Recycling:How effective are bottle bills at reducing plastic waste?

Recycling:How effective are bottle bills at reducing plastic waste?.

Recycling

Recycling can have a great, positive impact on the environment by reducing deforestation, emissions from power and processing plants, and pollutants released into the environment. Consider an aluminum can. To make this from scratch, the bauxite ore must be mined, cleaned, ground into a powder, treated to get alumina, and then refined and heated to get liquid aluminum.  The liquid is poured into molds to make ingots. These are then rolled into sheets and stamped to make cans. By recycling cans, all of those steps from mining to alumina can be skipped, all of that energy saved, and all of those environmental impacts from caustic red mud wastes from mining and the toxic fluorides and volatile hydrocarbons emitted during processing are avoided.

Trash in the environment can release toxic compounds. For example, plastics release PBT (persistent, bio-accumulative, and toxic) substances and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) when they become weathered and degrade under environmental conditions. Plastics break down into microfilaments that get ingested by wildlife. The oceans are filled with plastics swirled into large patches—some big enough to form islands that you could walk on!

Recycling is a great way to reduce energy use, increase sustainable resource use, and reduce pollution. Consider this though: there are no federal laws mandating recycling! Recycling is regulated at the state level.

Choose ONE of the following topics, and answer the questions posed:

  1. State Laws for Recycling and Waste Management
    Start here to check your state for recycling laws.

    1. Does your state have recycling laws? If yes, what are they? If no, explain why you think it should or should not.
    2. What do you recycle?
    3. Could you recycle more?
    4. What do you think of cities or states that mandate recycling?
  2. Plastics and Pollution
    Here is a short video that explains garbage patches in the ocean.

    1. Find 1 thing that is banned from landfills in your state. Can you find or explain why it is banned? If it is a pollutant or health hazard, then why aren’t plastics banned as well?
    2. What do you think of cities and states that have banned plastic grocery bags?
    3. How effective are bottle bills at reducing plastic waste? Do you turn in bottles for nickels or dimes? If not, would you, if your state had a bottle bill?
    4. Read through this list. Is there one of these ways in which you could help reduce plastics in the ocean? Explain.

References

Granger, T. (2017, November 27). What’s banned in landfills: A state by state guide. Retrieved from https://earth911.com/business-policy/landfill-bans/

Hutchinson, B. (n.d.). 7 ways to reduce ocean plastic pollution today. Retrieved from https://www.oceanicsociety.org/blog/1720/7-ways-to-reduce-ocean-plastic-pollution-today

Ocean Today. (n.d.). Trash talk: What is the great Pacific garbage patch? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://oceantoday.noaa.gov/trashtalk_garbagepatch/

Recycling:How effective are bottle bills at reducing plastic waste?

Impact of the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes.

Impact of the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes..

quality of care

In collaboration with your approved course mentor, you will identify   a specific evidence-based practice proposal topic for the capstone   project. Consider the clinical environment in which you are currently   working or have recently worked. The capstone project topic can be a   clinical practice problem, an organizational issue, a quality   improvement suggestion, a leadership initiative, or an educational   need appropriate to your area of interest as well as your practice   immersion (practicum) setting. Examples of the integration of   community health, leadership, and an EBP can be found on the   “Educational and Community-Based Programs” page of the Healthy     People 2020 website.

Write a 500-750 word description of your proposed capstone project   topic. Make sure to include the following:

  1. The problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational     need that will be the focus of the project
  2. The setting or     context in which the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or     educational need can be observed.
  3. A description providing a     high level of detail regarding the problem, issue, suggestion,     initiative, or educational need.
  4. Impact of the problem,     issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need on the work     environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient   outcomes.
  5. Significance of the problem, issue, suggestion,     initiative, or educational need and its implications to   nursing.
  6. A proposed solution to the identified project   topic

You are required to retrieve and assess a minimum of 8 peer-reviewed   articles. Plan your time accordingly to complete this assignment.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA   Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer   to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Impact of the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need on the work environment, the quality of care provided by staff, and patient outcomes.

Explain the origin of the federal Pollution Prevention Act, including the year it was passed, events leading to its passage, politics leading up to its passage, by how wide of a vote it was passed, and which president signed it.

Explain the origin of the federal Pollution Prevention Act, including the year it was passed, events leading to its passage, politics leading up to its passage, by how wide of a vote it was passed, and which president signed it..

Pollution Prevention Act

Writing Prompts (respond to two only):

  1.    Explain the   origin of the federal Pollution Prevention Act,        including the year it was   passed, events leading to its passage, politics        leading up to its passage, by   how wide of a vote it was passed, and which        president signed it. Please use   the CSU Online Library, the Internet, the        textbook, and/or other resources to   respond. Please cite and reference    all     sources used.
  2.    In Chapters 1   and 2 of the course textbook, Ashby (2013) discusses        materials and energy.   After studying the chapters, select four items total        (materials and/or energy)   where minimal cost pollution prevention    efforts     can provide the most gain in   environmental benefit. Also,    discuss which of     the laws listed in the Unit I   Lesson apply to your    selections.
  3.    Address one   of the five principles described on page 102 of the        textbook. In your essay,   include the date that the principle was initiated,        events that led to the   creation of the principle, the purpose of the        principle, your thoughts about   the usefulness of the principle, and any        recent developments that occurred as   a result of the principle.

You are required to use at least your textbook as source  material for both   of your responses. All sources used, including the textbook,  must be   referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying  citations.

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Explain the origin of the federal Pollution Prevention Act, including the year it was passed, events leading to its passage, politics leading up to its passage, by how wide of a vote it was passed, and which president signed it.

Working With the Aging: The Case of Francine

Working With the Aging: The Case of Francine.

Francine

Francine is a 70-year-old, Irish Catholic female. She worked for 40 years as a librarian in an institution of higher education and retired at age 65. Francine has lived alone for the past year, after her partner, Joan, died of cancer. Joan and Francine had been together for 30 years, and while Francine personally identifies as a lesbian, she never came out to her family or to her colleagues. When speaking to all but her closest confidantes, Francine referred to Joan as her “best friend” or her “roommate.”

Francine’s bereavement was therefore complicated because she did not feel she could discuss the true nature of her partnership with Joan. She felt that there was little recognition from her family, and even some of her close associates, of the impact and meaning of Joan’s death to Francine. There is a history of alcohol abuse in Francine’s family, and Francine abused alcohol from late adolescence into her mid-30s. However, Francine has been in recovery for several decades. Francine has no known sexual abuse history and no criminal history.Francine sought counseling with me for several reasons, including an ongoing depressed mood, a lack of pleasure or enjoyment in her life, and loneliness and isolation since Joan’s death. She also reported that she had begun to drink again and that while her drinking was not yet at the level it had been earlier in her life, she was concerned that she could return to a dependence upon alcohol. Francine came to counseling with several considerable strengths, including a capacity to form intimate relationships, a successful work history, a history of having maintained her sobriety in the past for many years, as well as insight into the factors that had contributed to her current difficulties.

During our initial meetings, Francine stated that her goals were to feel less depressed, to reduce or stop drinking, and to feel less isolated. In order to ensure that no medical issues were contributing to her depression symptoms, I referred Francine to her primary care physician for an evaluation. Francine’s physician did not find any medical cause of her symptoms, diagnosing Francine with moderate clinical depression and recommending that Francine begin a course of antidepressant medication. Francine was reluctant to take medication and first wanted to try a course of counseling.In order to help Francine meet her goal of reducing her depression symptoms, I employed a technique called behavioral activation (BA), which is drawn from principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and helps to reengage people in pleasant physical, social, and recreational activities. We began with a small initial goal of having Francine dedicate at least 5 minutes of each day to an activity she found pleasant or rewarding. Over the following weeks, we increased the time.

Francine’s treatment progress was monitored through weekly completion of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in order to determine whether or not her depressive symptoms were improving.I helped Francine address her drinking by reconnecting her with effective coping strategies she had used in the past to achieve and maintain her sobriety. These included identifying triggers for the urge to drink and exploring her motivations for both continuing to drink and for stopping her use of alcohol. Francine began attending regular meetings of Alcoholics Anonymous™ (AA) and found several meetings that were specifically for older women and for lesbians. In addition, Francine spoke regularly with a sponsor who helped her to remain abstinent during particularly stressful moments during her reengagement in sobriety.Finally, in order to address Francine’s goal of feeling less lonely and isolated, we explored potential avenues to increase her social networks. In addition to spending time with her family, friends, and her AA sponsor, Francine began to visit the local lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), center for the first time in her life and attended a support group for women who had lost their partners.

Francine also began spending time at her local senior center and went there at least three times a week for exercise classes, other recreational activities, and lunch. She also began to do volunteer work at her local library once a week.Over several months of counseling, Francine stopped drinking; significantly increased her daily involvement in pleasant and rewarding activities, including social and recreational activities; and reported feeling less lonely, despite still missing her partner a great deal. Francine’s scores on the PHQ-9 gradually decreased over time, and after 16 weeks of counseling, Francine reported that she no longer felt she needed the session to move on with her life. In addition, Francine visited her primary care physician, who found upon evaluation that her depression had lifted considerably and that an antidepressant was no longer indicated. By the end of counseling, Francine’s focused work on identifying her depression symptoms and her triggers for drinking equipped her to better recognize when she might need support in the future and to whom she could reach out for help if she needed it.

  • Apply your understanding of the aging process to  Francine’s case. How might Francine’s environment have influenced her  aging process? How might you, as Francine’s social worker, apply your  knowledge of the aging process to her case?
  • Identify an additional strategy you might use to apply  your knowledge of the aging process to social work practice with older  clients in general. Explain why you would use the strategy.For a custom paper on the above questions or related topic. Place an order with us.

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Working With the Aging: The Case of Francine

Environmental Factors And Health Promotion Pamphlet: Accident Prevention And Safety Promotion For Parents And Caregivers Of Infant

Environmental Factors And Health Promotion Pamphlet: Accident Prevention And Safety Promotion For Parents And Caregivers Of Infant.

Environmental factors

To prepare for this assignment view the following brief video from the American Medical Association titled, “Health Literacy and Patient Safety: Help Patients Understand.” The video can be accessed through the following link:

https://youtu.be/cGtTZ_vxjyA

Part I: Pamphlet

  1. Develop a pamphlet to inform parents and caregivers about environmental factors that can affect the health of infants.
  2. Use the “Pamphlet Template” document to help you create your pamphlet. Include the following:
  3. Select an environmental factor that poses a threat to the health or safety of infants.
  4. Explain how the environmental factor you selected can potentially affect the health or safety of infants.
  5. Offer recommendations on accident prevention and safety promotion as they relate to the selected environmental factor and the health or safety of infants.
  6. Offer examples, interventions, and suggestions from evidence-based research. A minimum of three scholarly resources are required.
  7. Provide readers with two community resources, a national resource, and a Web-based resource. Include a brief description and contact information for each resource.
  8. In developing your pamphlet, take into consideration the healthcare literacy level of your target audience.

Part II: Pamphlet Sharing Experience

  1. Share the pamphlet you have developed with a parent of an infant child. The parent may be a person from your neighborhood, a parent of an infant from a child-care center in your community, or a parent from another organization, such as a church group with which you have an affiliation.
  2. Provide a written summary of the teaching / learning interaction. Include in your summary:
  3. Demographical information of the parent and child (age, gender, ethnicity, educational level).
  4. Description of parent response to teaching.
  5. Assessment of parent understanding.
  6. Your impressions of the experience; what went well, what can be improved.

Submit Part I and Part II of the Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants assignment by the end of Topic 1.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Please use the attached Templates to the assignment.

Environmental Factors And Health Promotion Pamphlet: Accident Prevention And Safety Promotion For Parents And Caregivers Of Infant

Hazardous spills a constant threat on Arizona’s roads

Hazardous spills a constant threat on Arizona’s roads.

Hazardous

Hello Class,

I just finished going through the Code of Federal Regulations 49 and further reviewed its intent and why it is important in day to day operations. The Code of Federal Regulations 49 or CFR 49 is a document that is produced by the Federal Register National Archives and Record Administration to inform the public and government workers of the regulatory guidance put in place. Title 49 governs the transportation of hazardous materials and gives detailed information on rules and regulations for preparing, shipping, and handling of hazardous materials. If we works with these materials it is important for us to understand the regulatory guidelines required in daily operations. This document gives a plethora of information pertaining to the transportation of hazardous materials. Its gives regulatory guidelines for the class of hazardous materials, quantities permitted in shipments, packaging requirements, safety measures, documentation requirements, placards and marking requirements and even training and safety requirements. This document is important aspect of day to day operations because of the important information it contains. The CFR is important for the safety of our environment and people and teaches the individuals and users of the regulations that are in place to monitor and protect the safety of people, and the environment from transportation of materials.

Without this document outlining all of this detailed information, individuals working in day to day operations could fail to meet the regulations put in place for managing the safety of people and the environment. This regulations is designed to keep everyone safe and without the document there could be a higher chances of incidents such as spills. Without CFR Title 49 staying within the regulatory guidelines for transportation of dangerous materials would be incredibly difficult to maintain.

49 CFR 49 – Transportation. (2014, October 1). Retrieved September 17, 2018, from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/CFR-2014-title49-vol3/CFR-2014-title49-vol3

reply 100 words to student Smalley class 318 wk 7 250 words post:

 

Good morning Dr. H and fellow classmates,

I hope everyone had a great weekend. Lets get this week going. This week we are talking about the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 and what makes the regulation important aspect of the day-to-day operation.

CFR 49 is a set of regulations that covers the guide lines when it comes to hazardous materials. It covers how to properly label the material, handle the material, shipping paperwork, transportation and storage of the hazardous material.

There is a section of the CFR 49 that covers each mode of transportation. Since no mode of transportation is the same. This will guide the shipper or worker on what needs to be done to safely transport the hazmat from one place to another.

With out the guideline on CFR 49, there would be nothing set in place to safely transport the hazardous materials. Truck drivers might not placard a load so they could take a short cut. Shippers wouldn’t take the steps to label the hazards of the product. In the long run, the public and the environment would be put into harms way.

The CFR 49 is important to the everyday operation. Which out it, there would be more death or injuries caused by hazardous materials. If there was an accident involving hazardous material and the package wasn’t labeled, someone could get injured or die. Companies might cut corners in hopes to save a buck instead of doing the right thing. Not to mention the damage the material would cause to the environment and to the wild life.

reply 100 words to student amy class 318 wk 7 250 words post:

 

Hello Class,

49 CFR is important because it covers safety, security, packaging and regulations for hazardous material. This CFR impacts day to day operations because if the regulations and packaging guidelines are not followed it could result in fines on the shipping company or the harm of an individual. The federal government designed these regulations to ensure that companies shipped product responsibly and safety. Packaging is a major portion of this title because it sets the guidelines for the specific box thickness and tests to make sure no spills or leaks occur. Security of hazardous material is also important to day to day activities because if stolen it could result in harm to a large group of people. Also if the product is not secured and an accident occurs the product could leak or explode damaging the environment. These are all things that companies must consider when handling hazardous material.

Without these regulations companies would ship material in any way that was the cheapest leading to accidents, personnel damage, and environmental harm. Companies also would not have guidelines to protect products from theft or shipping guidelines. Companies will do anything to cut costs and regulations prevents that from happening because companies do not want to run the risk of being fined. Hazardous material is dangerous when handled improperly, so regulations force companies to handle with care and protect the industry.

Amy

respond to student vittie class 318 wk 7 250 words post:

 

This week we are talking about hazardous waste and how the 49 CFR relates and why it’s important.  In Arizona there are several cases of vehicles involved in accidents and hazardous spills.  In one case in March 2011 it took over 80,000 gallons of water to contain a fuel tanker fire on a highway.  This is a case of why the 49 CFR is important.  By having the information on what was inside the tanker rescue workers where able to address the incident quickly and not spread the fire.  Without the 49 CFR rescue teams would have to either guess or let the fire burn itself out.  According to the article over the last 10 years over 2,000 accidents involving hazardous materials have resulted in death. fire, injury, and costly clean up across Arizona alone.  When companies try and avoid following the 49 CFR and there is an accident they can get into a lot of trouble.

Another reason the 49 CFR is important to have and follow is nuclear material does not get placards and is limited to the routes it is aloud to travel.  This is important because while small amounts may not be as much of an issue a large amount that leaks could greatly jeopardize a town or even a state.  If a truck caring nuclear waste has a spill on a damn and that waste spills into the water the entire path of that water would then be effected.  With the 49 CFR and the limits of some waste shipments are safer.

Sandler, G. (2018). Hazardous spills a constant threat on Arizona’s roads.  Retrieved from http://www.ahwatukee.com/news/article_7d4d4d8a-abb3-11e8-b188-7b629215150c.html

Hazardous spills a constant threat on Arizona’s roads

Explain how changing weather patterns affect food production, the spread of disease, or damage to homes, transportation, or the electric grid

Explain how changing weather patterns affect food production, the spread of disease, or damage to homes, transportation, or the electric grid.

Global warming

Reflect back on the lessons from this session. In Unit 1, you looked at ecosystems and considered what would happen if even one key component were impacted by disturbance. In Unit 2, you compared living conditions, the spread of disease, and the availability of food in developing and developed countries. In Unit 3, you looked at the contribution of burning fossil fuels to greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. Then in Unit 4, you considered the issues surrounding air pollution, among others. All of these topics relate to the disturbances and predicted impacts of global climate change.

For this discussion, you will consider the effect of a changing climate on one of the topics listed below. Use this article as your starting point: Effects of Global Warming.

Recommended: Click on the following links to review materials to enhance your knowledge of ecosystems, disturbance, and recovery:

Choose only 1 aspect of the environment that is impacted by climate change (from the 3 listed below), and answer the questions associated with the topic you chose.

  • Species extinction and habitat loss
    • Explain how climate change impacts vulnerable species or results in the spread of invasive species.
    • Explain how these changes will affect food webs.
  • Human health, agriculture, and infrastructure
    • Explain how changing weather patterns affect food production, the spread of disease, or damage to homes, transportation, or the electric grid.
    • Discuss increases in pollution as a result of global warming.
  • Water, melting ice caps, and sea levels rising
    • Explain how global warming is affecting ice caps and the impact to further warming.
    • Discuss the rise of sea level and saltwater intrusion and how eroding coastlines affect human activities and ecosystems.

Explain how changing weather patterns affect food production, the spread of disease, or damage to homes, transportation, or the electric grid

During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the daylight hours in northern latitudes are longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why northern latitudes are not warmer.

During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the daylight hours in northern latitudes are longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why northern latitudes are not warmer..

Hemisphere

3) List the four most abundant gases in today’s atmosphere.

9) What are the two most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

10)

a) Explain the concept of air pressure in terms of weight of air above some level.

b) Why does air pressure always decrease with increasing height above the surface?

19) How does weather differ from climate?

Chapter 1: Questions for Thought and Exploration (pg. 27)

3) Which of the following statements relate more to weather and which relate more to climate?

a) The summers here are warm and humid.

b) Cumulus clouds presently cover the entire sky.

c) Our lowest temperature last winter was -29 °C (-18°F).

d) The air temperature outside is 22 °C (72 °F).

e) December is our foggiest month.

f) The highest temperature ever recorded in Pheonixville, Pennsylvania, was 44 °C (111 °F)
on July 10, 1936.

g) Snow is falling at the rate of 5 cm (2 in.) per hour.

h) The average temperature for the month of January in Chicago, Illinois, is -3 °C (26 °F).

Chapter 2: Questions for Review (pg. 55-56)

1) Distinguish between temperature and heat.

3) Explain how heat is transferred in our atmosphere by:

a) Conduction

b) Convection

c) Radiation

6) How does the amount of radiation emitted by the Earth differ from that emitted by the Sun?

20) During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the daylight hours in northern latitudes are
longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why northern latitudes are not warmer.

Chapter 2: Questions for Thought and Exploration (pg. 56)

5) Which do you feel would have the greatest effect on the Earth’s greenhouse effect: removing
all of the CO2 from the atmosphere or removing all of the water vapor? Explain your answer.

Short Answer (40 total points; 10 points each):

1. Describe the nature of the temperature lapse rate in each of the four layers of the atmosphere (Troposphere; Stratosphere; Mesosphere; Thermosphere), and why the Tropospheric and Stratospheric temperatures change the way they do.

2. Using Figure 1.8 from your textbook, find the approximate altitude in BOTH kilometers and miles for the following atmospheric pressures

 

Altitude (above sea   level) (km)

Altitude (above sea   level) (miles)

 

800 mb

 

500 mb

 

250 mb

 

1 mb

 

The Tropopause and Stratopause

3. Explain how the Greenhouse Effect works and why the term ‘greenhouse’ isn’t the most representative of the process. (Hint: start reading page 39). Make sure to describe what type of radiation greenhouse gases do, and do not interact with, as well as the sources for those types of radiation.

4. Challenge question: Pretend you are the first scientist to observe the temperature of the Moon. The first thing you should do is compare the Moon’s temperature with temperatures on Earth.  List units!

a. In your “log” below, list the temperature range for the Surface of Earth vs. the Moon.

 

Coldest Temperatures

Hottest Temperatures

 

Earth

 

Moon

Being a good scientist, you rely on the scientific method to try and explain what you have observed. Here’s what the scientific method can already tell you.

ü The Moon has no atmosphere, and hence no greenhouse effect

ü The Moon has a higher albedo than the Earth.

ü Relative to the Sun, the Earth completes one rotational cycle per day, while the moon takes about 27 times longer. (Sidenote: 27 days is how long it takes the moon to complete a full cycle of phases–we often call this the lunar cycle!) ***Hint…consider how the rotation speed changes the length of daytime and nighttime for a given spot on the object.

b. From the above list of what you know about each celestial body, form a hypothesis for why the difference between each object’s temperatures you listed in part a. Include discussions related to each of the three known points checked above.

Figure Investigation (20 total points; 10 points each):

1. In the following diagram, draw a line representing how temperature changes with altitude above sea level in the four layers of the atmosphere. Then label the names for these four layers and the name of the three boundaries between each.

2. In the following diagram, draw a line for how atmospheric pressure changes with altitude above sea level. Make sure the values of pressure (x-axis) on your line are reasonable approximations for the altitude you have drawn them at.

Assignment 1 Worksheet (100 points)

From the Text (40 total points; 4 points each): 

Chapter 1: Questions for Review (pg. 26)

3) List the four most abundant gases in today’s atmosphere.

9) What are the two most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

10)

a) Explain the concept of air pressure in terms of weight of air above some level.

b) Why does air pressure always decrease with increasing height above the surface?

19) How does weather differ from climate?

Chapter 1: Questions for Thought and Exploration (pg. 27)

3) Which of the following statements relate more to weather and which relate more to climate?

a) The summers here are warm and humid.

b) Cumulus clouds presently cover the entire sky.

c) Our lowest temperature last winter was -29 °C (-18°F).

d) The air temperature outside is 22 °C (72 °F).

e) December is our foggiest month.

f) The highest temperature ever recorded in Pheonixville, Pennsylvania, was 44 °C (111 °F)
on July 10, 1936.

g) Snow is falling at the rate of 5 cm (2 in.) per hour.

h) The average temperature for the month of January in Chicago, Illinois, is -3 °C (26 °F).

Chapter 2: Questions for Review (pg. 55-56)

1) Distinguish between temperature and heat.

3) Explain how heat is transferred in our atmosphere by:

a) Conduction

b) Convection

c) Radiation

6) How does the amount of radiation emitted by the Earth differ from that emitted by the Sun?

20) During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the daylight hours in northern latitudes are
longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why northern latitudes are not warmer.

Chapter 2: Questions for Thought and Exploration (pg. 56)

5) Which do you feel would have the greatest effect on the Earth’s greenhouse effect: removing
all of the CO2 from the atmosphere or removing all of the water vapor? Explain your answer.

Short Answer (40 total points; 10 points each):

1. Describe the nature of the temperature lapse rate in each of the four layers of the atmosphere (Troposphere; Stratosphere; Mesosphere; Thermosphere), and why the Tropospheric and Stratospheric temperatures change the way they do.

2. Using Figure 1.8 from your textbook, find the approximate altitude in BOTH kilometers and miles for the following atmospheric pressures

 

Altitude (above sea   level) (km)

Altitude (above sea   level) (miles)

 

800 mb

 

500 mb

 

250 mb

 

1 mb

 

The Tropopause and Stratopause

3. Explain how the Greenhouse Effect works and why the term ‘greenhouse’ isn’t the most representative of the process. (Hint: start reading page 39). Make sure to describe what type of radiation greenhouse gases do, and do not interact with, as well as the sources for those types of radiation.

4. Challenge question: Pretend you are the first scientist to observe the temperature of the Moon. The first thing you should do is compare the Moon’s temperature with temperatures on Earth.  List units!

a. In your “log” below, list the temperature range for the Surface of Earth vs. the Moon.

 

Coldest Temperatures

Hottest Temperatures

 

Earth

 

Moon

Being a good scientist, you rely on the scientific method to try and explain what you have observed. Here’s what the scientific method can already tell you.

ü The Moon has no atmosphere, and hence no greenhouse effect

ü The Moon has a higher albedo than the Earth.

ü Relative to the Sun, the Earth completes one rotational cycle per day, while the moon takes about 27 times longer. (Sidenote: 27 days is how long it takes the moon to complete a full cycle of phases–we often call this the lunar cycle!) ***Hint…consider how the rotation speed changes the length of daytime and nighttime for a given spot on the object.

b. From the above list of what you know about each celestial body, form a hypothesis for why the difference between each object’s temperatures you listed in part a. Include discussions related to each of the three known points checked above.

Figure Investigation (20 total points; 10 points each):

1. In the following diagram, draw a line representing how temperature changes with altitude above sea level in the four layers of the atmosphere. Then label the names for these four layers and the name of the three boundaries between each.

2. In the following diagram, draw a line for how atmospheric pressure changes with altitude above sea level. Make sure the values of pressure (x-axis) on your line are reasonable approximations for the altitude you have drawn them at.

During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the daylight hours in northern latitudes are longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why northern latitudes are not warmer.

Finding And Understanding Interactions And Relationships Among The Four Earth’s Spheres

Finding And Understanding Interactions And Relationships Among The Four Earth’s Spheres.

The Four Earth’s Spheres

When writing this essay, be aware that your work has to show significant effort, creative thought, and research from sources inside the modules. Use APA style citations within the text and complete references in your reference page.

This assignment will be a 750-1000 word (3 page) essay. It must include:

  • A title page, including the title of your essay, your name, the course, and the date
  • 3 pages of text
    • Include in-text citations for all quotations and any information paraphrased from sources. Only ideas from your brain do not need citations! Please see the
  • A reference page with complete references in APA style.

Topic:  We wish to bring together all the things you have learned in this course. Thus, please address the following questions in your essay:

  1. What is the “take away message” from this course regarding the identification of reliable sources of scientific information? Give specific examples from the course readings.
  2. What have you learned about the job (both good and bad) popular publications, such as newspapers, magazines, and websites, do in “translating” scientific research into articles targeting the average reader? Identify specific characteristics you look for to determine the reliability of these popular publications. Give specific examples from the course readings.
  3. What have you learned about locating and evaluating reliable scientific sources, such as publications from government agencies, international agencies, and professional scientific organizations? Identify specific characteristics you look for to determine their reliability. Give specific examples from the course readings.
  4. Identify at least two scientific topics from the course that you feel you have learned more about and, if possible, where your experiences in this course have changed your mind about those topics. Give specific examples from the course readings.

Finding And Understanding Interactions And Relationships Among The Four Earth’s Spheres

Waste And Human Health:New plastic bags that dispose of themselves! Knight Ridder Tribune News

Waste And Human Health:New plastic bags that dispose of themselves! Knight Ridder Tribune News.

Waste And Human Health

This week’s environmental controversy is centered on waste and human health. It addresses the question, should consumers have to pay for plastic or paper bags at grocery and other stores? Using the references below, write a 1-2 paragraph response to the questions posed to you. Remember to cite your sources using APA.

Background Information

Your textbook discusses the controversies associated with requiring consumers to pay for plastic and paper bags at their supermarkets and other stores. Advocates of the consumer pay system argue that bags are harmful to the environment and that under this system people would be encouraged to buy cloth bags or other reusable containers. Critics reply that many supermarkets already have drop bins for recycling old bags. They also argue that instead of making consumers pay for bags, individuals that provide their own bags should be given discounts from the store.

References

Use these references to help answer the questions that follow. You may want to also search the Internet for additional resources.

Query, S. (2007). Paper or Plastic. E – The Environmental Magazine, 18(6), 22. http://search.ebscohost.com
Link to article
Bob Condor. (21 March). New plastic bags that dispose of themselves! Knight Ridder Tribune News Service,1.
Link to article 

Questions

Based on what you have read, do you believe that consumers should have to pay for plastic or paper bags at grocery and other stores? What arguments most influenced your decision? How would you explain your position to someone who disagrees with you?

Waste And Human Health:New plastic bags that dispose of themselves! Knight Ridder Tribune News