Miguel Street Essay

Miguel Street Essay.

Discuss the representation of man and manhood in the 2 short stories of Miguel Street. On Miguel Street, the representation of man and manhood can be seen negatively in these two short stories” “Bogart” and “A thing without a name”.

Where as a man’s manhood is considered strong if certain characteristics such as aggression, evading the law and their present living circumstances. The story about Bogart illustrates where his manhood being threaten where as Bogart is unable to father a child by his Tunapuna wife so he finds a means to escape this difficulty.

He goes elsewhere, run a “high-class” brothel, meets another woman and successfully impregnates. Once he has achieved his goal of proving his virility, he may return to Miguel Street although he returns as a bigamist as Hat would say “To be a man, among we man”.

He would now be seen as a high standing man of the community, playing with the surrounding children and giving them parties, which is a vastly different from the life he once had by pretending to be a tailor but now is seen The main character in “A thing without a name “ Popo is a carpenter by profession but he is not considered a man among his peers as his wife was the main breadwinner of the family which did not bothered him as he would continue to make “a thing without a name”. This however changed when Popo wife left him for another man, it is then that he was accepted as “one of the gang “within Miguel Street, as they could related to his pain and heart ache. His man hood was however bruised by the separation of his wife , so he would then retaliate by fighting the other man and going to prison, which eventually made him an hero on Miguel street.

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Miguel Street Essay

Housewife vs. Working Women Essay

Housewife vs. Working Women Essay.

I watched a debate on the television on this topic. There were two groups who discussed this. Surprisingly, each group had a husband/wife whose spouse was in the other group. This opportunity was too good to be missed, I guess! The debate was lively, did not reduce to a wrangling match because of the mediator. He was able to conduct the whole debate very smoothly. Those who do not want their wives to work have no problems if their daughters or sisters work.

Why these double standards? Their explanation is till the kids are young they need their mothers. So their wives could take up jobs after a few years. But they refused to admit what these few years are. One lady wanted to know how long she was supposed to wait. She was a double post graduate, and professionally qualified. She said her skills would become redundant if she waited any longer. She has been waiting for over ten years.

Her husband had no answer to her question. One gentleman said his was a transferable job, so he wanted his family to be with him. If his wife was employed, she would stay back, he would have to shift and he would miss out on family life because the children would be with her.

It never struck him that she could always resign her job and joins some concern in the city where he shifted. But he wants to educate his daughter and wants her to join IIM at Ahmedabad. This is his goal in life. When asked if he would allow her to work, he said when she is so qualified, why should he deny her a career? His wife is a rank holder and a qualified person, but he wants her home. He was asked if in the future a groom wanted his daughter to stay at home, would he agree to this alliance. He said he would refuse. Another gentleman said he did not want his wife to undergo the hassles of managing home and job. The daily hazards of bus/train journey, stress of a workaholic boss, stress of meeting deadlines, could all be avoided if she stays at home. Also the children, his parents, relatives could all be taken care of by her. Even if she was willing to shoulder the burden of work and home, and was confident of doing justice to both, he was not convinced.

Another lady accused her husband of having got used to having her wait on him; give him his coffee when he comes home, etc. That is the reason why he was loathes seeing her take up a job. Another gentleman said when a woman is confident of handling both a home and a career, and then she must be encouraged. His wife was completing her higher education and was planning to take up a job. He was very supportive, and felt all husbands must emulate him. According to him, women are a capable lot; they can take any amount of changes and tensions and come out smiling. He said they are a lot stronger than men and they are capable of more. So the debate raged and husbands and wives were throwing questions at each other. One lady said she was upset having to leave her child at the crèche while she attended office. And any calls from there, she had to seek permission from her boss and leave. She felt she was being put in a delicate situation. Her husband asked her if he had ever pushed her to work. She declined. He too shared in all the chores, and he too went to the crèche whenever he received a call.

And he asked her whether she was capable of staying at home at a stretch. She agreed it was not possible. So why was she complaining? All the ladies who wanted to work and were working were vociferously advocating that women should work. All those who were qualified and who wanted to work should be encouraged. This was their viewpoint. They could not understand why the men folk objected. All those women who felt women should not work said women should learn to manage the family within what their husbands earned. Also it was very stressful to manage both home and career. They felt when they are at home; they can take good care of their children, in-laws, parents, and all the guests who arrived. They can concentrate on everyone’s health, and also take active participation in their children’s education. This was their argument. The rebuttal to this was when you have family support, and then a woman can achieve a lot.

And there is the concept of quality time. Also those children, whose mothers were working, turned out to be more independent and also aware of their responsibilities. They learned to participate in all the household chores and were proud of their working mothers. The debate rages on. There was even one guy who said 40% of workingwomen were going astray. He was right royally condemned. Even his own group people were against his remark and he had to apologize. He was ripped apart by the anchor. So, you get all kinds in a debate. This debate is to be continued. Hope to catch it. But seriously, what do you think? Is a woman capable of managing a home and her career? Those men, who feel they are doing a favor to their wives by asking them to be housewives, are they doing it out of selfish reasons or do they feel threatened? Going out to work gives anyone, not only women, a sense of confidence.

There are women who have no choice but work. But many ladies also work because they are qualified and have a passion for it. And they do bring in useful money, one must admit. Who does not like money? Women are good at multi-tasking. And they can handle wolves, eve teasers, and grouchy bosses. They may be physically weaker, but are emotionally stronger. They will always find a way of handling any crisis. Like a lady on the show said, if necessary they will get up an hour early to accomplish everything. I feel the choice should be given to the lady. If she wishes to work, if she is confident of handling both and if her spouse and family are willing to support her, then she can have a career. It does lead to fulfillment. And with changing times, a lady can also work from home, part time, or flexible hours. So let her choose. Whether she wants to have a career or wants to be a housewife.

Housewife vs. Working Women Essay

Housework Division Essay

Housework Division Essay.

1. Regardless of whether the family is a dual-income family or not marriage is about compromise. With compromise comes accommodation. One couple might have a partner who works longer hours or has a more strenuous job. To accommodate the partner, the other spouse might have to do more of the house work. One partner might have more responsibilities than another but in the end it should be equally shared.

2. Many years ago, when families would survive off of the land, both men and women were cooperative and worked along each others side.

They both assumed laborious duties and shared tasks. Most would be divided by gender but the couple would actively participate both at home and work. Today, due to the dramatic increase in industrialization, a lot of the household tasks that mainly women did are no longer known as a “job”. With the female labor force increasing from 25% in 1940 to 61% in 2003, the term “housewife” and homemaker continue to be seldom used as a means of work.

As female labor continues to rise each year, I believe that history will be repeating itself and therefore not only would sharing household responsibilities be the most viable option but a must. The text (Ch. 12 Pg.259) describes the “superwomen” as the dual-career wife who has unrealistic aspirations as she tries to manage being a wife, homemaker, and mother and balance her career on top of it all. She ends up feeling depressed and in the end is overwhelmed and reaches the point of exhaustion. Had she shared the responsibilities with her partner she might not have reach this point and this is why equity is important to marital satisfaction and the well being of the family.

3. Traditionally, in the past labor has always been divided by gender roles. The wives would cook, clean, wash dishes and the men would do most of the outside chores and repairs around the house. Today this continues to be how tasks are divided among most couples and will probably continue to be for the next few years. Mostly, because the inequality of task dividing is not defined as unfair by the wife and most of a labor they might enjoy doing or perhaps the husband might have a higher income and therefore feel as if they obligated to do more around the house. Whatever the reason being why inequality still persists in today’s society in regards to household work, one thing is for sure, there has been an enormous progress from earlier years in the sharing of household responsibilities which causes for greater potential in one day being closer to the ideal 50-50 in tasks sharing.

Housework Division Essay

Traditional Housewife Essay

Traditional Housewife Essay.

The power of the woman comes from her spontaneity, presence and being who she is? She has been the tower of strength, patience and perseverance. History of nations worldwide is the proof of her significant role. She has been viewed as the nurturer, nurse and caregiver. Her image is the personification of love and tolerance. She creates, she gives and she embraces her family members unconditionally. She takes care of her home, her children and her family. She is there, always ready to serve and care.

She cooks, cleans and procures supplies for everyday living. This pillar of strength is the traditional housewife, who has faded into background of modern day needs, emerging technology and growing industrialization.

Until industrial revolution of nineteenth century, most mothers in Europe and America not only stayed home to tend their children and house, they also worked side by side with their husbands to make financial contribution to the family. There was division of labor based on childbearing and strength, but without women, the crops would not have been harvested, food would not have been stored for winter months and people would not have had clothes to wear.

The success of economy rested on the capable shoulder of the women. She fulfilled her role not out of necessity, but out of long, “real” tradition and great skill. (Byington, 2001)

The power which women had as traditional housewife came from her valued contribution to household. With advent of industrialization and modern age technological evolution, the need for this traditional housewife got submerged. The priorities changed, expectations grew and her role was not valued any more. She was thrust into the background of anonymity. She had to emerge as the savior of the household in a new role. She emerged as a working woman of 21st century, walking side by side with men, braving the role of care provider on her capable shoulders.

References

Byington, Jill. “What’s a Traditional Mom, Anyway?.” Look Smart. Find Articles. 2001. 16 Feb 2007 <findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IUK/is_2001_Summer/ai_78177298>.

(Byington,2001)

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Traditional Housewife Essay

Role of Women in Hinduism Essay

Role of Women in Hinduism Essay.

The purpose of the research paper is to examine the role of women in Hinduism and how it impact their lives .This paper will look at how narratives from sacred texts influences women’s role in society in the past and in the present. The role of women in Hinduism is often disputed, and positions range from equal status with men to restrictive. Hinduism is based on numerous texts, some of which date back to 2000 BCE or earlier. They are varied in authority, authenticity, content and theme, with the most authoritative being the Vedas.

The position of women in Hinduism is widely dependent on the specific text and the context. Positive references are made to the ideal woman in texts such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, while some texts such as the Manu Smriti advocate a restriction of women’s rights.

In modern times, the Hindu wife has traditionally been regarded as someone who must at all costs remain chaste or pure.

This is in contrast with the very different traditions that have prevailed at earlier times in Hindu kingdoms, which included highly respected professional courtesans such as Amrapali of Vesali, sacred Devadasis, mathematicians and female magicians the Basavis, the tantric kulikas. Mahabharata and Manu Smriti asserts that gods are delighted only when women are worshiped or honoured, otherwise all spiritual actions become futile, as evidenced by the narrative from the Mahabharata “Deities of prosperity are women.

The persons that desire prosperity should honour them. By cherishing women, one cherishes the goddess of prosperity herself, and by afflicting her, one is said to afflict the goddess of prosperity” (Mahabharata,). Several women sages and seers are mentioned in the Upanishads, the philosophical part of the Vedas, notable among them being Gargi and Maitreyi. This reveals that women were also given a place as Gurus.

The Bhagavata Purana states that the Mahabharata was written specifically for women and also men who were not in the priestly Brahmin caste, for example the following passage. “Out of compassion, the great sage thought it wise that this would enable men to achieve the ultimate goal of life. Thus he compiled the great historical narration called the Mahabharata for women, laborers and friends of the twice-born.” According to Sharma &Arvind, 2002 “Women have fought for their status and role in communities, religions, and the nation for years. And women in Hinduism are no different”. Women traditionally would live the life of a mother and a wife following the footsteps of their ancestors.

Women’s roles were laid out in Hindu law books such as the Dharma-Sastras, however basic rules in the Laws of Manu (200 C.E.) lays out how a women or wife should behave in the household and towards her husband. Nevertheless, women’s roles have evolved over time and women are going against the social norm of their tradition and even their way of life. Hinduism is a complex religion and unlike many western religions, it is a way of life. Family is very important in Hinduism and as keeper of the household women play an important role in the tradition. Women are revealed in the sacred scriptures as presenting a duality of being benevolent and malevolent exposing her with great contrasting powers.

“In times of prosperity she indeed is Laksmi, [goddess of wealth] who bestows prosperity in the homes of men; and in times of misfortune, she herself becomes the goddess of misfortune, and brings about ruin” (Wadley, 1977) Because of this changing power that a women possesses it is rational that man should want to control this mysterious power. Then, perhaps it may have been interpreted that women should remain stagnate, running the household, rearing the children, and participate in religious rituals as an assistant to their husband. It is the female’s role as a wife to bear her husband’s children and educate them in their traditional practices.

To maintain their dominance over the women men have their wives maintain the home and the family that he has made and provided for. The female’s prakrti, (nature), is like the soil where the male plants his seed to grow into “conjoined images” (Wadley, 1977). And therefore “the male controls the female; that Nature is controlled by Culture” (Wadley, 1977). Culture or society controls nature as it is motivated to change and evolve just as the man tries to control the women. Prior to marriage, the female is regulated by her father and then when she is married she is controlled by her husband.

During the marriage, the wife must then be truly devoted to her husband and it is believed that she is able to transfer her natural female power to the husband for daily rituals and caring for his family. In the Mahabharata, a husband describing her truly devoted wife says: “She never eats before I eat, and never bathes before I bathe. She rejoices if I rejoice, and becomes sorry when I am sorry. When I am away, she becomes cheerless, and when I am angry, she ceases not to speak sweetly.

Ever devoted to her lord and ever relying upon her lord, she was ever employed in doing what was agreeable to and beneficial for her lord. Worthy of praise is that person on earth who owns such a spouse. That amiable wife knows that I am fatigued and hungry. Devoted to me and constant in her love, my spouse is exceedingly sweet-tempered and worships me devoutly.”(Mahabharata) Daily roles and activities of the wife involve more than just caring for the household; they also involve religious rituals. Although, only Brahman men can do the Vedic rituals women still play an important role in devotional rituals.

The wives of Brahmin priests can act as assistants to their husbands on ritual occasions because there are no scriptural sanctions against such female ritual behavior .In the Vedic world, women were required to be present for the rituals to work, even though they had no official role to play in them, for example this passage. “Day and night, women must be kept dependent to the males of their families. If they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control. Her father protects her in childhood. Her husband protects her in youth. Her sons protect her in old age. A woman is never fit for independence.”

Many Hindu scriptures say women are to be honored, “religious deeds are said to be useless if women are not honored and cherished” (Sarkar& Tanika, 2003). So, in a small village in North India, “women instigate and participate in twenty-one of the thirty-three annual rites…[and] dominate nine of the twenty-one annual rites” (Wadley,1977). Although women have developed a stronger religious status, they are still considered dangerous to men; whether it is because their inner power or another reason we cannot be certain and therefore they are accepted as active participants in the Vedic rituals.

“O best of Bharatas, I wish to hear thee discourse on the disposition of women. Women are said to be the root of all evil. They are all regarded as exceedingly frail” (Mahabharata,) Hindu women’s traditional roles in the household in India have changed a great deal over the past fifty or even hundred years. Western countries have had an influence on these changes. Scholars traveling to India are wanting to learn and study the Indian Hindu culture. And, therefore they have written many articles and books on the sacred scriptures including reviews on the Vedas and other religious scriptures that were once restricted from women.

The ongoing reconstruction of the social status of women has brought about many new changes in, “Education, health measures, rural and industrial welfare schemes, and problems of early marriage, purdah, the positions of widows, women’s franchise rights, and the representation of women in governing bodies. (Sarkar& Tanika, 2003).The schools now allow young women to learn the Vedas and sacred scriptures that were formally restricted to only men of a certain class/caste.

With this new revelation, many people have spoke out saying, “No society can prosper without education for its women. By treating women as the lowest caste, you don’t raise them to a level of vidya shakti [educated power], they will end up being avidya shakti [ignorant power]” (Pechilis, 2004). Due to this modification of women roles in society, infant mortality has reduced with better health measures. Young girls will are no longer forced to marry before they hit puberty, and widows are able to re-marry. Although there is, more men than women being born in India the change in women’s status as independent women in governing bodies is expected bring a change to this as well.

To most women these changes seem radical and the feel that they are disrespecting their tradition. By accepting the changes as a new improvement to their past traditions, they can keep their traditional values as well as become revolutionalized. Many women have accepted the lifestyles of their ancestors as the social norm. Many women have stepped out of the norm and made a difference in their village, society, and their country giving other women everywhere someone the look up to and follow in their leadership.

“The life of asceticism is now not only a part of coming of age for a man but women are more commonly choosing this lifestyle as well”( Denton Lynn Teskey ,2004). An example of this growth and leadership is evident through the rise of the female guru. Female guru’s are not traditionally accepted and the social norm in Hinduism. “The most radical challenge of the female gurus is not directed toward the received guru tradition but rather the received social expectations” (Pechilis, 2004).

For instance, according to Bose& Mandarins many female gurus are or were married, then are some that have never been married which has created some conflict with their families who want them to adopt the traditional role of a women to be a wife and mother. Instead, they live an ascetic lifestyle and do not try to define the difference between female or male gurus. Both are trying to attain the same goal, and gender does not affect how they come to their attainment.

However, “all of the female gurus are associated with the Goddess through the concept of shakti, for they, like the Goddess, are paramount embodiments of shakti” (Pechilis, 2004). Female gurus are, for the most part, understood and accepted by their followers. The work they do with the people teaching and connecting with their students, illustrates the growing influence of women in Hinduism. Although change has challenged the idea of the proper wife who remains under her husband’s control, change has also brought about many beneficiary factors. Women are much more able think and act independently should they choose to.

They may better educate themselves not only in the religious texts, such as the Vedas, but in social inclement and activities as well. Women have a choice between becoming a wife who obeys her husband’s wishes and or “the Mother, the goddess who epitomizes the dual character of the Hindu female” (Wadley, 1977). Although most Hindu women will probably continue to follow their tradition and be a proper wife change has created possibilities for those women who want a different lifestyle involving religious power or as a business women, for example, should they choose it.

The opportunity for change is among us all should we choose it. “women as [a] mother in Hindu thought controls others and becomes the Hindu woman in control of herself” (Chitgopekar& Nilima, 2000). In conclusion, religion plays an important part in women’s lives, however women who are Hindus ,religion is their life, they live by the scripture whether it impact their lives in a positive or a negative way.

Hindu women despite the fact of Vedas, the Holy Scripture of Hindus, (being quite anti-feminism and thus instituting in males superiority), females of Hindu community have travelled a long way. From the old conventions of sati, pardah, illiteracy and being an asset of the males, the women have made a huge come back. They have not only earned social and economic development but also the political liberty.

References
Bose, Mandarins (2000) Faces of the feminine in ancient, medieval, and modern India. New York: Oxford University Press. Chitgopekar, Nilima (2002) Invoking goddesses: gender politics in Indian religion. New Delhi: Shakti Books. Denton, Lynn Teskey (2004) Female ascetics in Hinduism. Albany: State University of New York Press. Mahabharata –The Scared text of Hinduism, retrieved Jan 10,2013 from website
www.sacred-texts.com/hin/maha/index.htm. Pechilis, Karen (2004) The Graceful guru: Hindu female gurus in India and the United States. New York; Toronto: Oxford University Press Sarkar, Tanika (2003) Hindu wife, Hindu nation: community, religion, and cultural nationalism. New Delhi: Permanent Black Sharma, Arvind (2002) Women in Indian religions. Toronto: Oxford University Press Wadley, Susan S.(1977) “Women and Hindu Tradition.” Signs, Vol. 3, No. 1; Chicago: University

Role of Women in Hinduism Essay

The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera Review Essay

The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera Review Essay.

The story that was written by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera, “The Virgin” is a story about a woman named Miss Mijares that was about 34 years old. She was slimy and almost bony. She also knows how to dress herself to hide the small chest she has by putting puff and ruffles on her chest part. She was not an ugly person but not also beautiful. She was a woman that has full of priorities that she later realized that she was old enough to find a man that she can marry.

Miss Mijares, a dictator woman also a choosy manager of the company that speaks English during the interviews of the construction workers that was not really appropriate to do.

One day, she met a man applying on the job she was handing. Unlike the other applicants, she felt an unusual and strange feeling and she noticed that he’s teeth has a missing tooth. The man, unlike the other workers, has a big impact on Miss Mijares.

She cared a lot on that man and even cared if he’s around or not. Miss Mijares looked at the man sharply feeling the malice in his voice knowing that the man has no wife… yet. She was ashamed knowing that as if that man knew the ruffles on her blouse was one of the ways to put impact and volume on her chests.

Read more: The Virgin by Kerima Polotan Tuvera

One day, this man was absent and Miss Mijares lost her way home which was a question why since it is been ages that she sauntering in that place. She found the man on the street and asked the reason for being absent in a week. She discovered that this man lost his son but he was never been married to its mother.

It was a rainy evening but the driver unloads his passengers. They protested but the driver has no choice. Miss Mijares and the man stepped down to the sidewalk and his touch had fallen on her flesh. Short Analysis

The characters involved in the story were Miss Mijares that described as a woman at her thirties that was never been in loved and is also a virgin. The other character was a man with good body structure and also one of her workers. Miss Mijares was described as a tall woman with bony and slimy structure and in the story it was emphasized her being a flat chested woman.

Moreover, this woman a character of having a bold personality was one of the reasons of being still single. Until this man, one day had this fascinating charisma that captured the heart of this arrogant lady. She noticed every single structure of this man that is atypical in her character. She noticed the missing tooth of this man and was also indicated that she spotted that this man’s teeth was slightly apart with each other. The man was a simple good looking guy there was no definite name given but it was only described that he has a good body structure and has enough knowledge to do his job. Lastly, Miss Mijares fall for this man that boggles in her mind.

Interpretation

In this scenario, it was stated and given that the protagonist has a bold personality that was frightened by her suitors.

The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera Review Essay

Mrs Arbuthnot and Hester Essay

Mrs Arbuthnot and Hester Essay.

How does Oscar Wilde make Hester and Mrs Arbuthnot contrasting characters? Oscar Wilde has many characters through ‘A Woman of No Importance’ that have contrasting personalities and backgrounds, but the characters with a clear, most definite contrast are Hester and Mrs Arbuthnot. Mrs Arbuthnot is known to the readers of the play and the characters in the play as a ‘fallen woman’. She has run off with at least two men whilst married and has now developed a reputation with the rest of the community.

She is a very flirtatious character and likes to ‘play with fire’.

This means she also will try to get the attention of any man possible. Hester, on the other hand, is very religious and has extremely different morals and views to Mrs Arbuthnot. She doesn’t agree with running off with other men, sex before marriage or flirting with other men, so Hester and Mrs Arbuthnot, in this sense, have different morals. Mrs Arbuthnot’s relationship with Lord Illingworth is very flirtatious and public.

Everyone in the community has heard about them so nothing about them is private.

Hester and Gerald’s relationship on the other hand, is very different. Hester plays almost ‘hard to get’ and doesn’t draw attention to her or the fact that she may like Gerald. She likes to keep her business private so no one knows anything about her to judge her. Mrs Arbuthnot is from England and is very friendly with the higher class people. These people have been born into wealth and don’t like people who have earned their money through working. However, Hester is from America and has had to work her way up to gain money and to be where she is today.

She doesn’t agree with people being born into wealth and those people looking down on the people who have worked their way up. Both Mrs Arbuthnot and Hester disagree with each other in this sense which shows a contrasting of personalities. On the other hand, Hester says ‘nothing should be out of the reach of hope’, which could seem that Hester doesn’t worry about social class and it doesn’t matter when you are in hierarchy, Finally, Mrs Arbuthnot believes that men are stronger than woman and they have a higher authority and more power than women do.

She has the typical view of a Victorian woman where the men boss the women around and then women do as they are told. Hester believes in equality and has very strong views about it. She believes that all men and women should be valued the same and that no one is any different. Hester is almost like she is saying exactly what Oscar Wilde is thinking. Therefore, throughout this play, Oscar Wilde shows contrasting characters through wealth, class and morals.

Mrs Arbuthnot and Hester Essay