Formal and Informal Communication in an Organization Essay

Formal and Informal Communication in an Organization Essay.

* Formal communication channels, follows the chain of command and is recognized as official. One way to view formal communication within organizations. * Vertical communication is the flow of information both up and down the chain of command. It involves an exchange of messages between two or more levels in the organization. When top-level managers make decisions, create strategic plans, convey directions, and so forth, they are often communicating downward. Downward communication flows from individuals in higher levels of the organization to those in lower levels.

The most common forms of downward communication are meetings, official’s memos, policy statements, procedure manuals, information needed to conduct work, and company publications. Information sent downward may include new company goals, job instructions, procedures, and feedback on performance. Studies show that only 20% of an intended messages sent by top-level management is intact by the time it reaches the entry level performance. This information loss occurs for several reasons. First, managers tend to reply too heavily on written channels an avalanche of written material may cause the overload subordinate to ignore some messages.

This is especially true with the glut of information stemming from e-communications. Second, the oral face-to-face message, which commands more attention and can provide immediate feedback, is often underutilized. Managers may e-mail the colleague or subordinate down the hall instead of walking over for a chat. They may e-mail a business client across town instead of picking up the phone. Experts agree that managers often forget that the best way to communicate the richest channel is face to face, with its potential for abundant feedback. Upward communication consists of messages sent up the line from subordinates to managers.

Openness to ideas and inputs from people in the lower levels of the organization is often the hallmark of a healthy and enjoyable organization. Effective organizations need upward communication as much as downward communication. People at all levels can and will have ideas for organizational improvement. Plus, managers need to have accurate feedback to properly guide the entire organization. Upward communication from subordinates to managers usually falls into one of the following categories:

* Personal reports of performance, problems, or concerns. Reports about others and their performance, problems, or concerns. * Reactions to organizational policies and practices. * Suggestions about what tasks need to be done and how they can be accomplished. This type of communication is frequently sent up only one level in the organization to the person’s immediate supervisor. The supervisor may send some of the information to the next higher level but usually in a modified form. Upward communication is beneficial to both the manager and the subordinate. For the manager, it is often necessary for sound decision making.

Upward communication helps managers knows employees’ accomplishments’, problems, and attitudes and allows employees to make suggestions and feel that they are part of the decision making process. In addition, it provides feedback, encourages ongoing two-way communication, and indicates the subordinate, upward communication may provide a release of tensions and a sense of personal worth that may lead to a feeling of commitment to the organization. Achieving effective upward communication getting open and honest messages from employees to management is an especially difficult task.

Although suggestion boxes, employees surveys, and open-door policies are often used to encourage upward communication, upper level manager are responsible for responding to messages from lower level employees. If they do not take advantage of this information, the chance to tap into a critical resource is lost. Managers need to act on feedback from subordinates and get back to the individuals who sent it if only to indicate that the suggestion cannot be carried out or that progress is being made about the problem or suggestion. The track record on effectively communicating upward is not especially positive.

Even for managers, on average, less than 15% of their communications is to their supervisors. Also, when managers communicate upward, their conversations tend to be shorter than discussions with peers, and they often highlight their accomplishments’ and downplay their mistakes if the mistakes will be looked upon unfavorably. In addition, junior managers are not trained in nor do they seek needed information and pass it upward. As we discussed previously, a trusting relationship is almost a perquisite for effective communication. Trust cannot be mandated by policy or directives.

It must be earned by the manager through credible behaviour and communication. Horizontal communication is the flow of information that occurs both within and between departments. Effective organizations encourage horizontal communication because it increases coordination, collaboration, and cooperation. Communication provides a means for members on the same level of an organization to share information without directly involving their supervisors. Examples include the communication that may occur between members of different departments of an organization and between coworkers in the same department.

Self-managed teams create situations in which horizontal communication can flourish. In addition, more formal liaison roles may be created to support information flows. These are important to coordinate activities that support the organizational objectives. * Spontaneous communication channels the flows of communication described so far have been part of formal system used to accomplish the work of the organization. In addition to these formal channels, organizations have spontaneous channels of communication.

Spontaneous channels communications are casual, opportunistic, and informal communication paths arising from the social relationships that evolve in the organization. They are neither required nor controlled by management. A term often associated with spontaneous channels is the grapevine. The grapevine is an informal method of transmitting information, depicted as the wandering of messages throughout the organization. It typically involves small clusters of people who exchange information in all directions through unsanctioned organizational channels and networks.

We refer to this as peer-to-peer conversations. This communication is a useful and important for managers and employees at all levels and is used as much as the company newsletter or employee meetings. Peer-to-peer conversations may be personal, task focused, or organization focused. When people offer thoughts and guidance on personal issues or situations, it is considered personal. These discussions may not relate to strategic objectives, but they do build relationships among coworkers, which ultimately affect culture and communication effectiveness.

Conversations may relate to the task. For example, coworkers discuss the day’s assignment or team projects. Or the organization may be the focus with the “inside” story on changes and company news. These spontaneous communication processes can potentially compete with or complement the formal communication system in the organization. The grapevine can be beneficial. Managers need to at least be aware of the grapevine because it is probably one of the most prevalent and reliable forms of communication.

In fact, one well-known study found that approximately 80% of the information transmitted through the grapevine was correct. The remaining 20%, though, can often lead to serious trouble. As you probably know from your own experience, a story can be mainly true but still be quite misleading because essential facts are omitted or distorted. Information in the spontaneous channels is usually unverified and often includes rumours that are exaggerated and frequently wrong. To help prevent incorrect rumours, managers must keep the information that flows through informal channels accurate and rumours free.

To do so, managers should share as much information as possible with employees, tell them of changes far in advance, and encourage employees to ask questions about rumours they heard. To some extent, the spontaneous channels are always present in any organization and are more than just a means of conveying corporate gossip. The information may be less official, but it is no less important for understanding the organization. Despite being pervasive, the grapevine has escaped being directly managed in most companies. Research by Crampton, Dodge, and Jitrendra found that 92% of companies had no policy to deal with the grapevine.

Formal and Informal Communication in an Organization Essay

Effective Communication in Teaching Essay

Effective Communication in Teaching Essay.

Effective communication skills are essential for early childhood educators to ensure a high level of academic care is provided and to develop strong relationships both inside and outside the classroom.

Without good communication there is no connection and a teacher will struggle to provide any type of educational experience to the children in their care. As stated by Johnson (1999)“communication is an ongoing process of sending and receiving messages that enable humans to share knowledge, attitudes and skills. Effective teaching depends on successful communication” (p4).

Johnson (1999) believes that “communication is the driving force in any relationship or situation” (p3), therefore without effective communication the relationship and learning process will suffer.

The two types of communication used by teachers are verbal and non-verbal. Verbal communication is the most obvious form and is used in an early childhood education setting constantly throughout the day.

This can include teacher to child, teacher to teacher, child to child and teacher to parent.

In an early childhood education setting, communication between teachers and children begins with a greeting in the morning as classes commence, and would continue constantly throughout the day. A typical day in a pre-school or infant’s school classroom would include activities such as roll call, group discussions and presentations like show and tell or news. These events would be a daily occurrence working to encourage communication between the teacher and the students, as well as between the students themselves, by giving each party a chance to speak and listen and exchange information and ideas. The day would continue with the teacher presenting new ideas and skills as part of the curriculum and, on a more casual basis, outside the classroom, during breaks and sport sessions.

It is important for early childhood educators to be able to recognise the different learning styles of children and be flexible when communicating concepts and the content of lessons. A study by Geng (2011) discusses several different techniques that can be used when communicating with children and these include voice control, for example, using a certain tone of voice to demand attention at the front of the class or a softer tone when trying to form a bond in the first phases of a relationship. Another useful technique when communicating with young children is to use short phrases and deliver instructions in a clear and concise manner.

By using too many words, or words children do not understand the main message can be lost as they become confused or lose focus. Another way to ensure children follow along easily is to repeat instructions and new information, reiterating the main points to ensure they are heard and understood. Requesting a student to repeat the instruction back to the class allows the teacher to ensure they understand and is another chance for the instruction to be given to the class again. Visual clues are also used in a learning environment and within early childhood education these can include tools such as flash cards, pictures or posters and can be particularly useful when learning new words, spelling and basic mathematics, such as times tables.

Non verbal communication is just as important as the more obvious verbal form. An early childhood educator must be able to communicate non-verbally. Johnson (1999, p.6) believes that children react better to this type of communication. Some examples of non verbal communication include facial expressions, touching and body movements, eye contact and use of personal space. By teaching children to understand non-verbal communication cues, their overall skills are enhanced as the two types of communication cannot succeed without each other.

Knott (1979) defines the types of non-verbal communication in three categories: kinetic; body movements and gestures, paralanguage; voice qualities such as grunting and yawning, and the use of social and personal space. She states that these types of communication “play a significant role in the development of effective communication… they are integral elements in all face to face communication” (p 227). It is essential that children learn to interpret these types of non-verbal communication. When combined with verbal communication, these skills will assist them to successfully communicate throughout life in many different situations, not just in an early childhood education setting.

To enable educators to be the best they can be they must be able to communicate well with their peers. Exchanging ideas and information on the curriculum, teaching strategies, students, and problem solving ideas are daily occurrences for teachers. This will assist them in developing skills and furthering their knowledge. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is used between peers. An example of verbal communication between teachers would be colleagues exchanging ideas in staff meetings and discussions and a non-verbal example would include written reports and records about the students.

Teachers play an important role in helping children develop relationships with one another. As an early childhood educator they are witness to the forming of many friendships between the children in their care. It is vital that these relationships are encouraged and guided to ensure all children feel happy, loved and secure with their place in the class or friendship group. Communication is the key to successful relationships and Kranyick (1975) believes that the ability to listen well is just as valuable as being able to project your message well. “The basic premise of the integrated day and family grouping is based on children learning from each other, they must listen to each other” (p 4). If children are not taught the importance of listening they may find their relationships suffer as it will be harder to form a bond if the other child feels what they are saying is not of value or importance.

To support the education of communication within the early childhood years, the Australian Government has developed The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF). It is an outline for teachers comprising of five learning outcomes. One of the outcomes is ‘Children are Effective Communicators’. The document states that “communication is crucial to belonging, being and becoming… children communicate with others using gestures, sounds, language and assisted communication” (p 38). The document goes on to say that “Children feel a sense of belonging when their language, interaction styles and ways of communicating are valued”, which reiterates Kranyick’s (1975) beliefs discussed earlier.

The importance of the relationship between teachers and parents must not be underestimated. A positive partnership is essential in order to ensure that a child’s education is supported and encouraged from not only inside the classroom but also at home. As stated by Hughes & MacNaughton (2001) “Communication between parents and staff is an important part of the daily life in early childhood centres… research has shown that good staff-parent communication contributes significantly to the success of early childhood programs”.

An effective way to reach out to a parent or carer is through an information and feedback session, commonly known as a ‘parent – teacher night’. This allows the teacher to discuss a student’s progress and development, as well as voice any concerns they may have. It is also an opportunity for parents and carers to ask questions and learn how to better support their children on their educational journey.

In conclusion, good communication within an early childhood education setting is vitally important. It is essential that early childhood educators focus on developing strong and effective communication skills to be able to ensure a high level and successful educational experience for the children in their care. It is important that these skills are passed on to young children as when they develop good communication skills it can only help to build their foundation for learning and forming relationships as they go through the journey of life, including their future years of study and work, as well as their relationships with friends and family. In the words of Geng (2011) “communication is therefore a fundamental component in promoting positive behaviour”.


Johnson, M. (1999). Communication in the classroom. Place, stateUS Department of Education.

Geng, G. (2011). Investigation of teachers’ verbal and nonverbal strategies for managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) students’
behaviour within a classroom environment. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, Volume 36 (Issue 7), 17-30.

Kranyik, M. (1975). Teaching to listen and listening to teach. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Conference on the Language Arts in Elementary School., Boston, MA. publisher.

Arnold, M. (1979). Early child-child communication. Theory into Practice, Volume 18 (Issue 4), 213-219.

Knott, G. (2011). Nonverbal communication during early childhood. Theory into Practice, Volume 18 (Issue 4), 226-233.

Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Canberra, Australia. Author.

McNaughton, D., Hamlin, D, McCarty, J, Head-Reeves, D, Schreiner, M. . (2007). Learning to listen: teaching an active listening strategy to preservice educational professionals. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. , Volume 27 (Issue 4), 223-231.

Effective Communication in Teaching Essay

Simmons Laboratories Essay

Simmons Laboratories Essay.

This case is about three indivuals with different leadship styles. Brandon Newbridge is a synthesizer, which means, he is a eclectic, thinker, pragmatist, and “whatever works” kind of leader. Dr. William Goh’s is like a partner, which means he is mentor who passes his wisdom down to other. He is conscientious , collaborative, ego-free, and is able to work side by side with his peers. Lester Zapf is an achiever, which means “ebullient leader” who is excellent motivator, communicator, and can influces others to follow his ideas, values and beliefs regardless of their agreement or disageement with him.

Synopsis of Case Study:

Dr. Goh (Project Head) appointed Newbridge as a project head of Photon Corrlator project about 2 year ago. Newbridge is in laboratory trying to figure out a solution for a problem that keeps on rising during his tests. Lester Zapf (a mathematician) walks in and starts to look over plans and preliminary results of Newbridges project after introducing himself. He makes some remarks about autocorrelation functions, which Newbridge does not understand and that annoyed him.

Newbridge goes to Dr. Goh to find out little more information about Zapf, and Goh asks him what he thinks of Zapf. He tells Newbridge that he is plans to take him on and ask if it will be okay with him if he can joins Newbridge’s team. After saying yes to Goh, Newbridge starts to worry about his own position without asking any further details about Zapf. Newbridge let Zapf takes control of his projects and let him undermine his other team members. Instead of solving a conflict between him and Zapf, and Zapf and other team members he leave his project incomplete to gets job somewhere else.

He writes letter to Dr. Goh about his leave by using false excuses instead of real reason for his leave. This is disappointment for Dr. Goh because now he had to temporary give leadership of Photon project to Link until he finds replacement. Zapf was more interested in Air Force project. Diagnosis of Case Study: Newbridge failed to discuss his opinions, feeling, and conflicts with his team members and Dr. Goh. This communication barrier caused his inability to exercise authority and control over his team. This reduced his self-confidence in his capabilities. Since he never discuss Zapf role in his team with Dr. Goh, he became insecure about his own role. He disregarded the fact that he was the project leader and stared to avoid meetings. He intentionally let Zapf took over his position by allowing him to lead the team. Instead of dealing with situation, he uses the exit approach because Zapf challenged his personal values.

Zapf is enthusiastic about using his ability’s to help solve past issues that made photon experiment test unsuccessful. He got so involved in solving those issues that he didn’t realize what he was doing to rest of his team members. He created insecurities within the team. His individual style and values challenged the cultural norm. Zapf is straightforward about is progress of team’s work and opening sharing his ideas among team members. This is the reason he called Newbridge at 2 am to share what he found was the cause of the problem and how it should be solved. He is more about solving problems and completing tasks then keeping team more productive. He believed more in individual accomplishment then team efforts.

Dr. Goh was very fond of Newbridge, that he values his feedback about Zapf. He believed that Newbridge was very satisfied with his position, therefore, he thought it was very strange for Newbridge to send him resignation letter. When question about teams view on Zapf attending that special meeting is raised Dr. Goh’s quick responses to how team should have no problem due to Zapf different position was unethical. Proposed Solutions to Case Study


Newbridge should have told Dr. Goh both positive and negative qualities of Zapf. He should tell how important teamwork is for his project. He should point out discomfort that team feels around Zapf. How Zapf’s inability to work as a team member is affecting his project and him. He should acknowledge Zapf’s efforts in solving the problem, but also point out how he and other members of team influenced the project so far. This will help him feel like he is in charge of the project instead of Zapf. Also, this will help Dr. Goh decide if Zapf is capable of running his own team or not.

In addition, Newbridge should confront Zapf privately about his view on importance of teamwork. He should make it clear that this kind of projects is more efficient when whole team is involved. How it would inconvenient if team member quits on them without completing the project. How expensive it would we to hire and train new team members. This could cause delay in project. He should also ask if he is planning to stay with the project until completions.

He should use reciprocal interdependence to improve interpersonal communication to help coordinate his team. This can motivate his other team members to help him produce better results. Team competencies is another think Newbridge should adapt for his team in order to for his team to be more productive. The Five C’s that consist of team Competence are Cooperating, Coordinating, communicating, comforting, and conflict resolving. Every team member should follow these 5 characteristics to be effective team member.

Zapf’s should learn how to productive team member before taking over a leadership role. His inability to communication properly with team members can cause he own project to fall apart. Emotional intelligence plays important role in the organization’s effectiveness. It will improve Zapf’s ability to interact in social environment. This will improve interpersonal relations with team members.

Although, reciprocal interdependence and team competency motivates team and help build strong communication skills, it can negatively affect team member that produce more than rest of the team members. For example, Zapf is more productive because he evaluated the situation and brought in effective ideas to solve the problem. Even after team evolution, no other team members discovered the cause of problem. If Newbridge and his team does not recognize Zapf’s individual effort, he will lose his ability to motivate himself and others. For his effort, Zapf should receive performance-based reward. Only way a team can became productive is through motivation.

Newbridge should value Zapf’s ability to work independently but should also mentor him on how important team works is to this project. If Newbridge can clearly communicate with Zapf about conflict between him and his other team member, maybe this will give Zapf opportunity to improve his team management skills. This will not only help him in this project but also in future projects. However, these solutions can backfire if Zapf takes it offensively.


It is important to provide each team members guideline before they become part of the team. Each member should follow these guidelines to make team more competent. The number one rule should be to communicate more efficiently. Communication is the key to have more productive team. The more dynamic each team member is better the overall result of project. The negative consequence is that this could also give other members of team to steal ideas from each other’s. Therefore, it would be wise to present idea at meetings with presence of Project head.

It is important to evaluate each member as an individually and as a team. If each member’s abilities are acknowledged individually, he/ she might form affective commitment with the project. It could make it harder for them to leave the project incomplete. Entrance of a new member in the preexisting team with no prior knowledge or different beliefs and values can reduce the determination of a team. This in result will make longer process to complete the project.

Simmons Laboratories Essay

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay.

The care values are a set of rules and guidelines that every care practitioner has to follow in order to provide services to their clients. The overall aim of the standards is to improve client’s quality of life by ensuring that each person gets the care that is most appropriate for them as an individual. The three main care values are Confidentiality, Equality and Diversity and Individual rights and beliefs. By achieving these care values we can improve the quality of care and allow all patients to be treated as an individual with respect. (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013)

Confidentiality is an important principle in health and social care as it imposes boundaries on the amount of personal information and data that can be disclosed without consent. Confidentiality is where a person disclosing personal information expects their privacy to be protected, such as in a relationship of trust. However in some situations confidentiality can be countered, when there is public interest in others being protected from harm.

UCeL (2012_ (Accessed: 22 January 2013)

Confidentiality is very important because as healthcare workers our ability to correctly diagnose and treat our patients depends on getting a correct medical and social history, and having our patients trusts us. If a patients feels that the professional would share this information they may not give them the truth and without that important information they could make the wrong diagnosis and wrong treatment.

Yahoo answers (2012) (Accessed: 25 January 2013) Confidentiality can be used in oral communication in a hospital setting, For example if a patients approached their GP about a private and embarrassing problem they would be expected to show that patient respect and not to share the information given with anyone else. An example of a time where this could be shared is if their GP wanted to send them for tests and had to inform a specialist about their condition. Another type of communication is written this could be used to promote confidentiality as all paper based records must be locked away in a filing cabinet and only be accessed by those authorised to. Also to access your own records you must write a letter and wait approval for this.

Also for documents written on the computer there are various passwords and back up options for if the server goes down or a records is deleted. An example of how confidentiality can be used in computerised communication would be having passwords and automatic locks on staff’s computers and email accounts so only they can access their own patient’s information and no other members of staff or unauthorised persons. The last type of communication is specialist one example of how this can be used in confidentiality is if a person has hearing barriers and has to use sign language to communicate with their doctor. If their doctor is giving those results or information on their health and has to use sign language they may need an interpreter and the patients may want to use a quiet and enclosed room with the blinds shut just in case anybody else can see the sign language being used and understands it. Another care value is Equality and Diversity.

This means treating everyone equally regardless of their colour, age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability etc. This is different to treating people the same as different people have different needs, so individuality should be taken in to account. For example, it would not be equal treatment to provide two different people with information about the services available written in English, if one of those people spoke another language and could not understand English. Wiki.Answers (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013) We live in an increasingly diverse society and need to be able to respond appropriately and sensitively to this diversity. Learners in the healthcare setting will reflect this diversity around gender, race and ethnicity, disability, religion, sexuality, class and age.

Successful implementation of equality and diversity in all aspects of work ensures that colleagues, staff and students are valued, motivated and treated fairly. London Deanery (2012) (Accessed: 25 January 2013) One example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in oral communication in a hospital setting is that a doctor would speak differently to a child than they would to an adult as children may not be able to understand some of the information they are being told if they used big words and medical jargon. Doctors should also use a slower pace and soft tone when speaking to younger patients and ask them regularly if they understand what is being said although they normally have a parent or guardian to accompany them. An example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in written communication would be if a patient cannot read or speak English they may have to produce leaflets in their language so they understand their condition or illness and what treatment is needed more clearly.

An example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in computerised communication would be having audio descriptions and talking pages on the NHS website so that people with sight barriers can still access the information they have to offer. The last type of communication is specialist and an example of how this can promote equality and Diversity is if a patient doesn’t speak English they may need a translator to assist the patient in talking to the doctor and to assist the doctor diagnosing the patient. This allows the patient to get the medical attention they require and are entitled to without them learning a second language which makes them equal but also individual.

Individual’s rights and Beliefs means being treated as an individual according to our own needs, every individual wants to be treated fairly, in the care sector it is of the utmost importance that a service user is treated fairly and also treated with love, care and respect. The individual rights are respect, choice, dignity, protection, and equality, access to information, non-discrimination, and effective communication. They also have the right to their own beliefs and a doctor must respect a patients beliefs and choice’s when treating them. Wiki.Answers (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013) When working within a health and social care sector based environment is to ensure that each service user feels that they can trust you as the service provider.

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay

Causes of communication problems Essay

Causes of communication problems Essay.

It exhibits itself when team members always want to protect and defend own interests. There is no openness and communication is always argumentative with team members trying to outdo each other as regards explaining why they are right and their colleagues wrong (Peter, 1988). Different expectations: Divergent views on individual roles and responsibilities and authority structure results in tension and communication breakdown.

Confusion: Chaos over roles, processes and responsibilities resulting from inadequate or inaccurate information can lead to loss of productivity and communication breakdown.

Loss of momentum: Results when team members aren’t all working toward project success leading to a lag in project progress. Frustration ensues when some teammates feel they are being pulled back. The once smooth communication turns into one of finger pointing further aggravating the loss of momentum. Dissatisfaction: A project is headed towards doom when teammates find it is no fun going to work. Such a project is likely to be behind schedule and out of budget.

Communication among project team is strained. Lack of commitment: Poor communication could result when team members are not fully committed to the project success (Peter, 1988).

Unconscious incompetence: An inexperienced person in the team who doesn’t understand their limitations focuses mainly on the documentation aspect instead of dwelling on problem solving. This is because the team member should quickly learn to solve problems as they occur. Avoiding miscommunication Being receptive to mentoring: New job entrants should understand that they can benefit from learning from those who are older in the job. Managers should also avoid instructing new job entrants to do the difficult tasks as this is not conducive for one who needs to learn.

Stress management: Close monitoring and periodic management of stress levels among project team will do justice to the overall performance of the project. A Stress-free team exhibits good communication (Peter, 1988). Stimulate fun: Monitoring the level of fun in the team and working towards stimulating the same is of importance to the success of the project goals. Proper communication is more likely to result. Quickly resolve issues: This ensures timely restoration of diminished project momentum to allow for project progress. Mechanisms for resolution of disputes should be known and utilized by all (Ferdinand, 1978).

Make oneself a trusted leader: A leader who has 100% voluntary followers will initiate proper communication. The leader will offer a clear direction, decision making and problem solving if needed. Open communication: Holding a sober session to discuss decision making procedures, roles of team members and authority hierarchy among other pertinent issues will clear any doubts among team mates. Misunderstandings will be ironed out as well as trying to make expectations of team members alike. Build trust among members: This comes about when members honor their promises and perform their roles towards the project (Ferdinand, 1978).

Causes of communication problems Essay

Data Communications Essay

Data Communications Essay.

Differentiate between an analog and a digital electromagnetic signal. What are three important characteristics of a periodic signal. What is the relationship between the wavelength and frequency of a sine wave. Define fundamental frequency.

What is the relationship between a signal’s spectrum and its bandwidth. What is attenuation? Define channel capacity. What key factors affect channel capacity?


Figure 1 shows the frequency domain function for a single square pulse. The signal pulse could represent a digital 1 in a communications system.

Note that an infinite number of higher frequencies of decreasing magnitudes is needed to represent the single pulse. What implication does that have for a real digital transmission system?

Suppose that a digitised TV picture is to be transmitted from a source that uses a matrix of 480 x 500 picture elements (pixels), where each pixel can take on one of 32 intensity values. Assume that 30 pictures are sent per second. (This digital source is is roughly equivalent to broadcast TV standards that have been adopted.

) Find the source rate R (bps) Assume that the TV picture is to be transmitted over a channel with 4.5Mhz bandwidth and a 35dB signal-to -noise ratio. Find the capacity of the channel (bps). Discuss how the parameters given in part (a.) could be modified to allow transmission of colour TV signals without increasing the required value for R. What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter channel with a 300Hz bandwidth and a signal-to-noise ratio of 3dB, where the noise is white thermal noise? A digital signalling system is required to operate at 9600bps. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word, what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel? Repeat part (a.) for the case of 8-bit words.

Given the narrow (usable) audio bandwidth of a telephone transmission facility, a nominal SNR of 56dB (400,000), and a certain level of distortion, What is the theoretical maximum channel capacity (kbps) of traditional telephone lines? What can we say about the actual maximum channel capacity?

Given a channel with an intended capacity of 20Mpbs, the bandwidth of the channel is 3MHz. Assuming white thermal noise, what signal-to-noise ratio is required to achieve this capacity? If an amplifier has a 30dB voltage gain, what voltage ratio does the gain represent? An amplifier has an output of 20W. What is the output in dBW? Answers:

Short Questions

With guided media, the electromagnetic waves are guided along an enclosed physical path whereas unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do not guide them. A continuous or analog signal is one in which the signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over time while a discrete or digital signal is one in which the signal intensity maintains one of a finite number of constant levels for some period of time and then changes to another constant level. Amplitude, frequency, and phase are three important characteristics of a periodic signal. The relationship is λf = v, where λ is the wavelength, f is the frequency, and v is the speed at which the signal is traveling. The fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency component in the Fourier representation of a periodic quantity. The spectrum of a signal is the frequencies it contains while the bandwidth of a signal is the width of the spectrum. Attenuation is the gradual weakening of a signal over distance. The rate at which data can be transmitted over a given communication path, or channel, under given conditions, is referred to as the channel capacity. Bandwidth, noise, and error rate.

Data Communications Essay

History of Communication Essay

History of Communication Essay.

The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing in the past few centuries.

Petro glyphs The next step in the history of communications is petroglyphs, carvings into a rock surface.

It took about 20,000 years for homo sapiens to move from the first cave paintings to the first petroglyphs, which are dated to around 10,000BC. It is possible that the humans of that time used some other forms of communication, often for mnemonic purposes – specially arranged stones, symbols carved in wood or earth, quipu-like ropes, tattoos, but little other than the most durable carved stones has survived to modern times and we can only speculate about their existence based on our observation of still existing ‘hunter-gatherer’ cultures such as those of Africa or Oceania.

Pictograms A pictogram (pictograph) is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration. Pictography is a form of proto-writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. Pictographs were the next step in the evolution of communication: the most important difference between petroglyphs and pictograms is that petroglyphs are simply showing an event, but pictograms are telling a story about the event, thus they can for example be ordered in chronological order. Pictograms were used by various ancient cultures all over the world since around 9000 BC, when tokens marked with simple pictures began to be used to label basic farm produce, and become increasingly popular around 6000-5000 BC. They were the basis of cuneiform and hieroglyphs, and began to develop into logographic writing systems around 5000 BC.

Ideograms Pictograms, in turn, evolved into ideograms, graphical symbols that represent an idea. Their ancestors, the pictograms, could represent only something resembling their form: therefore a pictogram of a circle could represent a sun, but not concepts like ‘heat’, ‘light’, ‘day’ or ‘Great God of the Sun’. Ideograms, on the other hand, could convey more abstract concepts, so that for example an ideogram of two sticks can mean not only ‘legs’ but also a verb ‘to walk’.

Because some ideas are universal, many different cultures developed similar ideograms. For example an eye with a tear means ‘sadness’ in Native Americanideograms in California, as it does for the Aztecs, the early Chinese and the Egyptians. Ideograms were precursors of logographic writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese characters. Examples of ideographical proto-writing systems, thought not to contain language-specific information, include the Vinca script (see also Tărtăria tablets) and the early Indus script. In both cases there are claims of decipherment of linguistic content, without wide acceptance.

History of Communication Essay

Communication and Young People Essay

Communication and Young People Essay.

1. Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationship with * Children * Young People * Adults Communication is the basis of any relationship, without it we could not obtain or relay information to overcome any conflicts or get anything done. To have effective communication we must treat everyone as individuals and adapt accordingly. Not just verbal communication but tone of voice, body language and eye contact are all important.

When communicating with children and young people it important to come to their level as this will make them feel more comfortable and that you are not dictating down to them.

It is important to listen to what the child or young person has to say, and if a question was asked respond correctly, as this allows them to feel accepted and valued. This encourages them to trust you and then they will more likely to confide in you. It is also important for kids that we model effective communication skills and we check are behaviour even at stressful times, this encourages them to behave the same way and helps them understand what is expected of them.

Positive relationships with adults are important to create good learning environment, and therefore obtain the children full potential. In order to create this the staff member must communicate with each other about lessons, activities and pupil’s progress; this will ensure each pupil receives the best possible care. Communicating with parents is essential as this enables you to obtain information that may affect the child .It is also essential to keep parents up to date with upcoming events with the school, great way to do this is weekly newsletter and more recently sending text messages as reminders. Also parents that have a positive experience in the school are more likely to give support.

2. Explain the principles of relationship building with * Children * Young people * Adults When building relationships with others it is important that they feel comfortable in our company, as they are more likely to communicate effectively. We normal build relationships without even thinking about it, a great way to undertake effective relationship building is to take time to listen to other people, show that you are interested in what they are saying and respond appropriately. Remember issues which are personal to them and always be considerate and show respect ensuring that you acknowledge their views.

Make sure that you be clear on key points when giving other information, but always maintain a sense of humour as laughter can be a great icebreaker and a good way to relieve stress. When building relationships with child and young people it is important we are good role models as positive interactions encourages the child to demonstrate positive behaviour also. These positive interactions also allow the child to feel settled and therefore will find it easier to learn. In order to create these positive relationships each child need to feel special this involves Security, Praise, Encouragement, Communication, Interaction Acceptance and Love. We must encourage children and young people to recognise and express their feelings in a constructive way. Children often have conflicting situations such as wanting the same toy or choosing team members, we must try and overcome these by being assertive as this helps children and young people understand how they would be able to resolve their differences amicably.

Building relationships with adults is important we must make them feel welcome and be approachable; we must be respectful of their cultural and religious differences and beliefs and use words and expression they understand and be considerate of any personal issues and always make sure that you take time to listen and respond appropriately.

3. Explain how * Social background * Professional background * Cultural background Affect relationship and the way people communicate.

When we are faced with a different situation we adapt our communication accordingly, most people do this automatically, and the more we deal with different situations the better we become at alternating our behaviour to help communicate positively and effectively. When communicating with others we have many factors and difficulties to overcome. We have to adapt our skills to overcome these difficulties; as if they were not conquered they may affect relationship building. Each relationship is individual, which is the reason why they take so long to form as they have to be worked upon to gain mutual respect and trust.

When outside factors within society affect communication, we need to respect the values and principles of each person, we must ensure we do not stereotype the individual regardless of their social professional and cultural background. Language is not the only form of communication, it the way we respond to others through electronic mail or phone messages, how attentive we are and also how we dress and present ourselves. When in a more formal setting for example attending a meeting we should use more formal language and behaviour. When communicating with other staff about pupils it must be given in a professional matter and in an appropriate place away from others.

Difficulties may arise when communicating with parent that have hearing impairment or physical disability that could affect their hearing ability, you should ensure that you face them and talk slowly and clearly so they can lip read or have a staff member that can sign language. Another difficultly that can arise is if the parent speaks little or no English, when communicating you must talk slowly clearly and ensure that you don’t use local dialects or expression that they may not understand, if that does not work having a bilingual staff member to translate so that they can feel included. If the area is multi-cultural we must consider their beliefs and norms which includes of eye contact, body language and gestures as these could lead to misinterpretation concerning cultural difference.

4. Explain the skills needed to communicate with * Children * Young people When communicating with anyone it is important that they are being treated as an individual and that their contribution is valued otherwise they are less likely to initiate a conversation. Some children and young people are lacking confidence when speaking to adults therefore finding sufficient time to allow them to talk.

We must use eye contact and actively listen, making sure they are getting attention. With young children it’s a good idea to come down to their level, use body language such as smiling and nodding and reacting positively to what they are saying.

We should encourage the children to keep talking by responding or asking questions, this will also show them how to have further two way conversations and may encourage them to ask more questions as this is how they learn. When communicating with children and young people we must ensure that we use appropriate languages; words and sentences they will understand. We must make sure that we are giving a clear message and check that they understand. If your asked a question you must answer to the best of your ability and to suit the age of the child or young person .Alternatively if the answer is unknown you could suggest alternative method of finding out for example internet or book, and you could help them to find it out.

5. Explain how to adapt communication with children and young people for * Age of the child or young person * The context of the communication * Communication differences When communication within the school you will deal with children and young people of all ages, cultures and abilities, they need to feel valued and your interaction should this. In order to accomplish this we must adapt our communication and behaviour, through positive communication and behaviour with classroom assistants and other staff member it shows them they are a part of the school community.

We are required to adapt our vocabulary depending on the age of the child or young person. The level of attention will vary with their age. With younger children, especially when starting school more reassurance is need, however as they mature they may need to talk through problems and identify feelings. When asked a question we must consider how simplified it must be for them to understand, the context of the answer will vary depending on this. The older they are the more technical answer is normally required.

In different situation the way in which we communicate will vary, when working on learning activity it is important to get children to focus, this will enable them to learn new things efficiently, any distractions need dealt with before they become an interruption. When in the playground or more social environment it can be used to develop positive friendly relationship while still maintaining professional carer to child relationship.

Children and young people may have some difficulties when communicating with others, we must ensure care and sensitively is used when dealing with these situations and the child or young person feels unpressured and they will take their time. If the child or young person has difficulties communicating we must find a way of dealing with it for example if they are hearing impaired, face them directly and talk slowly and clearly. If English is not their first language talk slowly and avoid using local dialect.

Communication and Young People Essay

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay.

In modern life, people communicate with others in different ways; for instance, the way that directness or indirectness can affect the success or failure of communication. So, we wonder which way is better for human communications. The definition of directness is the character of being accurate in course or aim or straightforwardness , the quality of being clear, plain, or easy to understand . The definition of indirectness is not said or done in a clear and direct way or stating what a real or supposed original speaker said with changes in wording that conform the statement grammatically to the sentence in which it is included .

Speakers use a different register when speaking to different people, such as children, elderly people, peers, superiors, friends, strangers. So , when people talk to each other, they should consider the context, the situation, and then use the right way to communicate.. Position or social status is an important element of choosing whether directness or indirectness. When in a superior position, people tend to use more directness to their inferiors ,by contrast, people use indirect way when they are in a lower or subordinate position.

Subordinates usually are more mitigated—polite, tentative or indirect.

For example, in a company, as employees, they have to talk to their boss indirectly and politely; even their boss make mistakes, they cannot indicate directly if they do not want be laid off. Otherwise, bosses just talk to the employees directly. But the ones in power had the option of choosing which style to use. It was precisely because of his higher status that the boss was free to choose whether to speak formally or informally, to assert his power or to play it down and build rapport—an option not available to the subordinate, who would have seemed cheeky if she had chosen a style that enhanced friendliness and closeness.

In this spirit, if your boss request you something with indirectness,you should not only get the real meaning but also you should manage it, or you may in trouble. Another reason that affects communication is how people related to each other, or social distance, those who have closer relations tend to talk in a more direct way. For instance, they can talk to their parents directly anytime; talking directly is much better to parents; as a result, children should be honest to their parents. Moreover, as a close friend, they also need be honest to each other, so talk directly is a right way to them.

When their close friends make any fault, as close friends, they should indicate directly; that is a good way for both of them. On the other hand, people need to talk to their in-laws indirectly; moreover, people should be also respect to elder people. When in a special circumstances, or in emergency, people must use direct way of speaking, otherwise it will cause serious consequences, such as the conversations between the co-pilot and the captain in the text. If people in a urgent situation, they should speak directly even they are subordinates.

If not, the superior one would more likely to ignore hints from their crew members than the other way around. The use of indirectness can hardly be understood without the cross-cultural perspective. Communication in any culture is a matter of indirectness. Only a part of meaning resides in the words spoken; the largest part is communicated by hints , assumptions , and audience filling-in from context and prior experience. Americans as a group tend to ignore or even rail against indirectness. For Japanese, Arabian, or the Mediterraneans, “small talk” is big and essential in business dealings.

Non-Americans, and American women, more often realize that much of what is meant cannot be said outright. Cross-culturally it becomes a maddening guessing game that most entrants lose. Cultural differences in listening behavior can be categorized as direct or indirect. In direct listening cultures such as France, Germany, and the United States, people listen primarily for facts and concrete information. Listeners in these cultures also confront speakers directly and feel comfortable asking questions.

In indirect listening cultures such as Finland, Japan, and Sweden, people listen in a very different manner. Interruptions do not occur while the speaker is talking, and politeness is part of the listener’s behavior. Indirect messages allow you to express your desire with-out offending or insulting the one interacting with you, but often at the sacrifice of your own feeling. Instead of saying,“ I am bored with the conversation, “ you say , “ It’s getting late and I have to get up early tomorrow, “ or you look at your watch and pretend to be surprised by the time.

Instead of saying , “ This food tastes horrible ,”you say ,“ This food tastes different . “ Instead of saying ,“ You look terrible in this dress ,“ you are likely to say ,“ I like the dress you wore yesterday. ” However, different people have different ideas; some people think that talking directly can show the point clearly ; and others think that being indirect can be much more polite; otherwise, they think that talking directly is rude to people.

The ways that talking directly or indirectly are very important in our life. People should use these properly. These two systems can affect the communication success or failure. And sometimes the different culture also will affect the way that people talk directly or indirectly. Nevertheless, different situations and relationship are two of the most important effects. Therefore, learning how to use a right way to communicate to each other is a very important part in our life.

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay

Persuasive Communication Essay

Persuasive Communication Essay.

When trying to persuade the boss it is important to state the facts and make sure to check the validity of these facts that will be presented before it is put forward. Remember to quote your credible sources, as you may be asked about where your data arrived from. Analyze the persuasive effectiveness in terms of its logos, pathos, and ethos, if applicable, on what you are trying to convince your boss on. Use statistics and data that are current and choose reputable publications.

Try to avoid logical fallacies. Presenting something that you want the boss to accept and give you the “wow” effect is important. You must make an effective entrance into a room. Walk tall and enter the room with a purposeful, confident stride. Give a firm handshake and smile. Having a positive attitude is a good way to start off a conversation.

You must first find common ground with your boss by sharing a common view of the problem, issue or goal.

Confirm with the boss that you are on their side and want this idea to help better the company. When trying to persuade a peer a mixture of facts and feelings may be used because you should have an indication of the person’s personality. This can benefit you to use what you know about how that your peer thinks when trying to persuade this person. Usually, a peer will listen to you much deeper than a person who does not you well.

When dealing with a challenging person it is important to use techniques to grab their attention. Challenging people have self-interest and may want to argue an issue. Use those self-interests to break down the facts and use sentiments to make them understand. If you are trying to persuade an open minded person you can explain your side of an issue by inflating the data. Open minded people are willing to listen to all sides of the arguments. Whether you are trying to persuade your boss, a peer, a challenging person, or an open minded person, all people think, and have personalities, that differ from you. Knowing who your audience is can be very important when it comes to persuasion.

Persuasive Communication Essay