Choose and describe one enzyme that is used in cleaning products, other products, industrial procedures or that is found in food.
Describe one enzyme that is used in cleaning products
In lab you are exploring two enzymes, catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, and amylase that aids in starch digestion. These are two examples of the many enzymes found inside our bodies.
Enzymes are also used in many of the products we use! Check your cleaning supplies at home, do any of them list enzymes on the ingredient list? If so, does it say which type of enzyme? Any other products you use contain enzymes? What type of enzymes are used in industry? Which enzymes are found in the food we eat?
After doing some research, choose and describe one enzyme that is used in cleaning products, other products, industrial procedures or that is found in food. Explain how this enzyme is used. What is the substrate in the chemical reaction? And what is the product(s)?
Remember that a chemical reaction converts one or more substrates to one or more products, and that most enzymes are substrate specific. When looking for enzymes remember that their names end with -ase!
Carbon Footprint Hypothesis:Create a hypothesis that you will test using the campus survey data.
Carbon Footprint Hypothesis
We all make everyday choices which impact the amount of carbon dioxide which enters our atmosphere. Driving cars, using energy in our houses, buying local products or products which travel great distances are just some of these choices. In this project, you will determine your contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide. We will also collect and evaluate survey data for other students on the Auraria campus. We will be discussing the Greenhouse Effect later in the semester. You may want to watch that lecture early to get some perspective for this project.
If you have any questions about this assignment, please contact your lab instructor. They can also review your assignment before you submit it!
B. Send this google survey to 5-10 students on the Auraria campus (they cannot be enrolled in this class). You can email it to classmates in another class via Canvas but you need to request permission from your instructors or you can just email it individually to some of your friends.
C. Create a hypothesis that you will test using the campus survey data. Think about the questions in the survey and your expectations about how students on the campus will respond and the relationships between multiple questions. The survey was given last semester also so there will be data from a previous semester as well. I recommend keeping your hypothesis pretty simple by only choosing one independent variable and a clear cutoff.
In this Discussion, you will claim your topics for this project and work on ensuring your hypothesis is appropriate. No one in the class can do the same hypothesis and topics will be awarded on a first-come-first-serve basis, so post yours early! Make sure to check the previous posts before posting yours to ensure it is not already taken. The Carbon Footprint Results assignment will not be graded if you did not have your hypothesis approved. I am having you post in the Discussion so you can learn from others so take advantage of being able to review your classmate’s work.
By Wednesday, you can receive 5pts for posting a potential hypothesis (late postings will receive a zero out of these 5 points). Your lab instructor will then respond to your post to let you know whether you need more work on it or not. If not, your instructor will approve your hypothesis and you will receive the other 5pts for this assignment. If your first attempt at a hypothesis needs work, your instructor will provide feedback. You will work back and forth with your instructor on this until you have an approved hypothesis by Sunday night. Be sure to check in often here to make sure you have time to modify your hypothesis as needed. Feel free to make an online conference or on-campus appointment with your TA if you would like to chat about your topic.
Include in your Discussion post:
One clear hypothesis that is testable using the data collected in the survey.
Identification of independent and dependent variable.
List at least two constants and two confounders for your experiment.
Human Pathophysiology: Coronary artery disease as described above with previous PTCA and stenting procedures..
Coronary artery disease as described above with previous PTCA and stenting procedures.
Write a comprehensive medical report on a disease we have studied up to this point. Be sure to include all relevant medical history, testing/diagnostics, treatment options, and recommended plan of action. Paper should be in APA format and 4 pages submitted to the Submissions Area.
Here is an example for assignment 2:
First you can introduce a patient report-case study.
“DATE OF CONSULTATION: MM/DD/YYYY
REFERRING PHYSICIAN: John Doe, MD
CONSULTING PHYSICIAN: Jane Doe, MD
REASON FOR CONSULTATION: Surgical evaluation for coronary artery disease.
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: The patient is a (XX)-year-old female who has a known history of coronary artery disease. She underwent previous PTCA and stenting procedures in December and most recently in August. Since that time, she has been relatively stable with medical management. However, in the past several weeks, she started to notice some exertional dyspnea with chest pain. For the most part, the pain subsides with rest. For this reason, she was re-evaluated with a cardiac catheterization. This demonstrated 3-vessel coronary artery disease with a 70% lesion to the right coronary artery; this was a proximal lesion. The left main had a 70% stenosis. The circumflex also had a 99% stenosis. Overall left ventricular function was mildly reduced with an ejection fraction of about 45%. The left ventriculogram did note some apical hypokinesis. In view of these findings, surgical consultation was requested and the patient was seen and evaluated by Dr. Doe.
PAST MEDICAL HISTORY:
1. Coronary artery disease as described above with previous PTCA and stenting procedures.
4. Status post breast lumpectomy for cancer with followup radiation therapy to the chest.
MEDICATIONS: Aspirin 81 mg daily, Plavix 75 mg daily, Altace 2.5 mg daily, metoprolol 50 mg b.i.d. and Lipitor 10 mg q.h.s.
SOCIAL HISTORY: She quit smoking approximately 8 months ago. Prior to that time, she had about a 35- to 40-pack-year history. She does not abuse alcohol.
FAMILY MEDICAL HISTORY: Mother died prematurely of breast cancer. Her father died prematurely of gastric carcinoma.
REVIEW OF SYSTEMS: There is no history of any CVAs, TIAs or seizures. No chronic headaches. No asthma, TB, hemoptysis or productive cough. There is no congenital heart abnormality or rheumatic fever history. She has no palpitations. She notes no nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, but immediately prior to admission, she did develop some diffuse abdominal discomfort. She says that since then, this has resolved. No diabetes or thyroid problem. There is no depression or psychiatric problems. There is no musculoskeletal disorders or history of gout. There are no hematologic problems or blood dyscrasias. No bleeding tendencies. Again, she had a history of breast cancer and underwent lumpectomy procedures for this with followup radiation therapy. She has been followed in the past 10 years and mammography shows no evidence of any recurrent problems. There is no recent fevers, malaise, changes in appetite or changes in weight.
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: Her blood pressure is 120/70, pulse is 80. She is in a sinus rhythm on the EKG monitor. Respirations are 18 and unlabored. Temperature is 98.2 degrees Fahrenheit. She weighs 160 pounds, she is 5 feet 4 inches. In general, this was an elderly-appearing, pleasant female who currently is not in acute distress. Skin color and turgor are good. Pupils were equal and reactive to light. Conjunctivae clear. Throat is benign. Mucosa was moist and noncyanotic. Neck veins not distended at 90 degrees. Carotids had 2+ upstrokes bilaterally without bruits. No lymphadenopathy was appreciated. Chest had a normal AP diameter. The lungs were clear in the apices and bases, no wheezing or egophony appreciated. The heart had a normal S1, S2. No murmurs, clicks or gallops. The abdomen was soft, nontender, nondistended. Good bowel sounds present. No hepatosplenomegaly was appreciated. No pulsatile masses were felt. No abdominal bruits were heard. Her pulses are 2+ and equal bilaterally in the upper and lower extremities. No clubbing is appreciated. She is oriented x3. Demonstrated a good amount of strength in the upper and lower extremities. Face was symmetrical. She had a normal gait.
IMPRESSION: This is a (XX)-year-old female with significant multivessel coronary artery disease. The patient also has a left main lesion. She has undergone several PTCA and stenting procedures within the last year to year and a half. At this point, in order to reduce the risk of any possible ischemia in the future, surgical myocardial revascularization is recommended.
PLAN: We will plan to proceed with surgical myocardial revascularization. The risks and benefits of this procedure were explained to the patient. All questions pertaining to this procedure were answered.”
References: Cardiology Consultation Transcribed Medical Transcription Sample Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved from Medical Transcription Samples
Note: Add the diagnostic tests before impression in your paper.
Take time to write about the disease. It can be described in more details after your case study or integrated within it. Add more details regarding pathophysiology, differential diagnoses, explanation of testing methods, Add prognosis/potential outcome as well.
Your paper will look like a history and physical but with emphasis on discussing the disease, diagnostic tests, diagnosis(differential diagnoses) and treatments
You need to create a story about a patient with an illness we have looked at so far.
For your paper, you need to follow APA Style guidelines and must include the following standardized elements:
· Title page
· Main body
· In-text citations for paraphrased and quoted material
· References page
· Minimum number of credible, academic sources
· Running head
· Page numbers
· Double spaced on standard sized paper (8.5” x 11”)
Ways to Fight Cancer: outlines essentially 3 approaches to fighting cancer: a) reduction of cancer risks, b) correction of cancer genes, and c) destruction of cancerous tissue..
Approaches to fighting cancer
The global community is plagued by increasing incidence of leukemia; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; lung, colorectal, breast, pancreatic, prostate, liver, ovarian, and esophageal cancers. Other types of cancer exist but are less frequent. What is the scientific community doing to attempt to eliminate the most common forms of cancer that are ravaging society?
1. Read the course textbook’s chapter on cell division, specifically the last section on how cells become cancerous. This is context for completing Individual Assignment 3.
2. Watch the Presentation in Module/Week 4 entitled “Ways to Fight Cancer.” Notice that the presentation outlines essentially 3 approaches to fighting cancer: a) reduction of cancer risks, b) correction of cancer genes, and c) destruction of cancerous tissue.
3. Open the “10 Discoveries in the War on Cancer” document in the Assignment Instructions folder. Scan the discoveries briefly. Then, open the assignment submission link in Module/Week 9. In the text box, number from 1 to 10 for the 10 discoveries.
4. Reflect carefully on discovery 1. Would this discovery be more useful for a) reducing cancer risks, b) correcting/restoring cancer cells to normal, or c) destroying cancerous tissue? After number 1 in your list, place in parentheses the letter representing the approach to fighting cancer that will best be served by this new discovery. (More than 1 approach may be served, but which is most likely to be helped most significantly?)
5. Repeat this analysis for each of the remaining 9 discoveries. Return to the “Ways to Fight Cancer” presentation as needed for additional perspective. When finished, your entire text box must be simple: a numbered (1–10) list of letters (a), (b) or (c). The assignment is now complete.
6. Each correct association up to 8 correct answers is granted 7 points. If you get 9 or 10 out of 10, you get a perfect score (60 pts.) on the assignment.
Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4.
Individual Assignment 3 – 10 Discoveries in the War on Cancer
1. Virologists are modifying lentiviruses as vectors for carrying proto-oncogenes into cancer-transformed cells in culture. They are developing this virus for inserting the ras proto-oncogene directly into its correct location in the genome. The correct ras gene will already be linked to human DNA on either side of it and complexed with a recombination enzyme that will insert it into its correct location within the human genome. At the same time, the recombination enzyme will excise the defective oncogenic form of ras. The cells in culture should again come under normal hormonal control and require extra-cellular signals in order to continue dividing.
2. Malignant brain tumors in adults are fast-growing cancers with median survival rates of 15 months, even with aggressive treatment. Researchers have been searching for genetic “signatures” (characteristic groups of cancer-causing genes) that could help in defining the kind of brain tumor the patient has. They hope to be better able to predict the course of the disease and more accurately design the patient’s course of treatment.
3. Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. It is a risk factor for lung cancer and several other types of cancer. Results of analysis of the entire human gene collection (the “genome”) support some previous findings that a region of human chromosome number 15 contains one or more genes that are associated with smoking intensity (the number of cigarettes smoked per day) and the closely related trait of nicotine dependency. Scanning people’s genomes for these genes will help them to determine their risk of addiction should they begin smoking tobacco.
4. Immunologists are working with a mutation (HER2) that is expressed on the surface of many breast, bladder, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer cells. They have made antibodies against this mutant surface protein. These antibodies have been covalently bonded to a “gene expression vector” that makes cells light up when incubated with luciferin from fire flies. The vector takes the gene for luciferin into the cancer cells. The researchers have shown that their antibody can accurately find and “light up” cancer cells. Their next step is to bond the antibody to an expression vector that carries the normal HER2 gene into mutant cancer cells.
5. Immunologists are investigating ways to destroy lymphocytes (white blood cells of the immune system) that have become cancerous (lymphomas). A current drug Rituximab contains antibodies that bind to the surfaces of these lymphocytes setting them up for destruction by the cancer patient’s own immune system. They are currently seeking ways to modify the antibody’s structure so that it will attract the cancer patient’s “natural killer” (NK) cells to the lymphocytes. Success of this project will bring a multi-faceted immune response against lymphomas and hasten destruction.
6. Biochemists have discovered a protein kinase enzyme named BRAF that is an important link in a molecular pathway that causes a cell to divide. Normally, BRAF responds to signals coming from outside the cell—signals calling for the cell to divide normally under normal conditions. But there is a mutation in BRAF enzymes that causes it activate the cell toward division continually. In this way it gives rise to melanomas and thyroid or ovarian cancers. Biochemists have also found a drug, vemurafenib, which binds selectively to mutant BRAF totally inactivating it. Cells that have inactivated BRAF undergo apoptosis—a process that leads to cell death.
7. Molecular biologists have taken nanoparticle-sized spheres and used them to deliver a cell-killing toxin from bee venom to tumors in mice, substantially reducing tumor growth without harming normal body tissues. Nanoparticles are known to concentrate in solid tumors because blood vessels in tumors show “enhanced permeability and retention effect” or EPR. Hence substances such as nanoparticles escape more readily from the bloodstream into tumors and the generally poor drainage of lymph from tumors further helps trap the particles in tumor tissue.
8. Organic chemists are exploring structural variations of the organic compound avobenzone (1-[4-Methoxyphenyl]-3-[4-tert-butylphenyl] propane-1,3-dione) for inclusion in sunblock products. Avobenzone is known for its ability to absorb a broad spectrum of ultra-violet radiations including UVB light (known to enhance the frequency of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas [skin cancers]); and UVA rays thought to increase the frequency of melanoma cancers. New variations in the structure of avobenzone are hoped to retain the ability to absorb harmful UV radiation while having an increased stability in the presence of that radiation.
9. Biochemists are analyzing the many, many components of red meat (beef and pork) to determine which component, if any, will cause increased colorectal cancer rates in mice when the component is administered orally. Studies have shown that higher colorectal cancer rates in humans are associated with higher consumption rates of red meat.
10. Molecular biologists have developed a new sequence of human genes called an ankyrin insulator sequence. A new corrected or therapeutic gene is placed within this sequence. Its role is to create an active area on a human chromosome where the new gene can work efficiently no matter what chromosome it lands on.
Evaluate and assess these two stark approaches to reporting new discoveries to the public:With respect to paleoanthropology, which approach is better and why?.
With respect to paleoanthropology, which approach is better and why?
In the always contentious field of paleoanthropology, more fossils always generates more conjectures…and refutations.
– M. Shermer (2016b)
A couple of years ago, with the introduction and preliminary analysis of Homo naledi by Berger et al. (2015), skeptics noted exception to the speed that had been done to excavate, study, and disseminate the results in peer-reviewed publication. After about a year and a half of study (having initiated excavations in the fall of 2013), they fast tracked publication of their results and published their findings in eLife, a new online, open-access, peer-reviewed journal. Further, they provided free access to all data, including 3D download of major specimens to anyone interested. Some paleoanthropologists, including Tim White, took exception to their pace to publication (he took over 15 years to publish results for Ardipithecus and when he did in 2009, included 11 peer-reviewed papers in a complete issue of Science (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.).
Several news stories highlighted this developing feud (e.g., Lents 2015, McKie 2015), while others took exception to some of the hasty claims made by the authors with respect to the possibility that the Rising Cave finds suggested that Homo naledi purposefully buried (or discarded) their dead (e.g., Shermer 2016a, 2016b).
For Discussion 5, integrate your findings on Homo naledi from Assignment 4 with the debate about the speed of science in paleoanthropology, as exemplified by the efforts of Berger and colleagues. (Granted, the geological context and condition of fossil remains and requisite ‘fossil prep’ is markedly different for the fossils from the Middle Awash in Ethiopia compared to those recovered from Rising Cave.) Further, the original report did not provide dates for the finds, but new finds and ‘good’ dates are now published for this assemblage (Dirks et al. 2017), and suggest a quite recent age for these hominins (Lents, 2017).
Evaluate and assess these two stark approaches to reporting new discoveries to the public. With respect to paleoanthropology, which approach is better and why? Should Berger et al. have waited to report their discoveries until the dating had been resolved?
Give an of entropy and explain how it relates to increasing disorder of energy..
Entropy and how it relates to increasing disorder of energy
This discussion has 2 parts that should total 200 words in 2 paragraphs. In Part 1, answer the questions in paragraph form using about 100 words. In part 2, read the prompt and discuss your thoughts in an additional 100 words. Once you have submitted your initial post, return to read the posts of others.
1. Observe an ice cube or hold one in your hand. This is water in a solid form, so it has a high structural order. This means that the molecules cannot move very much and are in a fixed position. The temperature of the ice is zero degrees celcius. As a result, the entropy of the system is low.
2. Allow the ice to melt at room temperature. What is the state of molecules in the liquid water now? How did the energy transfer take place? Is the entropy of the system higher or lower? Why?
3. If you were to heat the melted water to its boiling point, what would happen to the entropy of the system?
Think about the world around you. Give another every day example of entropy and explain how it relates to increasing disorder of energy. If all energy tends to become more disordered, how do we always have a supply of usable energy?
Identifying & Associating With Professional Coalitions :Research your state’s exemptions and differences within your state regarding laws requiring vaccinations for school-age children..
Identifying & Associating With Professional Coalitions
NR 504 Week 7 Assignment – Professional Coalition Project (Spring Term 2018)
Involvement in interdisciplinary coalitions allows the healthcare leader to gain an understanding regarding navigating socio-political environments as well as providing macro leadership within a broader community setting. The purpose of this project is to build and provide leadership to a coalition that addresses a healthcare concern. Leadership skills at the macro-level will be applied.
Due: Week 7
Total Points: 125 Points
NR 504 Week 7 Discussion; Identifying & Associating With Professional Coalitions (Spring Term 2018)
Involvement in interdisciplinary professional coalition/organizations allows the healthcare professional to stay current in their field or specialty, gain an understanding and navigate socio-political environments, as well as contribute their ideas to their healthcare specialty.
• Research your state’s exemptions and differences within your state regarding laws requiring vaccinations for school-age children.
o Find the professional coalition/organization that supports the use of vaccines for school-age children.
o As a group, discuss the pros and cons of the above scenario and your stance of this controversial public health risk.
Discuss the function of HIV protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase.
Identify the characteristics of HIV which account for its transmission. Include the basic epidemiology of this virus and its method of transfer.
Discuss the normal function of B-lymphocytes, killer T-lymphocytes, helper T-lymphocytes, and macrophages in the immune system. Explain how HIV affects these components of a healthy immune system.
Explain the function of the complement system and do some research to investigate how the HIV virus turns the complement system against the human body. How has this led to new treatments against this disease?
Page Length: 2 to 3 pages
TUI encourages all students to comply with APA style and format guidelines for proper citation of references. Use the formatting in your Background page as a model for citing the sources from your Case Assignment.
Your case assignments are considered scholarly works. Your final work should include peer reviewed (scholarly) sources.
Please keep in mind that you should not use sources such as “Answers.com” or “Wikipedia” or “Wikianswers.” None of these are scholarly sources and they can be “modified” by any registered user which makes them unreliable. Upload your final word document to the Case Assignment dropbox.
Diabetes and Drug Treatments:Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments..
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources.
Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments.
By Day 7
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
Create a Digital Dashboard:usability features inherent in effective design, informatics systems may overwhelm a user with data..
Create a Digital Dashboard
Without the usability features inherent in effective design, informatics systems may overwhelm a user with data. This portion of your Scholar-Practitioner Project requires that you put to use the informatics display techniques that are covered in this week’s Learning Resources.
To complete this week’s portion of your Scholar-Practitioner Project, create a mock-up screen of a “digital dashboard” for your disease surveillance system. Your text includes examples and ideas for such digital dashboards. Include a framework for the display of data based on the algorithm you designed previously (see note from professor on algorithm below), using appropriate graphics, symbols, and words. Use PowerPoint when choosing to create the screen. Additionally, you may choose to annotate the mock-up as appropriate.
Please save the mock-up in the following formats:
· PowerPoint file: Use “.ppt” extension
(NOTE FROMPROFESSOR ON LAST WEEK PAPER ON SURVEILLANCE ALGORITHM)This is a good start; you have provided a good description of your pathology of interest and the diagnostic algorithm used by the clinicians. Remember, the idea of this SPP is to develop (try to) a biosurveillance system for your disease/condition of interest. You have mentioned the algorithm and some covariates; however, you did not address the surveillance algorithm. Algorithms used in surveillance usually involve decisions based on statistical analyses of data provided (not usually intended for a diagnosis). Remember, that you do not want to evaluate a clinical intervention or the burden of a disease, the intention of your system is surveillance. Please address the issues marked on your paper. I am looking forward to reading the next steps of your project