement and assessment of data (Manuel & Masinda, 2008). The survey has focused on the gathering of data concerning the respondents’ awareness on selected Philippine Independent Films from 2009-2012. The survey ascertained the messages, traits and characteristics present on Philippine Independent Films. Furthermore, the AB Communication students were the respondents since they are the major recipients of this study.

Research Instruments

The researchers have used the research method opinion polls to test the knowledge of the target audience regarding the selected Philippine Independent Films from 2009-2012. An opinion poll is designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio. It is a type of survey that deals on the perspective of the audience on a certain topic and designed to discover the attitudes and behaviours of an individual. The questions are consisting of lists of possible responses which are analyzed. The results are usually given as percentages of those expressing opinion on a particular question (Asher, 1998). After the survey, the tallying has been administered by the researchers to gather sufficient data that made the research more reliable and precise.

Statistical Analysis of Data
Frequency Distribution

The researchers have used the frequency distribution in summarizing how often different scores occur based on the answers by the respondents on each number of the questionnaire. It is one way of organizing the data needed in the study so that the researchers can interpret it in a visual way. In the study, the answers of the respondents were tallied and thus, this frequency distribution summarized the gathered data that determined the level of awareness on selected Philippine Independent Films of AB Communication students. After gathering the total responses for each item, the researchers have used the Percentage Formula in determining the percentage scores of the responses to the questionnaire (www. ivythesis.typepad.com, 2012).

This has given the total percentage for the level of awareness on selected Philippine Independent Films and the occurrence of the enumerated traits or messages on the said genre of film. n

% = ———— x 100;n- total no. of responses
N;N- total no. of respondents
x 100
The computation was:
% =_no. of students who have/ have not watched any Philippine Independent Film Q #1_
Total no. of respondents

x 100
% =_no. of students who are highly aware/aware/slightly aware/not aware Qs # 2, 3_
Total no. of respondents

16-18|
19-21|
22-24|
25 and above|
The demographic profile of the respondents was also computed using the Percentage Formula. The bracket for age was:

The pie chart or circle graph was used to show the breakdowns or component parts of whole categorical variables (socrates.bmcc.cuny.edu, 2012).

Books:
Blade, W. (Ed.) (1998). Polling and the public: what every citizen should know. Public Opinion (4th ed., p.25). Washington, D.C. : CQ Press. Corrigan, T. & While, P. (2008). The Film Experience. An Introduction (2nd Edition, p.442-445). Bedford: St. Martin’s publishing. Foss, K. & Littlejohn S. (2008). Theories of Human Communication (9th ed., p. 230). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Galt, R. & Schoonover, K. (2010). Global Art Cinema: New Theories and Histories, 48-53. USA: Oxford University Press. Gauntlett, D. (2002). Media, gender and identity. London: Anthony Rowe, Ltd. Maslog, C. (2008). Philippine Communication Today, 275, The University of Michigan: New Daily Publishers. Nochimson, M. (2010). World on Film, 228,231. United Kingdom: Blackwell’s publishing. Thesis:

Szabo, C. (2010, May 26). Independent, mainstream and in between: how and why indie films have become their own genre. Honors College Theses, 5-6, 24. New York: Pace University Internet:
Circle Graphs or Pie Charts. Retrieved September 11, 2012, from http://socrates.bmcc.cuny.edu/cpe/circle_pie.html Gonzales, N. & Libre, B. (2012, August 25). Retrieved September 08, 2012, from http://thelasallian.com/2012/08/25/independent-films-art-for-all/. Manuel, E. & Masinda, R. (2008, July 22). Retrieved September 11,2012, from http://www.slideshare.net/japorto/descriptive-method. Onscreen Asia (2009, March 01) .Retrieved August 05, 2012, from http://www.onscreenasia.com/article/philippine-indie-films-make-headway/4992. The Daily Guardian (2012, September 18). Retrieved August 31,2012, from http://www.thedailyguardian.net/index.php/local-news-8/1728-poverty-porn. Thinking Made Easy (2012, August 11). Retrieved Sept 11, 2012, from http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2012/08/research-proposal-on–1.html

Level of Awareness on Philippine Independent Films Essay

Geneva Conventions Essay

Geneva Conventions Essay.

Introduction

Now we live in relatively peaceful time, but it wasn’t always like that. All those wars were bloody, sometimes even too bloody, so people needed to create some rules. So those rules were created.

Four Conventions for One Purpose

Not everybody knows that, but there were four treaties, not just one. And even then, they were modified later with three amendment protocols. I will start with a brief overview. First Geneva Convention was adopted in 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field.

Second Geneva Convention was adopted in 1906 for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Third Geneva Convention was adopted in 1929, and it was related to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Finally, Fourth Geneva Convention was adopted in 1949, and it was related to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. It collected all points of previous one while adding many new points.

So, when people say about singular Geneva Convention, they usually mean this one. Later is was modified with two protocols in 1977 when modifications were related to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts and the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.

Latest modification was made in 2005 when an Additional Distinctive Emblem was adopted. The Conventions are inextricably linked to the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is both the instigator for the inception and enforcer of the articles in these conventions. They changed the world with their aspiration to protect the rights of non-combatants. This quote is a nice example: Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their religious convictions and practices, and their manners and customs. They shall, at all times, be humanely treated, and shall be protected, especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against insults and public curiosity.

Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault. Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health, age and sex, all protected persons shall be treated with the same consideration by the Party to the conflict in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, religion or political opinion. However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures of control and security in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a result of the war. — Article 27, Fourth Geneva Convention (1949)

The First Geneva Convention

The First Geneva Convention, for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, defines “the basis on which rest the rules of international law for the protection of the victims of armed conflicts. It was adopted in 1864 and then updated three times. Back then, it was a very critical period for European history, both military and political. Situation in Western Europe was relatively peaceful between the fall of the first Napoleon (the Battle of Waterloo in 1815) and the rise of Napoleon III (Italian campaign of 1859), but when the conflict in the Crimea took place, powers couldn’t maintain peace anymore. Henri Dunant was a man who gave the world idea of creating an international set of laws governing the treatment and care for the wounded and prisoners of war.

He witnessed the Battle of Solferino in 1859, fought between Austrian and French-Piedmontese armies in Northern Italy. Around forty thousands of soldiers were wounded and left on the battlefield. The reason for that was a lack of personnel, facilities, and truces to give the soldiers any kind of medical aid. After witnessing all that Dunant decided to act. So, after his return to Geneva Dunant used his membership in the Geneva Society for Public Welfare to urge the calling together of an international conference to create new rules in terms of war. Other things that Henri Dunant did were publishing his account Un Souvenir de Solferino and helping with foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863. So, this new Red Cross Committee started to work, with best regards to help people, living in zones of war.

Even if it was said that safeguarding the health and physical well-being of people is primarily the duty and responsibility of a nation they are related to, still understood that it wasn’t enough and in times of war people would need some “voluntary agencies to supplement”. Obviously it meant creating official agencies to help people on the battlefields in every country. Last thing that was missing was the list of rules to govern activities of the Red Cross Committee itself and any other agencies or companies which were involved.

The big date was August 22, 1864. Several European states gathered in Geneva, Switzerland and signed the First Geneva Convention. List of states included: Baden (nowadays being a part of Germany), Belgium, Denmark, France, Hesse (also being a part of Germany nowadays), Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia (part of Germany now), Spain, Switzerland, and Württemberg (which is also a part of today’s Germany). Later, two more countries joined and signed the Convention, which were Norway and Sweden. .

The Second Geneva Convention

The Second Geneva Convention was adopted to protect the human rights of wounded, sick, and shipwrecked soldiers that were found at sea. This act was made because of the growing number of battle ship fleets being formed and the mass amounts of war occurring at sea. The First Geneva Convention only covered the wars on land and now it covered international battles at sea. This bill extended all rights that a wounded soldier received from the first convention to soldiers at sea and made it illegal to not take in shipwrecked crewmen. The Second Geneva Convention was an important step considering the First World War was soon to come. The Second Geneva Convention was created because of the new threat of large naval fleets. The only difference between the First and Second Geneva Conventions is that the Second calls for the protection of human rights of soldiers that are at sea.

Because of the future battles at sea, this plan proved to be highly necessary in order to make sure no cruelties were occurring over the deep blue sea. This plan was effective but did not cover very many scenarios or occurrences. This addition to the First Convention was necessary and without it, there would have been thousands of more casualties during the two World Wars. So, the Convention was adopted in 1906, right after Russo-Japanese war, and was later updated two times. The actual document contained 63 articles, covering many aspects related to treating people during the wars, both on the land and on the sea. Now let’s look at the most important provisions:

* Articles 12 and 18 require all parties to protect and care for the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked. * Article 21 allows appeals to be made to neutral vessels to help collect and care for the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked. The neutral vessels cannot be captured. * Articles 36 and 37 protect religious and medical personnel serving on a combat ship. * Article 22 states that hospital ships cannot be used for any military purpose, and owing to their humanitarian mission, they cannot be attacked or captured. * Article 14 clarifies that although a warship cannot capture a hospital ship’s medical staff, it can hold the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked as prisoners of war. It was adopted by 33 countries, including China, France, Germany, Russia, and the United States. However, at the same time it was rejected by Great Britain, Japan and Korea.

The Third Geneva Convention

So, the third one of four conventions was mainly related to prisoners of war and their treatment. According to this Geneva Convention no prisoner of war could be forced to disclose to his captor any information other than his identity (i.e., his name and rank, but not his military unit, home town, or address of relatives). Every prisoner of war was entitled to adequate food and medical care and had the right to exchange correspondence and receive parcels. He was required to observe ordinary military discipline and courtesy, but he could attempt to escape at his own risk. Once recaptured, he was not to be punished for his attempt. Officers were to receive pay either according to the pay scale of their own country or to that of their captor, whichever was less; they could not be required to work. Enlisted men might be required to work for pay, but the nature and location of their work were not to expose them to danger, and in no case could they be required to perform work directly related to military operations.

Camps were to be open to inspection by authorized representatives of a neutral power (during World War II, Switzerland and Sweden acted as protecting powers). Article 4 defines who could be called prisoner of war. Article 5 specifies that prisoners of war (as defined in article 4) are protected from the time of their capture until their final repatriation. It also specifies that when there is any doubt whether a combatant belongs to the categories in article 4, they should be treated as such until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal. Article 12 states that prisoners of war are the responsibility of the state not the persons who capture them and that they may not be transferred to a state that is not party to the Convention. Articles 13 to 16 state that prisoners of war must be treated humanely without any adverse discrimination and that their medical needs must be met. The Convention was signed by 47 governments.

Chief among the nations that did not adhere to the Geneva Convention of 1929 were Japan and the USSR. Japan, however, gave a qualified promise (1942) to abide by the Geneva rules, and the USSR announced (1941) that it would observe the terms of the Hague Convention of 1907, which did not provide (as does the Geneva Convention) for neutral inspection of prison camps, for the exchange of prisoners’ names, and for correspondence with prisoners. So, that could help to change the situation, including time during World War II. The United States and Great Britain mostly honored the Convention and its rules. At the same time, Germany didn’t treat all prisoners equally. While American and British prisoners got good treatment in Germany, people from Poland got probably the worst possible. The International Red Cross at Geneva tried to collect as much information about prisoners as it could, so situation was under control.

The Fourth Geneva Convention

The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, also known as The Fourth Geneva Convention, was adopted in 1949. Not only it had many new points, but also points from all previous Geneva Conventions were reviewed and expanded. The actual document consists of four parts:

Part I. General Provisions. It includes the basic things, like explanation who is a “protected person”: Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a given moment and in any manner whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals. Document also demands a lawful treatment of: noncombatants, soldiers who laid down their arms, or wounded, unable to continue the fight, combatants. Part II. General Protection of Populations Against Certain Consequences of War. Here text says about protection of civilians. Important thing is that no kind of discrimination by nationality, race, religion, or political views is appropriate. Part III. Status and Treatment of Protected Persons. This part includes many different things about actions on occupied territories, like population transfer, care and education of children, destruction of property, medical services, etc.

It also includes topic of collective punishment: Article 33. No protected person may be punished for an offense he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited. Pillage is prohibited. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited. Part IV. Execution of the Convention. This part is almost the same in documents of all four conventions and it says that this part contains “the formal or diplomatic provisions which it is customary to place at the end of an international Convention to settle the procedure for bringing it into effect are grouped together under this heading”. This time the amount of countries signed was even bigger than before, consisting of 194 countries.

However, 16 countries didn’t sign it; those were Aruba, Bouvet Island, Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Heard and Mc Donald Islands, Isle of Man, Jersey, Mayotte, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, National Authority, Reunion Island, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, and Tibet. Even if the Convention included almost everything that was needed, later it was updated with 3 protocols added as amendments: Protocol I (1977) relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts Protocol II (1977) relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts Protocol III (2005) relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem.

Protocol I

So, in 1977 Geneva Convention was updated with two additional protocols added as amendments. It was necessary because since 1949 worldwide weaponry and conditions have changed. Logically, it’s related to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts. By the moment Protocol I was ratified by governments of 170 countries. The actual document consists of 102 articles. Mostly it just rephrases statements from original Geneva Conventions, but it also includes many new interesting things:

Articles 51 and 54 outlaw indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations, and destruction of food, water, and other materials needed for survival. Indiscriminate attacks include directly attacking civilian (non-military) targets, but also using technology such as biological weapons, nuclear weapons and land mines, whose scope of destruction cannot be limited. A total war that does not distinguish between civilian and military targets is considered a war crime. Articles 56 and 53 outlaw attacks on dams, dikes, nuclear generating stations, and places of worship. The first three are “works and installations containing dangerous forces” and may be attacked but only in ways that do not threaten to release the dangerous forces (i.e., it is permissible to attempt to capture them but not to try to destroy them).

Articles 76 and 77, 15 and 79 provide special protections for women, children, and civilian medical personnel, and provide measures of protection for journalists. Article 77 forbids conscription of children under age 15 into the armed forces. It does allow, however, for persons under the age of 15 to participate voluntarily. Articles 43 and 44 clarify the military status of members of guerrilla forces. Combatant and prisoner of war status is granted to members of dissident forces when under the command of a central authority.

Such combatants cannot conceal their allegiance; they must be recognizable as combatants while preparing for or during an attack. Article 35 bans weapons that “cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering,” as well as means of warfare that “cause widespread, long-term, and severe damage to the natural environment.” Article 85 states that it is a war crime to use one of the protective emblems recognized by the Geneva Conventions to deceive the opposing forces (perfidy). Articles 17 and 81 authorize the ICRC, national societies, or other impartial humanitarian organizations to provide assistance to the victims of war.

Protocol II

While Protocol I was related to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts, Protocol II, also added in 1977, was related to the protection of non-international armed conflicts. After all those Conventions many rules existed, related to international warfare, but somehow, before the Protocol II was added, nobody thought much about internal conflicts even though many countries had them. So, even since the last Geneva Convention, some delegates wanted to make laws and set a new bar for minimal humanitarian standards in cases when the situation had all the properties and characteristics of war whilst not being an international conflict.

Even before the addition of Protocol II Geneva Conventions of 1949 had Article 3 related to non-international conflicts taking place in bounds of a single country. However, it wasn’t enough. Article 3 had only few basic things to protect victims of non-international conflicts, like: * Persons taking no active part in hostilities should be treated humanely (including military persons who have ceased to be active as a result of sickness, injury, or detention). * The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

Since Article 3 was too brief and didn’t cover many important aspects, many diplomats wanted to clarify it all in a new Protocol and to extend the scope of international law to cover additional humanitarian rights in the context of internal conflicts. However, the debate around this new protocol had two totally different ideas: 1) First said that for victim of a conflict there is no difference if that conflict is international or not, so all the distinction for those people can only be artificial.

2) And another one said that in case of internal conflict international laws should not apply, meaning that country had all rights to do whatever it wants inside its boundaries. As for now, Protocol 3 had been ratified by governments of 165 countries. Even though The United States was among few countries who just signed the protocol with the intention of ratifying it, the International Committee of the Red Cross made an appeal in 1997, saying that a number of the articles contained in both protocols are recognized as rules of customary international law valid for all states, whether or not they have ratified them.

Protocol III

The third and the last additional protocol of Geneva Conventions was added in 2005. It was devoted to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. It was really needed in cases of war for soldiers to know who they should not attack. Actually, the emblem itself was established much earlier, during the first Geneva Convention of 1864. It was really needed, because weapons at those times already were quite deadly, and often medics and people of other supporting professions were shot right on the battlefield while trying to help wounded soldiers. So a part of the first Geneva Convention was just right about creating a distinctive emblem for people of those professions.

However, it wasn’t easy. The first symbol was just a red cross on the white background, but it looked very similar to the Christian Cross. That was the reason why Muslim nations totally rejected it. But in 1876 the Ottoman Empire introduced another symbol – the Red Crescent, as more neutral and less Christian emblem. After that additional emblems were proposed by the Red Cross Society of Eritrea, such as sun of Persia or the red lion. At the same time Magen David Adom of Israel proposed the Red Shield of David as another alternative emblem. After all, the world needed the new symbol for medics to be: * Neutral and free of religious, cultural or political connotations.

Otherwise it would conflict with the whole idea of giving the medical personnel neutral humanitarian status in armed conflicts. * Officially acclaimed. Even if the Red Shield of David was used in some places after Magen David Adom’s efforts, it wasn’t officially acclaimed by the National Societies. And without membership in one of those people were not eligible for certain protections under the Geneva Conventions. Fortunately a comprehensive solution was found at last with the adoption of Protocol III in 2005.

For Magen David Adom there was a nice alternative – the Red Crystal, so they should’ve just displayed it in the context of international conflict to have all protection needed. All three emblems are appointed the same legal status, which means they are totally equal. Emblems can have a protective use, as well as an indicative use. Medical and religious personnel may mark themselves, their vehicles, ships and buildings as a sign of their humanitarian mission and protected status under the Geneva Conventions. Members of armed forces can also use it to show that they are protected by Geneva Conventions. However, the misuse of the emblem may be considered as a war crime.

Conclusion

Thanks to all these conventions and their protocols, world is safer and more civilized nowadays, even I the times of war. People feel themselves protected, which means better future for all of us!

Bibliography

Books:

Bernett, Angela. The Geneva Convention: The Hidden Origins of the Red Cross. The History Press, Stroud, 2006. Borch, Fred L., and Solis, Gary. Geneva Conventions. Kaplan Publishing, New York City, 2010. Grossman, Dave. On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Back Bay Books, New York City, 2009. Byers, Michael. War Law: Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict. Grove Press, New York City, 2007.

Web Sites:
http://supportgenevaconventions.org/. “Citizens Interfaith Coalition to Reaffirm and Extend the Geneva Conventions”. Dennis Rivers. 11/11/2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/. “Geneva Conventions”. Multiple authors. 11/23/2011. http://www.icrc.org/. “The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols”. International Committee of the Red Cross. 11/12/2011.

Geneva Conventions Essay

The Disasters of War Essay

The Disasters of War Essay.

The Disasters of War (Spanish: Los Desastres de la Guerra) are a series of 82[a 1] prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya (1746–1828). Although Goya did not make known his intention when creating the plates, art historians view them as a visual protest against the violence of the 1808 Dos de Mayo Uprising, the subsequent Peninsular War of 1808–14 and the setbacks to the liberal cause following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814.

During the conflicts between Napoleon’s French Empire and Spain, Goya retained his position as first court painter to the Spanish crown and continued to produce portraits of the Spanish and French rulers.

Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced in response to the conflict and its aftermath. He was in poor health and almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published until 1863, 35 years after his death.

It is likely that only then was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticising both the French and restored Bourbons.

In total over a thousand sets have been printed, though later ones are of lower quality, and most print room collections have at least some of the set. The name by which the series is known today is not Goya’s own. His handwritten title on an album of proofs given to a friend reads: Fatal consequences of Spain’s bloody war with Bonaparte, and other emphatic caprices (Spanish: Fatales consequencias de la sangrienta guerra en Espana con Buonaparte, Y otros caprichos enfaticos).

Aside from the titles or captions given to each print, these are Goya’s only known words on the series. With these works, he breaks from a number of painterly traditions. He rejects the bombastic heroics of most previous Spanish war art to show the effect of conflict on individuals. In addition he abandons colour in favour of a more direct truth he found in shadow and shade. The series was produced using a variety of intaglio printmaking techniques, mainly etching for the line work and aquatint for the tonal areas, but also engraving and drypoint.

As with many other Goya prints, they are sometimes referred to as aquatints, but more often as etchings. The series is usually considered in three groups which broadly mirror the order of their creation. The first 47 focus on incidents from the war and show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers and civilians. The middle series (plates 48 to 64) record the effects of the famine that hit Madrid in 1811–12, before the city was liberated from the French.

The final 17 reflect the bitter disappointment of liberals when the restored Bourbon monarchy, encouraged by the Catholic hierarchy, rejected the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and opposed both state and religious reform. Since their first publication, Goya’s scenes of atrocities, starvation, degradation and humiliation have been described as the “prodigious flowering of rage” as well as the “work of a memory that knew no forgiveness. “The serial nature in which the plates unfold has led some to see the images as similar in nature to photography.

The Disasters of War Essay

Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay

Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay.

In the study of private sector firms organizational learning has been a long-running area of concern, and from here the defining concepts of the literature come. It is a much more recent in the study of public sector organizations, This research will mention the importance of learning in the 21th century, cultural influence and focuses on setting out a model of structural cultural approach of organizational learning that brings insights and some specific features of public sectors, specifically government sector.

1 (a) What’s Learning Organization

Learning organizations are not simply the most fashionable or current management trend, they can provide work environments that are open to creative thought, and embrace the concept that solutions to ongoing work-related problems are available inside each and every one of us.

All we must do is tap into the knowledge base, which gives us the “ability to think critically and creatively, the ability to communicate ideas and concepts, and the ability to cooperate with other human beings in the process of inquiry and action (Navran Associates Newsletter 1993).

A learning organization is one that seeks to create its own future; that assumes learning is an ongoing and creative process for its members; and one that develops, adapts, and transforms itself in response to the needs and aspirations of people, both inside and outside itself (Navran Associates Newsletter 1993).

1 (b) Importance of learning organization in the 21st century

As the world is changing day by day, each generation have to adapt and make changes in a very limited time. Hence, continuous learning is essential for survival and success in today’s world. Technological change is having a marvelous impact on all our lives. Today, society is far more sophisticated than the world in the earlier days. As technological changes are in a fast manner, it becomes more difficult to predict the future developments and plan for the future changes (Gilley, 2000). In order to cope up with the changing world we have to change our activities and ideas according to the changing world. Successful people have the ability to and are prepared to change and adapt. All successful people are learners; likewise successful organizations too are learning organizations.

Learning organizations alone can make improvements and they never become stagnant. Although organizations are learning and adapt to change they are so slow in making changes. Successful organizations consider change and development as the most important factor, which determine their success (Gilley, 2000). Learning organizations have the capability to control the external pressures rather than be a slave to it. If an organization is a learning organization it will reduce the staff turnover and it will become more attractive to potential employees.

Learning process will enable the organization to respond to the changes and new situations more quickly than its rivals. The ability of the organization to focus on organizational goals and secure staff commitment to their achievement will lead to far greater efficiency and a better quality of product or service. The popularity of learning organization is increasing day by day.

2) The Learning Organization from the aspect of Public Sector (Government)

A simple transposition of the private sector work on Organizational learning cannot be read across to government sector departments and agencies. As Warwick (1975, p. 204) commented at a more general level: ‘It is not enough to unpack a briefcase with concepts and measures developed in other settings, unload them in a public agency and expect them to encompass all of the worthwhile reality to which they are exposed’. Yet Bozeman (1987) points out that in many senses all organizations are public, and that arguments for the distinctiveness of public and private organizations are often overdrawn. Like government agencies, large companies are ‘public’ in many aspects of their business, respond strongly to external stakeholders (such as the media, market analysts, major investors, and their boards) and cope with strong loads of legal, economic and environmental regulation.

The 1999 government white paper on Modernizing Government famously proposed that: ‘The Public Service must become a learning organization’ (1999, p. 56). The clear intention of ministers was to signal that Organizational Learning would play an important part in a ‘continued drive for responsive, high-quality public services’ (Auluck, 2002, p. 109). But of course ‘the Public Service’ is not (and cannot be) a single organization, nor could it remotely learn in a standard way. McKnabb (2007, pp. 126-7) defines a learning organization as one that is inherently agile: ‘one that is quick to identify, digest and apply the lessons learned in its interactions with its environments. For public-sector organizations, this involves developing innovative solutions to the constantly changing legal, political, economic and social environment’.

On similar lines, Common (2004, p. 38) argues that: in the public sector [organizational learning] can be regarded as the ability of an organization to demonstrate that it can learn collectively by applying new knowledge to the policy process or innovation in policy implementation. Implementation also involves learning, through piloting innovative services and structures. It is also argued that organizational learning can improve the policy making capacity of government, whereas policy learning helps to explain what is learnt beyond the limits of government, and how it is learnt.’ Figure A: shows the path of learning in the public sector.

3) The Structural Approach of the Organization towards Learning Organization The structural approach is sharper in its criticism of the explicitly cultural perspective on learning and argues that authors such as Cook and Yanow exclude the role of individual perception. Structuralists agree with Simon, who claims that “all learning takes place inside individual human heads; an organization learns in only two ways: a) the learning of its members, or b) by ingesting new members who have knowledge the organization previously didn’t have” (1991, 125). Many of the features of organizational life including variables that affect learning simultaneously feature both cultural and structural components.

Scholarly efforts that attempt to divide all of the antecedents of learning into structural or cultural variables will misdiagnose the causal mechanisms of learning by underestimating the importance of culture to what are classified as structural variables, and the importance of structure to variables deemed to be cultural. The model is presented in figure 1. Some variables, such as information systems and resources, reflect largely structural influences on learning. However, other variables demonstrate the lack of a clear distinction between structure and culture. Formal rules can try to establish a clear understanding of purpose and empower managers, but mission orientation and patterns of decision authority also rely on complementary cultural norms. Learning forums can be created by formal rules, but only the appropriate cultural traits, such as a willingness to acknowledge error and entertain the views of others, can ensure the success of such forums.

Information Systems: “Established structural and procedural preparations that allow organizations to thoroughly collect, analyze, store, distribute, and use information that is relevant to the effectiveness of the organization”. Performance information systems often fail to generate valid, sincere, and functional performance information (Bouckaert1993), or fail to allocate this information in a timely fashion to the right audience. These are not modest problems. A formal requirement for a performance information system is a poor guarantee of learning.

Mission Orientation Relative to performance information systems, the employee’s mission orientation is their understanding of the mission, vision, goals of the organization, is a more as a cultural aspect of performance management. A mission orientation might be the product of structures of communication and strategic planning, but it also reflects the compatibility of an organizational culture with mission and goals. When a mission-based culture exists, employee behavior is guided by shared norms and expectations about the organizational purpose. Mission orientation overlaps with two aspects of Senge’s (1990) model of learning organizations. The first is building a shared vision, where employees become dedicated and align their actions to the organizational vision. The second is systems thinking.

Decision Flexibility: Decision flexibility allows operators to participate in decision making and a chance to link learning with decisions. One of the major barriers to learning is when teams “lack the power to act in the domains about which they are learning” (Senge 199, xvii). Popper and Lipshitz (1998) recommend providing employees with “elbow room” to consider alternatives and experiment. Schulz (2001) has found that work units with more autonomy report have higher levels of learning. Decision flexibility has both structural and cultural components. An excellent illustration comes from reform efforts at the federal level during the 1990s.

At a time when the federal government was trying to provide agencies with greater flexibility through formal grants of authority and eliminating rules, Ban (1995) found that organizational culture shaped agencies’ willingness to exert flexibility and work around formal constraints. Subsequent empirical work has provided additional evidence on the cultural aspects of flexibility, showing that organizational culture interacts with perception of rule constraints to affect the performance of agencies (Pandey, Coursey, and Moynihan 2007)

Learning Forums:

Learning forums represent a merge of the cultural and structural approaches. Such routines are likely to be formally established. Pisano, Bohmer, and Edmondson (2001) found that firms with formal procedures for learning are more effective learners. However, the nature and efficiency of the dialogue in such forums will depend greatly on the cultural attributes of the organization. Learning forums work best if they occur within a culture that is purpose driven, encourages the open sharing of information, supports the presentation of different perspectives, and examines errors to solve problems rather than to allocate blame (Moynihan 2005). The literature on organizational learning suggests that argumentative uses of data lead to defensive reactions rather than learning, and that learning forums that establish collegiality and an equal footing for members are likely to overcome defensiveness and substitute information sharing.

Structural and Cultural Approach Toward Learning Organization Essay

Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay

Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay.

The date is April 19, 1775 and the Revolutionary War has begun. Nevertheless, there is already another controversy. Who fired first at Lexington and Concord? An illustration of the Battle at Lexington and affidavits from American and British men can help solve this question.

The British fired first at Lexington because American troops were told to disperse and not have any sort of contact or fight with the British when they were sighted, Commander Parker’s and Lieutenant Gould’s affidavits are credible as they match with each other, and Sam Winship identified an officer who fired the first shot engaging Americans and British in warfare whereas John Barker’s affidavit of what happened in Lexington claims that Americans shot first but he could not identify who they actually were.

According to John Parker, an American soldier, and his affidavit he ordered his troops to not be discovered by British troops and to not in any way converse with them if they approached.

If they in anyway insulted or harassed the soldiers, Parker stated that his troops should just run away and to not engage in battle. He concluded with saying that while at Lexington, there were British troops that rushed furiously, fired upon, and killed 8 of his men without Parker or his troops even provoking them.

Edward Gould, a British soldier, and his affidavit can help strengthen the fact that the British fired first at Lexington. Although Gould did say that he didn’t know who shot first, he did say that at Lexington, his troops sighted Americans and rushed toward them previous to the firing. These two affidavits imply that Gould’s troops had sighted Parker’s troops at Lexington. British fired first at Lexington while the American soldiers were told to disperse and the British ran after them to shoot them.

Who Fired First at Lexington and Concord Essay

Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay

Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay.

To review Blaine Kitchenware Inc.’s (BKI) current debt, equity and leverage levels with respect to the highly advisable repurchase of 14 million shares of stock at $18.50 per share and the related, necessary financing.

BKI is currently highly over-liquid and under-levered. The firm can anticipate elevated tax rates due to the lack of debt held. BKI has also experienced falling earnings per share (EPS) due to the over issuing of stock. Similarly the large quantity of outstanding shares of stock has led to below average returns to shareholders and a return on equity (ROE) below the competitors’ ROEs.

BKI can offset these downward trends by increasing leverage—i.e. increasing debt—and reversing the dilutive acquisitions. BKI is highly recommended to obtain a 25 year loan of $50 million at 6.75% with which to repurchase 14 million of its outstanding shares of stock at the price of $18.50 per share, $2.25 above current stock price.

Balance Sheet Impact

As shown below, under the appendix, the pro forma balance sheet demonstrates forecasted values if BKI continues without action to increase leverage and decrease outstanding stock.

BKI can expect to have $ 510,624,920.99 in stockholders’ equity and $ 96,011,793.33 in cash and cash equivalents on which BKI will be liable at a 40% tax rate, significantly higher than previous fiscal years.

Based on trends from 2004-2006, BKI can predict increases in current asset accounts and marginal decreases in fixed asset accounts. Without the pursuit of repurchase and increased debt, BKI’s current liabilities accounts will also experience marginal increases while other liabilities and deferred
taxes decrease and long term debt remains at zero. Furthermore, before the repurchase of stock, BKI’s equity accounts may continue to increase.

Applying the repurchase strategy to calculated three year trends, BKI’s forecasted balance sheet accounts have significantly lower cash and cash equivalent account, increased market securities, accounts receivables, inventory, and other current assets accounts. Fixed assets are expected to decrease based on three year trends while current liabilities increase. The repurchase will require financing which will be attained through a 25 year fixed rate loan of 50 million. At the end of the first year term, BKI will have long term debt of 50 million minus first year principal component of $819,345.59 equaling $ 49,180,654.41. Other liabilities and deferred taxes however, may decrease marginally. In addition, with the repurchase of 14 million shares, stockholders’ equity is expected to decrease to $ 251,624,920.99 from $488,363,000.00 in 2006.

Income Statement Impact

Three year trends suggest BKI will have increased revenue, increased cost of goods sold, thus elevated gross profits, rising selling, general, and administrative costs, and decreased depreciation and amortization expenses. Overall, trends indicate earnings before interest and taxes may be higher than 2006 EBIT.

Without the stock repurchase strategy, BKI may experience tax expense of $ 34,922,882.71 as opposed to tax expense amounting to $ 29,355,346.62 (calculated using 2007 federal income tax brackets as shown under appendix below) if BKI undergoes the stock repurchase strategy. Without undergoing the stock repurchase plan, BKI will have no interest expense and net income of $ 52,384,324.06. BKI will have dividend expense of $29,230,740.00. By undergoing the stock repurchase, BKI will earn net income of $54,576,860.15 which takes into account the interest expense of $3,375,000.00 associated with the loan to finance the stock repurchase.

Impact on financial ratios

Operating performance impact

ROE: BKI’s return on equity ratio currently below average and below competitors’ will continue to drop based on the firm’s performance trends in the last three years to a 10% level. The anticipated ROE with the stock repurchase plan is 22%, third highest ROE, and while not quite above the industry average, sufficiently above the industry median.

EPS: Earnings per share is expected to increase to $1.21 with the stock repurchase plan while if the plan is forgone, BKI can anticipate earning a mere $0.89 per share outstanding. An EPS of $0.89 is lower than the firm’s historical EPS and unappealing to future investors. Leverage: Leverage will increase overall after the stock repurchase and withdrawal of the $50 million bank loan. As shown below, debt ratio increases with the addition of the long term debt which drives up total liabilities with respect to total assets. Long term debt to total capitalization increases as well as debt to equity since BKI will have a long term debt significantly higher than its stockholders’ equity suggesting long term debt is used for permanent financing.

Interest Coverage: After the stock repurchase, BKI can cover its interest expense over 20 times with the operating profit earned based on the times interest earned ratio.

Expected Cost of Financial Distress

BKI may have concerns with financial distress and guaranteeing that all operational costs are covered when leverage is increased. The cost of financial distress for BKI is determined by subtracting the BKI’s weighted cost of debt, 5.22% from the the rate of interest paid by firms that are not in financial distress in the same industry, based on Moody’s AAA rating is 5.88%. This results in a 0.66% cost of financial distress or $100,452,019.96 after the stock repurchase and $ 67,992,788.05 before the stock repurchase.

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Blaine Kitchenware Inc. Essay

April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay

April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay.

The book April Morning by Howard Fast is a dramatic story of the bloody battle of Lexington set up with a one day structure from the view of a fifteen year old boy turning into a man. In the book we see the life of Adam Cooper changing from child to man in the matter of one day. Each chapter is a different time period of the day telling us what has happened and what the effects were on his life.

Adam Cooper is a fifteen-year-old boy living in colonial Lexington, Massachusetts with his family. He feels demoralized by his father, Moses Cooper, but finds consolation from Granny Cooper, his paternal grandmother. When a meeting of the township Committee is called on the evening of April 18th, Adam wishes to attend but his father questions whether or not his son is a man and has earned the right to attend the meeting. Instead of attending the meeting, Adam visits his neighbor Ruth Simmons, a distant relative whom he loves whom he loves and sees himself marrying in the distant future.

When his father returns home from the meeting, Adam eavesdrop as Moses tells his wife Sarah and Granny Cooper what happened, as the colonial communities prepare for a possible confrontation with the British army. During the late night early morning, a rider arrives in Lexington, waking up the community with news that the British army is on the march to Concord to take out supplies and ammunition that is being stored by colonists for a possible rebellion. Once the news of the night rider reaches the town the committeemen hold a muster for the militia, and Adam decides to sign the muster book and commit to fighting for the militia. His father is present when he is signing the muster and allows for it to happen. Moses Cooper no longer sees his son as a boy but as a determined man willing to fight for his family and community.

Both Adam and his father prepared themselves for the battle and a total of seventy militia men wait for the arrival of the British army. Moses Cooper argues persuasively with the committeemen that the small number of men can’t stand up to the thousands of Redcoat troops they will be greeting alone, and so it’s decided that they will state their case but do no more; they decide to talk it out rather than to fight. However when the British finally reach Lexington, the officers are sneeringly dismissive of the colonists and tell them to leave the common and a mysterious shot is fired causing the British troops to begin firing on the colonists. The British massacred the small militia that stood in front of them, and Adam watched as his father and other men he had known his entire life be shot down.

Adam hides in terror and cannot go home because of the British troops in town and it is unsafe. Adam is off to the woods to find the rest of the militia and he is almost discovered by British soldiers, but before they do so are called away to march towards Concord. Adam runs from the British and is shot at by redcoats, only to be caught in the grip of an older colonial man named Solomon Chandler, who helps Adam and provides him with some consolation and food. Adam joins Chandler on his journey to meet up with more members of colonial militias. Along the way, other colonists join the two, also ready to fight the British. Once at the pasture, Adam is greeted by Cousin Simmons and The Reverend, and is relieved that others from the Lexington militia had survived. Though the various town committees and militia have general instructions, there isn’t a single leader chosen to lead the battle.

It was a confused time for the colonists fighting and finally Chandler guides them and instructs the men waiting at the pasture to split up into groups according to the firing range of their weapons. Adam and the other men in his group lay under the brush and fire at the redcoats, Adams gun does not reach a far distance so he does not shoot but watches instead; he see the burning of Lexington and the bloodshed of the redcoats. Through the mist of all of the battle Adam seems to fall asleep leaving everyone to believe that he is wounded and dead. When Adam wakes up he finds that the battle has moved to a distant location; he hears Cousin Simmons and The Reverend talking, meets them, and they all agree to go home to Lexington, or what is left of it. Once home Adam is greeted with relief and happiness by the surviving members of his family and others from the town. Adam is now treated like a fully-grown man when he was only recently considered a simple child to everyone.

Adam makes peace with his father’s corpse, and then helps to carry the casket to the church. At the church Adam lights some extra candles so his father won’t have to rest in the dark of night. Cousin Simmons makes sure that Adam is aware this battle was only the start, and that he must consider his other responsibilities as the new head of household when deciding if he’ll continue to fight. When Adam returns home his mother is already asleep but Granny Cooper is awake and says she knows he will go back into battle eventually. He puts off the question for the time being, and is relieved to finally go to sleep and end this momentous day. The book is a great and quick read being that it is only 202 pages long. The text gets you involved and makes it feel as if you are there with Adam Cooper through the battles and his day.

You feel as if you are standing next to Adam while on the field holding your riffle awaiting the battles. The pressures and emotions that the boy is going through as he transitions into an adult are heartfelt and many people can relate to Adam in some ways. The pressure of becoming a man over night and resuming all these responsibilities he never had to deal with before is a struggle that many can relate too. I personally would definitely recommend this book to my peers as well as to younger and older audiences. This book in my opinion was very good in the fact that it drew me in and kept me wanting to read more as the story went on. I don’t usually like reading and the fact that this book makes me want to keep reading and not stop till it was finished in my opinion makes this a good book. Fast is a great author and knows how to draw in an audience. Overall this was a great book and I would definitely recommend it to all.

April Morning by Howard Fast Book Review Essay