Effective Classroom Management Essay

Effective Classroom Management Essay.

– Some guiding principles in classroom management and their implications to teaching. – According to James H. Stronge in his book “Qualities of Effective Teachers”, some guiding principles in classroom management are the following: •Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom management. •Inside the classroom, we could always expect some disciplinary problems, but some teacher could immediately handle the said problems.

Instead of formulating immediate medicine for the behavioral problems, the teacher should focus on how to prevent these predicaments to occur.

As much as possible, lets avoid dilemmas because it’s too pathetic for us to cry over spilled milk. •Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs. •To avoid turmoil inside the classroom, the teacher must ascertain routines from the start of the class, up to the class dismissal. This could also help a lot in saving much time and effort because their work is already in routine.

•Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day. •As much as possible, the teacher must avoid dull moments inside the classroom to motivate the students to always pay attention to the speaker.

The teacher must scheme smooth transitions of activities inside and outside the classroom throughout the day. •Strike a balance variety and challenge in students’ activities in the classroom. •There should be a variation of activities inside the classroom to avoid the students and even the teacher from being bored.

•As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom. •Even if the teacher is not around, she is still responsible for the students. That is why she must know the things that are happening inside the classroom and what her students are up to. •Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they became major disruptions. •Disruptions seem to be part in every classroom and in every lesson. No matter how big or small the hitch is, it could still give so much distraction not only to the teacher, but foremost to the students.

That is why, if the disruption is still controllable, the teacher must try to stop it before it becomes too late for her to control the situation, and worse, it could spoil the whole transition of the lesson inside the classroom. •Reinforce positive behavior. •To motivate the students to always do the good and right thing, the teacher should always pay even the simplest compliments in her students’ actions especially to the appreciating ones. •Treat minor disturbances calmly.

•If a simple rising of the voice could control the simple problem, then do it. There’s no need for you to be hysterical and over-react on something that’s just under control. •Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process. •Some teachers change seating arrangement quarterly. This is to enhance interactions between the teachers and students. •Make good use of every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional time.

Effective Classroom Management Essay

Sport Manager Interview Essay

Sport Manager Interview Essay.

For my Sport Manager Interview I interviewed Mr. Matt Seibring who is an Assistant Director in Competitive Sports. I asked Mr. Matt questions that related to his job and basically to help prepare and give me advice for my career plans in the future. In the Assistant Directory role they have professional staff that reports all information and how everything is going throughout the work day. Mr. Matt manages the coordinators and has to make sure all of the supervisors are trained so that everything goes smoothly.

So if anything goes wrong with specifically intramural sports he is held accountable for all mishaps. In being an Assistant Director there are certain skills that you have to have and develop in order to be in this position. From the interview Mr. Matt said that a big part of it is scheduling, organization and programming. When you have to schedule leagues and tournaments those skills will help you on your task of getting things done.

Also having a strong background in officiating will benefit you because you have to be able to teach all the student officials the proper way of how to officiate. In the interview I asked Mr. Matt what made him want to apply to be an Assistant Director in Competitive Sports. He simply said it was because if the passion and love for sports. He worked as a student official and a supervisor with intramural sports when he was an Undergrad. Mr. Matt continued to enjoy working with students, student development and programming and decided to make it into a profession after grad school.

Being that this was the case Mr. Matt was not in it for the money but just for the love of recreation and sports. In the field of recreation no one should be in it for the money. Institutions in the collegiate level, everyone has at least a master’s degree in business administration, so if people really wanted to make money they could utilize there degree elsewhere and make way more money. In the interview Mr. Matt told me some advice on some sport organizations and internships I could join and do.

He said any student organization that helps you with managing and organizing people would benefit and just taking any leadership role in the organization. Also doing any of NC States Club Sports would be beneficial and then when you’re in it you could join the Club Sport Council. The Club Sport Council is the student leadership of all of the Club Sports at NC State. In getting an internship, he said that there are plenty. NC State’s internships in the Competitive Sport perspective are looked at, at a case by case thing.

So if a student comes in need of an internship they talk to them on what they really want to gain in life and then figure out the best how they can give the person help for their future. To be an Assistant Athletic Director in Competitive Sports you will have to learn a lot about management along with time management and staying on task.

Mr. Matt teaches and helps students develop skills that they can use in any other job or career that they plan to do. As the interview progress I asked Mr. Matt did he play any sports in high school or college and he said yes. In high school he played basketball, football, and baseball, but he mostly stuck with football being that, that was he’s best sport. In college he said that he played every intramural sport that you could think of. He loved sports with a passion and wanted to make his career to be around sports of that nature. Last but not least to conclude my paper I asked Mr. Matt what advice he would give me if I wanted to get to where he was. He simply told me to get involved more than just playing.

Becoming a student employee is huge because you will then get the scoop of what’s happening in the inside of the intramural world of NC States Recreation Center/Facility. He also told me to don’t be afraid to go out and go after any opportunity that is thrown to me or just sitting there ready to be grabbed. I enjoyed interviewing Mr. Matt. At the end of the interview he said that he wish there was more students like me, that was interested into go out and taking advantages of these great opportunities, all I could do is smile because I know that I want nothing but the best in my life.

Sport Manager Interview Essay

Globus Report Essay

Globus Report Essay.

The objective of this Globus game is to run a company in the real environment which is we will compete with other companies. On this simulation I am becoming co-manager of a camera industry. All of the company have two products in the market which is Entry level camera and multi featured camera. And the market area is divided into 4 region which is :

1.North America 2. Europe-Africa 3. Asia Pacific 4. Latin America.

One group have 3 members , and in my business simulation we got 8 different companies.

Each company has to run the camera business every week , one week in real life is represent 1 year in the simulation for a consecutive 10 weeks. The ultimate goal for all the companies is to dominate the market of the cameras industry, the best camera company in the industry is to get the target that give by the investor expectations, gaining the most market share and image rating and maintaining a good credit rating.

My Achievements

By doing the virtual business game with my group member , I had to be able to analyse the business every year , what the strategies I have to do , and how to get high dividend and investor expectation.

By doing this process I can fully understand what happening with this industries and how to improve this business.. These kind of things allow me to understand concept in the industry and develop a strategy to win the competition within the industry. By experiencing this virtual business game I have learn about business management , starting from production cost , marketing , advertising , marketing , target market ,shipping labour forces ,financial decision , and business plan .all of this elements will impact the business performance. On this game I also learn from the compotetion btween the company in this industries.Every single company have a different strategies to dominate the industry. All the strategies is depend on the current situation and target market.and the competition is on all the time because the compotitors I always find the new strategies to defeat our company.so we need to come up with new strategies.

My New Transferable Skills:

Reflection 1 Context :

On the first week of the Globus game we were trying to change the decision entry as what we did in the Globus practice using on our knoledege about business menegement Activating Experience : With lack of knowledge that we got on the first year result is under the investor expectation ,eventhough we tried so hard to do this decision entries. Belief : We failed to believe that with our lack of knowledge our first year results is unsatisfy ,.it is make our companies is behind other companies. Consequence : Other companies performing well on the first year so our company is one step behind .Our results for EPS ,ROE and image rating is so much behind others companies.So it is hard for us to chase the other companies that performing beyond our companies as well as none of our group member really understand about business. Dispute : I have learn that when you make your company you need to understand everything about it from the market , business pla and etc. Because first year is the most crucial for your business to see the prospect of your business . so you need to learn before you do it.

Reflection 2

Context: Our group have develop different strategies every year Activating Experience: We are trying to do the strategies to get more profit on that year and didn’t planning for the coming tyears Belief: We failed to belief that our strategies is failed because we didn’t see the situation of the market and we didn’t planning well for the coming years like warranty I s the most issues of our comapny Consequence : Our result is dropped every because we have no analyse market and our bad planning for the future , so until the very end of the year we still have outstanding loans Dispute : I learned that it is really important to research about he target market and the planning of future business.

Reflection 3 :

Context: We always change our p/q rating every year Activating Experience : we always change our p/q rating to be the same as the leading companies ,hoping that we can compete with them Belief: We failed to believe we didn’t choose our p/q rating since the first year , by changing the p/q rating every year it boost our market share and kick us out of the competition.because we don’t choose the target market of our companies , which is always changed every year Consequence : Our companies rank is dropping until it aalmost the last position , and we have no target market Dispute :I have learn that I cant use other company strategies , but I have to find the new strategies that can beat them in theyre market.And I would make sure to develop my own strategies to take against other companies.

My personal growth and lifelong learning

Reflection 1

Context :

For some of the week our globus group couldnot focus on globus game Activating Experience : The Globus team unsatisfy with the result that not stable , and we didn’t do well on some of the year Belief : I failed to believe that because 1 didn’t stay focus to do the globus simulation game. Consequences : Our company have a bad start and the result in the middle year is falling down.we keep losing point every year until it reah the peak and our company made a loss.The biggest mistake was that we did not understand the game completely and this made us suffer for the beginning of the years. Dispute : I would like to completely understand on how to run the company and be able to do full analysis and research in the industry. And the most important thing to run the business is to keep focus to run the business to make a succesfull business

Reflection 2

Context : In all of the group meeting, we as the co-managers, had agreed on the decision to take and do the Glo-bus together. Activating Experience : During the very last minutes of before year 11 or 12 decision was due, one of the co-managers changed the decision and we were not informed about that. Belief : I failed to believe that we all had agreed on all the decisions we had come in group meeting and nobody would change any decision without any consent from other co-managers. Consequences : Our company was in the second last position due to the loss that we got. The co-manager decided to significantly lower the price to gain more market share, but in the end the decision was against us. Dispute : I would never let my team member to do that anymore. Since then, I learned that I had to check all the decision entries just before it was due to make sure everything was okay and according to what we agreed in the group meeting. I learned that this kind of action could be fatal and as a result, it would be hard to manage the profits year after.

Reflection 3

Context : After couple of weeks of hard time, we had to sit down together, share ideas and run the Globus game together to make sure we really understand Globus. Activating Experience : We had to analyse the competition in our industry and think many possible strategies to counter our competitors. Belief : I believed that as co-managers, we had to completely understand Globus and make sure that everyone in the team really understood what was happening since this was the best way to run the company. Consequences : We managed to bounce back at the end. Our position kept increasing every year up to 5th position which was not that good for the progress of the company. In the end, with everyone sharing their opinions and ideas, we managed to go as one team to help the company that was already in a bad position due to bad performances from previous years. Dispute : I learned that by getting together as a group and shared knowledge and analysed the industry together, we could manage to be the best actually.

Reflection 4

Context : After our company had bounced back, we had to keep doing our strategy so that our company could get better. Activating Experience : We had to do analysis every week carefully to see what the best opportunity and strategy to take. Belief : We believed that by doing analysis every week, we could maintain our position. Consequences : Our company was getting better every year onwards since year 12 and 13. This was because we had understood on how to play the game. We did analysis and research every week to find out what strategy we could implement. Dispute : I learned that by completely understand the game, the game was actually interesting. Now I know how business works in real life. Everything was related with another and each decision was really important.

Globus Report Essay

Rob Parson at Morgan Stanley Essay

Rob Parson at Morgan Stanley Essay.

Morgan Stanley, a leading U. S. Investment Bank, was attempting to transform its work environment to one that fosters teamwork but promotes innovation as well. This vision was developed under the leadership of the new president John Mack and his executive team. President Mack was looking for people to “shake up the culture. ” With heavy resistance, he recruited Paul Nasr to be the Senior Managing Director in Capital Market Services. Paul was a highly regarded banker with over twenty years of experience.

He knew that one of Morgan Stanley’s weak areas was Capital Market Services, an area where he had been successful in the past. Paul also knew that it would take more than a traditional corporate banker to penetrate this market. The Capital Markets Services(CMS) division, which has established as an interdisciplinary concern to address the issues of focused client attention and cross-divisional collaboration, required professionals who not only had domain specific industry knowledge but were also skilled at responding to client needs by designing products in collaboration with product specialists within Morgan Stanley.

Market coverage professional to be compatible with the staff of other departments, but can’t rely entirely on product designers, because they do not understand markets and customers, do not know the customer’s needs. It is important to fully understand the market, product, and customer information in three areas and needs. That person must be energetic, aggressive and innovative. It was these requirements that led to the appointment of Rob Parson, a managing director at a smaller firm with connections to some of the players in banking and insurance industries, as market coverage professional.

That’s why he recruited Rob Parson. Rob developed relationships with the important players in the banking and insurance industries and a strong reputation. Rob is not easily discouraged or intimidated and knows what it takes to get the job done. His drive and ambition allows him to connect with his clients but sometimes distances him from his co-workers. “Difference in a work culture and environment see only what employee know1”. Employees weigh what they put into a job situation against what they get from it. Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others.

Here important management issues associated with performance appraisal and performance management in the Capital Market Services of Morgan Stanley. The nature of Rob Parson’s responsibilities, though challenging, involved resurrecting Morgan Stanley’s capital market business and had witnessed high turnover rate. This position within the CMS division not only requires a conceptual understanding of investment banking procedure, but also mandates an ability to create business persuasion and negotiation, in addition to sensitivity to client objective.

Rob Parson, despite his unconventional education, has been acknowledged for his ability to interface with clients and sell products, but at the cost of the company culture and the vision of its senior management of an environment that promotes teamwork and emphasis respect and dignity of its employees. Parson’s success at generating business was offset by performance reviews from internal co-workers that painted him as a poor fit in the firm’s collaborative culture.

Parson’s performance issues had been making his two immediate supervisors, Paul Nasr, the senior managing director in early 1996 and Gary Stuart, the just promoted managing director in early 1997 faced the dilemma whether to promote Rob Parson as managing director. Moreover, Stuart felt certain that Parson would leave the firm if he was not promoted. This would mean losing a valuable employee and a star producer and creating an empty seat in an area important for the firm’s business. Morgan Stanley needed Parson to attain the firm’s strategic business objectives and even Stuart felt strongly that Parson would be impossible to replace.

Finally, to assess performance among its employees, Morgan Stanley created a 360-degree performance evaluation system that allows an employee to be evaluated by superiors, subordinates and peers. The purpose of 3600 evaluation is to emphasize teamwork, cooperation, and cross selling. However, there was little consensus on what the 3600 evaluation actually meant in practice since its implementation in 1993. With his 3600 performance evaluation indicating dissatisfaction over the level of professionalism he displays and concerns over the nature of his volatile personality, a decision regarding his promotion needs to be taken. Four dimensions of 3600 performance evaluation: marketing/professional skills, Management/leadership skills, Business-driven, Team work) Nasr is in a dilemma as to how he felt the situation was further exacerbated by the fact that Parson had been the only person that he had hired through prior personal connections. He hired only one individual in Morgan Stanley from his previous life, Rob Parson. He is thinking that group felt that he was his protector or his godfather. On other hand, Parson has over ten years of work experience, and has a good relationship.

Rob said: I’m not the typical Morgan who, I’m not quite used to the culture. I will always be a conflict, and I never really stayed in school. I don’t really love the work, but Nasr was personally, I think you can follow a very good Executive, so I came to Morgan Stanley. Nasr also mentioned that Rob doesn’t have time to wait for the consensus of the team, he is ahead of people, and customers want to know the answer-the first time, instead of waiting for us to establish there is unanimous consensus. Every time customers visited New York, they would hope to have dinner with Rob.

Nasr said: Rob was promoted to top management as early as last year, but I have a harsh for him than for anyone, because he used to be with me. I don’t want anybody to question my impartiality. Rob Parson and Paul Nasr engaged in a Psychological Contract during recruitment. Paul needed someone to take on a challenging job and Parson wanted the opportunity to be creative as well as the chance to achieve a promotion to managing director. Parson is a Type “C” manager because he’s interested in his own opinion rather than those of others. The majority of the time he was right.

When he was, it made his co-workers feel undermined which created animosity. Role conflict originated with the President, John Mack. First, Mack developed a culture that fosters teamwork, then he actively sought people to shake things up. Paul Nasr in turn, hired Rob Parson, an aggressive individual who’s not necessarily a team player, to fill a position that required his unique personality characteristics. Paul then appeared to be concerned about a performance evaluation that describes those characteristics and how they don’t fit the Morgan Stanley culture.

Rob seemed to be exactly what they needed and wanted but now he isn’t…the culture didn’t change nor did Rob’s personality. How can they expect employees to modify their behavior to fit the environment when the company’s hiring practices don’t support it? One theory in effect is the expectancy theory. Parson was only interested in producing results which he expected would result in his promotion to managing director. Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory of motivation is also present.

Parson’s dissatisfaction (extrinsic) factor was company procedure and his satisfaction (intrinsic) factor was responsibility, possibility of growth, and advancement. In order to fix this problem, Morgan Stanley did a great job in describing the work environment in their vision and in articulating how each position must contribute to that vision in the job descriptions. However, I’m not sure if Paul did a good job in stressing this to Rob during recruitment. I would keep the 360 degree evaluation system because it provides a more detailed analysis of each employee’s performance.

However, everyone shouldn’t be evaluated on the same criteria and the evaluation shouldn’t be the only factor in determining promotions. A principal shouldn’t be evaluated using the same criteria of a managing director or an associate. Also, a principal in the capital market services division shouldn’t be compared to a principal in another division. In both cases, the job requirements are different. Next, I would couple the performance evaluation, client satisfaction and significant results to determine promotion.

One downfall of using only the 360 degree evaluation is that animosities can sometime cloud a fair and impartial judgment by co-workers. I would articulate what type of work environment I expect in the Capital Market Services Division to everyone within the division and how this supports the firm’s vision. I would articulate what type of management characteristics I would expect to see within the division. Rob appeared to have the expertise of a managing director which would explain why his peers might have difficulty working with him. But there’s more to being a managing director than just expertise.

It also entails the articulation of departmental vision and leading by example which Parson has difficulty doing. The decision to defer the recommendation for Rob Parson’s promotion and the reasons for the same need to be conveyed personally, a necessity considering his efforts and contributor to business at Morgan Stanley. It should also be conveyed that the company would be reluctant to lose a performer like Parson and management was willing to explore the possibility of a mentorship program or professional counseling to assist Parson’s interpersonal development.

There is no doubt that Rob is eligible to be promoted to a managing director considering his performances about the excellent achievements of developing finance institution client’s relationship, praiseworthy contributions of raising Morgan Stanley’s market share from 2% to 12. 2% and ranking from the tenth up to the third, and the comprehensive knowledge of capital markets business. However, in my opinion, Rob is not suitable to be promoted to senior managing position up to next inside performance evaluations come out. Two reasons make up, first, the situations which the organizations faced, nd, second, the situations which Rob faced. First, according to cases, we can see that the capital markets division encounters some severe straits for a long time, including a dramatic turnover rate and serious understaffed.

Those issues won’t be ignored and be even exacerbates if Nasr promoted Rob to managing position since Rob is bad as a team player and always works as a individual, not a community. We can expect that those problems will be worse. Secondly, following the case, Rob is with his self-evaluations with some needs which he should improve such as acquiring some patience and moderate attitude when he works internally.

The goal should be to clear up any ambiguity regarding company culture. Organizations can increase economic performance by investing in employees. However, this is done through high involvement management. The Academy of Management Executive journal published an article called Putting People First for Organizational Success which identified seven key management practices: “Employment security, Selective hiring, Effective self-managed teams, Comparatively high compensation which is based on organizational performance, Extensive training, Reduction of status differences (between management levels), and Sharing information with employees. They also discussed several reasons why this is difficult which I think relate very well to this case study.

First, long-term goals are difficult to attain because of the short-term pressures placed on managers such as immediate financial results. Secondly, organizations tend to destroy competence by forcing experts to resort to novice decision making processes. Third, managers don’t delegate enough and finally, there are misconceptions about what constitutes good management. Organizations must realize that the key to managing people lies with the manager’s perspective and that implementing and seeing results takes time.

Rob Parson at Morgan Stanley Essay

Leadership & Change Management Essay

Leadership & Change Management Essay.

Transactional leadership styles are more concerned with maintaining the normal flow of operations. Transactional leadership can be described as “keeping the ship afloat. ” Transactional leaders use disciplinary power and an array of incentives to motivate employees to perform at their best. The term “transactional” refers to the fact that this type of leader essentially motivates subordinates by exchanging rewards for performance.

A transactional leader generally does not look ahead in strategically guiding an organization to a position of market leadership; instead, these managers are solely concerned with making sure everything flows smoothly today.

Transactional leadership motivates followers by setting up social or financial transactions that persuade them to act. For example, a transactional leader might offer bonuses to her sales staff for exceeding quotas. The bonus is a form of financial transaction.

Transactional leadership often is set in opposition to transformational leadership, which is a leadership style that relies on convincing followers that a particular vision of what the organization can achieve is worth working toward.

Transformational leadership A transformational leader goes beyond managing day-to-day operations and crafts strategies for taking his company, department or work team to the next level of performance and success. Transformational leadership styles focus on team-building, motivation and collaboration with employees at different levels of an organization to accomplish change for the better.

Transformational leaders set goals and incentives to push their subordinates to higher performance levels, while providing opportunities for personal and professional growth for each employee. Transformational leadership might sound preferable because the leader doesn’t cynically harness the self-interest of her followers, as the transactional leader does. But there’s a problem. A transformational leader might not be forthright with her followers. For example, a business owner might motivate her workforce with stirring speeches about the nobility of hard work, while her real aim is to increase production for personal gain.

This type of transformational leader might be called inauthentic. Advantages Both leadership styles are needed for guiding an organization to success. Transactional leaders provide distinct advantages through their abilities to address small operational details quickly. Transactional leaders handle all the details that come together to build a strong reputation in the marketplace, while keeping employees productive on the front line. Transformational leadership styles are crucial to the strategic development of a small business.

Small businesses with transformational leaders at the helm shoot for ambitious goals, and can they achieve rapid success through the vision and team-building skills of the leader. Applications Different management styles are best suited to different situations. When it comes to front-line supervisors of minimum-wage employees, for example a transactional leadership style can be more effective. Shift supervisors at a fast food restaurant will be much more effective if they are concerned with ensuring all of the various stations run smoothly, rather than spending their time thinking up better ways to serve hamburgers.

On the other hand, CEOs or sales managers can be more effective if they are transformational leaders. Executive managers need the ability to design and communicate grand strategic missions, passing the missions down to transactional leaders for implementation of the details. Organizations emphasize the concept of leadership in training managers or group leaders to propel a team or the organization forward. Within leadership, the effectiveness of the transformational versus transactional leader is often debated.

Transactional leadership relies more on a “give and take” understanding, whereby subordinates have a sense of duty to the leader in exchange for some reward. Transformational leadership, on the other hand, involves a committed relationship between the leader and his followers. In 1985, industrial psychologist Bernard Bass identified and wrote about four basic elements that underlie transformational leadership. Idealized Influence Transformational leaders act as role models and display a charismatic personality that influences others to want to become more like the leader.

Idealized influence can be most expressed through a transformational leader’s willingness to take risks and follow a core set of values, convictions and ethical principles in the actions he takes. It is through this concept of idealized influence that the leader builds trust with his followers and the followers, in turn, develop confidence in their leader. Inspirational Motivation Inspirational motivation refers to the leader’s ability to inspire confidence, motivation and a sense of purpose in his followers.

The transformational leader must articulate a clear vision for the future, communicate expectations of the group and demonstrate a commitment to the goals that have been laid out. This aspect of transformational leadership requires superb communication skills as the leader must convey his messages with precision, power and a sense of authority. Other important behaviors of the leader include his continued optimism, enthusiasm and ability to point out the positive. Intellectual Stimulation

Transformational leadership values creativity and autonomy among the leader’s followers. The leader supports his followers by involving them in the decision-making process and stimulating their efforts to be as creative and innovative as possible to identify solutions. To this end, the transformational leader challenges assumptions and solicits ideas from followers without criticizing. She helps change the way followers think about and frame problems and obstacles. The vision the leader conveys helps followers see the big picture and succeed in their efforts.

Individualized Consideration Each follower or group member has specific needs and desires. For example, some are motivated by money while others by change and excitement. The individualized consideration element of transformational leadership recognizes these needs. The leader must be able to recognize or determine through eavesdropping or observation  what motivates each individual. Through one-on-one coaching and mentoring, the transformational leader provides opportunities for customized training sessions for each team member.

These activities allow team members to grow and become fulfilled in their positions. The Benefits of Transformational Leadership Motivation A transformational leader uses her belief in the vision of the company to inspire the staff to be more productive and work towards company goals. The drive behind a transformational leader is to find ways in which she can get the entire staff on board with corporate strategy and planning. When the entire company is on the same page with the corporate vision, it can make achieving that vision easier.

Planning Inspirational managers do not focus their energy solely on motivating the staff. A good transformational leader has broad visions for the company’s future, and those visions can become instrumental in company planning. Whether it is refining the overall business plan or affecting individual marketing programs, the transformational manager has ideas and visions for the future of the company that he wants to share with the management team and work to turn those plans into reality.

Retention The idea of transformational leadership is to reach out to each employee and bring out the best in them. An inspirational manager spends time with each employee discussing ways to make the employee’s job easier, and helping to create plans for developing the employee’s career. This individual attention that is offered by transformational leaders helps to create a strong bond between the manager and his employees that will reduce employee turnover.

Growth A manager that is not intimately involved in the growth of the company and the development of her staff can start to struggle with managing her department as the company grows. A transformational leader is constantly involved with the growth of the company and the ongoing development of employees. As the company grows, the transformational leader maintains that close contact to the company and employees and can make the process of growing a more involved experience for new and veteran employees.

Leadership & Change Management Essay

The Relevance of Henri Fayol’s Four Management Functions Essay

The Relevance of Henri Fayol’s Four Management Functions Essay.

This essay serves to identify the similarities and dissimilarities of the work of two managers from two different organisations and the extent to which Henri Fayol’s management functions are relevant to their work. Manager 1 works at a Woolworths Food retail store at a shopping centre called Featherbrooke Village in Ruimsig, Roodeport, Johannesburg, South Africa. Woolworths is a South African based retailer that specialises in clothing, food, home ware and beauty products and was founded by Max Sonnenburg in 1930.

Today it has 400 stores across South Africa, Africa and the Middle East (Woolworths: About Us, 2013).

Manager 2 works at Mugg & Bean which is located at the same shopping centre as the Woolworths Food retail store mentioned above. Mugg & Bean is a franchise restaurant chain that was founded by Ben Filmalter, in 1996. It is known for its generosity and value for customers.

Today it has restaurants across South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia (Mugg & Bean: About Us, 2013) Henri Fayol came up with five management functions which are known today as the four management functions of planning, organising, leading and controlling, and suggested that managers’ work is made up of these functions(Robbins,S et al, 2012; Lamond, 2003).

Is management really just made up of these four functions or is there more to it? For Fayol, to manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control.

To forsee and provide means examining the future and drawing up the plan of action. To organise means building up the dual structure, material and human, of the undertaking. To command means maintaining activity among the personnel. To co-ordinate means binding together, unifying and harmonising all activity and effort. To control means seeing that everything occurs in conformity with established rule and expressed command. (Lamond, 2003, p. 4) Planning involves formulating a plan to achieve the goals of the organisation in mind.

It involves beginning with the end in mind (Lamond, 2003). Manager 1 at Woolworths described planning as formulating a program on what product lines to get based on the customer type. This means that Manager 1 aims to satisfy the needs of Woolworths’ target market.. This means that Woolworths’ point of reference is what the customer needs and wants and then formulate a plan from that. Manager 2 from Mugg & Bean described planning, as getting as many customers as possible and providing the best food and best services. This is the end in mind that this particular manager has.

Manager 2 would have to draw up a plan that would help to achieve that very goal. Organising is the management function of coordinating employees with the work that they are supposed to be doing, deciding who gets to do what and how(Lamond, 2003). Manager 1 described organising as ensuring the right teams attend to the right goods while Mugg & Bean’s manager 2 described it as following recipes and standards a hundred percent. These descriptions both coincide with Fayol’s definition of organising in that the former focuses on coordination while the latter focuses on the ‘how’ part.

Leading is defined as the management function that deals with commanding delegating and motivating while being able to work with and through the organisation’s workforce (Lamond, 2003). Woolworth’s manager 1 describes it as carrying out daily meetings, planning activities, explaining daily goals and managing work in a positive and consistent way that creates challenging growth experience. Manager 2 described it as the process of training employees and providing incentives for good performance. This goes together with Fayol’s definition of leading.

Controlling is the process of comparing results achieved to set goals, and taking corrective action where necessary (Lamond, 2003). Woolworth’s manager 1 described it as scrutinising reports and communicating with planners, while Mugg & Bean’s manager 2 described it as the process of taking daily quality controls. Both are very effective in that, with the former, results are compared to the plans made by the planners, while, with the latter, daily quality controls are made to make sure that food and services meet the required standards, which also coincides with Fayol’s description of controlling.

As is evident by the information shown above and in the questionnaires, which was collected from the two managers, Henri Fayol’s four functions of management are relevant to the work of the two managers. However, the work of these two managers may not be as clear cut and Henri Fayol’s four management functions may not be as relevant due to the mere fact that each manager’s work may not be broken down by function only. The work of these managers may very well be described by the roles they play as according to Henry Mintzberg, which are categorised into interpersonal, informational and decisional roles (Robbins,S et al, 2012).

Henri Mintzberg argued that managers’ daily work can be categorised into Interpersonal roles (figurehead, liason and leader), Informational roles (monitor, disseminator and spokesman) and Decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator) (Stephen J. et al, 1987). Henri Fayol’s classical theory of management suggests that managers’ work is made up of planning, implementing those plans and then sitting back to relax and wait to take corrective action where it is needed.

Henry Mintzberg argued that, however, managers are involved in several tasks and activities that need to be attended to, taking calls, responding to emails, communicating with inside and outside stakeholders as well as carrying out some of the lower level activities that the manager’s subordinates carry out (Mintzberg, 1975). This is evident in the fact that the Mugg & Bean manager 2 who is also the owner is involved in making sure that the best services and best food is provided which means sometimes carrying out the manual work themselves.

However, some of Mintzberg’s sub roles overlap which does not justify their separation and they are not focused on achieving organisational goals (Stephen J. et al, 1987). It may be somewhat difficult to try and categorise manager 1 and manger 2’s work by Henry Mintzberg’s roles because the particular tasks and activities are too many and some of them can not be identified as being any one of these roles. Manager’s work, on the other hand, may also be categorised by the skills the managers themselves posses and are required to use, as proposed by Robert L.

Katz, which are technical, human and conceptual skills (Robbins,S et al, 2012). In order for managers to manage effectively, they need to possess a mixture of these three skills, the proportion of each depending on the organisational level the manager is on (Peterson, T. O & Van Fleet, D. D). Henri Fayol’s four functions may also be irrelevant to the Woolworths and the Mugg & Bean managers, because, management has evolved over the decades, since Henri Fayol introduced his four functions.

Managers are no longer defined by just these four traditional functions and their work is much more flexible and process oriented. The argument is that managers are no longer defined by their ability to carry out their work as defined by Henri Fayol, but are defined by their ability to carry out processes that allow them to achieve particular organisational goals. These processes range from behavioural to organisation building processes.

This allows managers to take initiative, be proactive, be more flexible and be able to effect positive change in order to achieve organisational goals. Mugg & Bean’s manager 2 can describe ‘getting as many customers as possible’ as a behavioural process and can take initiative in order to make sure that that goal is met, as opposed to categorising it as part of Henri Fayol’s planning function which does not make room for anything other than planning. Chapman, J. A, 2010). In conclusion to the relevance of Fayol’s management functions, the basic role of a manger is still made up of these four functions and other theories of management such as Mintzberg’s management roles or Katz’s management skills are integrated within Fayol’s four functions. Fayol’s management functions are relevant to the management work of manager 1 and manager 2. What are the differences and similarities between manager 1 and manager 2.

While manager 1 the title ‘Operations and Foods manager’ for the Woolworths Food store, manager 2 is the owner of the Mugg & Bean restaurant. While manager 1 is very much involved in leading and controlling and has little to moderate involvement in the planning and organising functions, manager 2 is widely involved in all management functions. This is evident in the fact that the former is a first line manager employed by Woolworths and the latter is in fact the franchisee of this particular restaurant.

The function of management is the same regardless of rank of manager, organisation type or size. Both managers carry out the four management functions. It is the degree to which they perform each that makes their jobs different (Robbins,S et al, 2012). Management is made up of three components namely demands, constraints and choices. Demands are what the manager must do, Constraints are factors that may encumber what the manager can do and choices are activities the manager may do but does not have to.

Each of these differ in form with every manager because of the difference in organisational values and goals and because each and every individual is different in how they carry out their work, the demands they are given (or give themselves) and in the choices they make (Steart, 1982). This is evident in the difference in the examples of planning, organising, leading and controlling given by managers 1 & 2. Although all four functions are still being performed, each is different in each organisation because it has been customised to cater for the needs of each manager and organisation.

The Relevance of Henri Fayol’s Four Management Functions Essay

Marketing Management: Assignment Questions Essay

Marketing Management: Assignment Questions Essay.

Q.2 Conduct a SWOT analysis for any one automobile brand of your choice. How will this analysis help in planning marketing strategies for the brand?

Q.3 Explain in brief the process involved in personal selling.

Q.4 Describe the stages of business buying process.

Q.5 Why is rural market important? What should marketers keep in mind when catering to this market?

Q.6 Explain the core concepts of marketing. Define service and explain its relevance in modern society

Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0046 – Marketing Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks.

Answer all the questions. Q.1 Explain the various steps involved in the design of a distribution channel.

Q.2 Will the pricing and product policy of a multinational firm be different in a developed and an underdeveloped country? Justify your answer.

Q.3 Explain the consumer decision making process

Q.4 What is integrated marketing communication? Explain the integration marketing communication development process.

Q.5 Explain the types of advertisements and characteristics of major media.

Q.6 What are the advantages of branding? What value does the organisation and customers get out of the branding process?

MB0045_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0045 –Financial Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Considering the following information, what is the price of the share as per Gordon’s Model?

|Details of the Company Net sales |Rs.120 lakhs | |Net profit margin |12.5% | |Outstanding preference shares |Rs.50 [email protected] 12% dividend | |No. of equity shares |25, 000 | |Cost of equity shares |12% | |Retention ratio |40% | |Rate of interest (ROI) |16% |

Q.2 Examine the components of working capital & also explain the concepts of working capital.

Q.3 Internal capital rationing is used by firms for exercising financial control. How does a firm achieve this?

Q.4 What are the objectives of working capital management? Briefly explain the various elements of operating cycle.

Q.5 Define risk. Examine the need for assessing the risks in a project.

Q.6 Briefly examine the significance of identification of investment opportunities in capital budgeting process MB0045_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012 Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2 MB0045 – Financial
Management – 4 Credits

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Examine the reasons for holding inventories by a firm & also discuss the techniques of inventory control.

Q.2 a.) A bond of Rs. 1000 value carries a coupon rate of 10% and has a maturity period of 6 years. Interest is payable semi-annually. If the required rate of return is 12%, calculate the value of the bond. ( 5marks)

b.) A bond whose par value is Rs. 500 bearing a coupon rate of 10% and has a maturity of 3 years. The required rate of return is 8%. What should be the price of the bond? ( 5marks)

Q.3 Examine the features & evaluation of decision-tree approaches. Q.4 If the EPS is Rs.5, dividend pay-out ratio is 50%, cost of equity is 20% and growth rate in the ROI is 15%. What is the value of the stock as per Gordon’s Dividend Equalisation Model? Q.5 Critically examine the pay-back period as a technique of approval of projects. Q.6 Two companies are identical in all aspects except in the debt-equity profile. Company X has 14% debentures worth Rs. 25,00,000 whereas company Y does not have any debt. Both companies earn 20% before interest and taxes on their total assets of Rs. 50,00,000. Assuming a tax rate of 40% and cost of equity capital to be 22%, find out the value of the companies X and Y using NOI approach.

MB0044_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0044 – Productions & Operations Management- 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 What do you understand by Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI)?

Q.2 Explain briefly the four classification of scheduling strategies & its approaches.

Q.3 Define production management. What are the various functions involved in production management?

Q.4 Explain the various phases in project management life cycle.

Q.5 Explain the ingredients of a business process. Explain Physical Modelling.

Q.6 Define the term quality. Explain the concept of quality at source. MB0044_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012

Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0044 – Productions & Operations Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 What is value engineering? Explain the steps involved in Value analysis.

Q.2 Describe dimensions of quality. Which are the quality control tools?

Q.3 What are the objectives of layout? Explain the classification of layouts.

Q.4 List the benefits of forecasting. Discuss the role of forecasting in modern business context.

Q.5 Mention the significance of plant location decision. Explain the location decision sequence.

Q.6 What is meant by business process? Explain logical process modelling?

MB0049_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0049 – Project Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Define Project Management Information Software. Discuss the various steps of PMIS planning.

Q.2 Explain procurement process . What are the key steps involved in purchase cycle?

Q.3 Define project-type organisation and discuss it in detail

Q.4 Define value engineering. Discuss the scope of applying VE in project.

Q.5 Define project management, resource, process, and project cycle. Why is project management important?

Q.6 What are the key steps included in risk management process? What are the strategies used to reduce risk? MB0049_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0049 – Project Management – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Define activity, event, and path as used in network development. What is a dummy activity? Describe the CPM model.

Q.2 Discuss the advantages of using PM software package. What are the common features available in PM software packages?

Q.3 Define risk management. What are the different types of risks that can affect a project?

Q.4 What are the roles and responsibilities of project leader? Describe the leadership styles for project managers.

Q.5 Explain the life cycle of a project. Describe the various phases of project management life cycle.

Q.6 What is project control? Discuss the various elements of project control.

MB0048_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2
MB0048 – Operations Research- 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 Maximise z = 3×1 + 4×2

Subject to constrains 5×1 + 4×2≤ 200;
3×1 + 5×2≤ 150;
5×1 + 4×2≥ 100;
8×1 + 4×2≥ 80,
x1≥ 0, x2≥ 0
Q.2 State the ways in which customers in a queue are served.

Q.3 Explain the use of simulation in networks? What are the advantages of using simulation?

Q.4 Explain maximin-minimax principle. Briefly describe the characteristics of competitive game

Q.5 A project has 10 activities. The following table shows the information about the activities.

|Table 14.5: Activities |Preceding activity |Duration in weeks | |information Activity | | | |A |– |6 | |B |– |3 | |C |A |5 | |D |A |4 | |E |A |3 | |F |C |3 | |G |D |5 | |H |B, D, E |5 | |I |H |2 | |J |I, G, F |3 |

Draw the network
• Find the project duration
• Identify the CPM
• Prepare the schedule

Q.6 Discuss different types of service systems?

Aug/Fall drive 2012
Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester II
MB0047 – Management Information Systems – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1136)
Assignment – Set- 1 (60 Marks)
Marks-60
Attempt each question. Each question carries 10 marks:

1. What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS? Give some Disadvantage of MIS? 2. Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example? 3. What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what is meant by BPR? What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data Mining is useful in terms of MIS? 4. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization? 5. What is ERP? Explain its existence before and its future after? What are the advantages & Disadvantages of ERP? What is Artificial Intelligence? How is it different from Neural Networks? 6. Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system? What is ‘What – if‘ analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definition as compared to the time spends on decision analysis? Aug/Fall drive 2012

Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester II
MB0047 – Management Information Systems – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B1136)
Assignment – Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Marks-60
Attempt each question. Each question carries 10 marks:

1. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of the organization? Explain the transaction stages from manual system to automated systems? 2. Explain the various behavioral factors of management organization? As per Porter, how can performance of individual corporations be determined? 3. Compare various types of development aspect of Information System? Explain the various stages of SDLC? 4. Compare & Contrast E-enterprise business model with traditional business organization model? Explain how in E-enterprise manager role & responsibilities are changed? Explain how manager is a knowledge worker in E-enterprise? 5. What do you understand by service level Agreements (SLAs)? Why are they needed? What is the role of CIO in drafting these? Explain the various security hazards faced by an IS? 6. Case Study: Information system in a restaurant.

MB0048_MBA_Sem2_Fall/August 2012 Master of Business Administration – MBA Semester 2 MB0048 – Operations Research – 4 Credits
Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)
Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Explain project management (PERT) & Project scheduling of PERT.

Q.2 Write a short note on Monte-Carlo simulation? What are the Limitations of using Simulation?

Q.3 In a rectangular game, pay-off matrix of player A is as follows: i) Solve the game.
ii) Write down the pay-off matrix of B and then, solve the game.

Q.4 A marketing manager has 5 salesmen and 5 sales districts. Considering the capabilities of the salesman and the nature of districts, the marketing manager estimates that the sales per month (in hundred rupees) for each salesman in each district would be as follows.

Marketing Management: Assignment Questions Essay

Corning Glass Work Case Study Essay

Corning Glass Work Case Study Essay.

1. Enumerate the conditions why Corning had to undergo the series of structural changes.

Following the international growth and expansion of Corning, the following problems were being faced in the organization’s structure and management processes:

i) With the international expansion of CGW, the company was becoming too big and complex to be managed by its current structure. Hence a need was felt to create the international arm as a separate legal entity and hence Corning International Corporation (CIC) was born.

ii) CIC was created as a subsidiary to CGW to emphasize the growing importance of Corning’s overseas business.

The management felt that the creation of CIC as a separate unit was important to upgrade the role of international managers and help them feel more accepted within Corning.

iii) Before the international strategy shift of the mid 1960s, CGW did not meddle much into the affairs of its foreign affiliates. The foreign affiliates maintained their own individual reporting and control systems.

However, following the strategic shift to gain majority in these foreign subsidiaries, the management system and processes began changing, such as integration of subsidiaries’ accounting systems into the parent company. This caused problems as most of the subsidiaries were European non-English speaking countries and didn’t follow American standards. Hence a need was felt to integrate these foreign subsidiaries with the parent company so as to maintain uniform standards and processes.

iv) The acquisition of majority shareholdings in foreign subsidiaries also encouraged management to begin to coordinate and integrate its foreign operations. The task of unifying, coordinating and integrating the European operations specially was a difficult one. There was a long list of independent companies that needed to be brought under control and a lot of these companies were old rivals. Hence lack of coordination and cooperation existed at every level.

Furthermore, each of the European companies had export customers and offices in several other European countries. This caused lot of chaos and confusion when it came to bringing order into CGW’s European operations. Also, the European country affiliates were well established and extremely knowledgeable about their local environment. It was difficult for the newly appointed area managers who did not have the same level of market and product expertise to challenge these country affiliates and convince them in favour of consolidation of manufacturing operations.

v) The structure within CIC was organized on geographical dimensions. The top management had a tendency to take major decisions based on their local interests and hence promoted their local projects. As a result, conflicts started arising between geographical entities. Such conflicts could only be resolved at the desk of Forrest Behm, President of CIC, who was the only one with sufficient power and connections at the corporate level to communicate plans to and from top leadership of CGW. As the international operations expanded, Behm turned out to be the only one in a position to take a global perspective of the various international businesses and this in turn increasingly burdened him with more conflict-resolution issues. He felt that a structural change within the organization was required to bring in a global perspective amongst its people.

vi) Another challenge that Corning was facing was the transfer of technological knowledge from parent company to its foreign operations. Before major international expansion, this transfer was maintained through informal channels between technical experts in the parents company and the foreign plants. As the foreign operations expanded and technological innovations grew in size, the old model of knowledge sharing turned out to be insufficient to handle the growing demands. Hence foreign subsidiaries had to rely on the formal channels within the international organizational. This led to escalating frustrations on both the sides.

vii) Furthermore, the capital allocation process also changed following the majority shareholding in foreign subsidiaries. Before the consolidation, the decision process for capital allocation was done primarily by the local managers of the foreign affiliate, who would then go out and raise the capital on their own.

However, after these subsidiaries were acquired by Corning, they were required to submit a formal capital appropriation request prepared in English. The subsidiary general manager then had to chase it to the end through a series of corporate decision making filters. This allocation system had other major implications on the relationship between the technical personnel on each side. Whereas before, the technical managers from the parent company provided assistance to subsidiaries on projects, the former now became a part of the judge and jury system to decide on the capital allocation to these subsidiaries. As a result, the technical managers tended to become more conservative with their advice and assistance to the subsidiaries.

viii) Due to the incoherency of its area based organization structure, CIC found itself grappling with the global marketing coordination necessary for some businesses. There was no one who was responsible for coordinating between different foreign subsidiaries on global actions like price, product, sourcing etc. The needs of global product development were not being communicated to the R&D group. This meant that the international product development needs were being largely ignored.

In order to address the above mentioned problems, Forrest Behm, decided to restructure the organization by appointing three international business managers. The primary motive behind the appointment of these business managers was to supplement the organization with a global business perspective.

2. Identify the problems with the organization structure (until 1972; business manager concept) that led to the formation of World Boards.

i) Corning International Corporation (CIC) since its inception was not truly integrated with its parent organization Corning Glass Works (CGW). The creation of CIC as a separate company was insufficient from the onset. The relationship between senior managers in the parent company CGW and in CIC remained unchanged. The vice-presidents in CIC never really achieved the status and importance of vice presidents in CGW. As a result when the three international business managers were appointed by Behm with the status equivalent to Vice-Presidents, they faced difficulty liaising with vice-presidents and other senior managers in the domestic organization (CGW). They were simply viewed as lacking power, status and credibility to get things done.

ii) There was some hostility prevalent between the domestic and foreign arm of the organization. The domestic division managers felt that if they had to provide the foreign operations with so much support, they might as well run the foreign operations themselves. This contributed towards making the job of international business managers in acting as a liaison even more difficult.

iii) The role of the International Business Managers was not clearly defined since its inception. They were given very vague general mandates like “to straighten things out in consumer products in International” or “to put together a world strategy for products in Science and Medical”. As a result nobody understood what they were really there for and hence people could not establish a connection or relation with them. This contributed to some area managers feeling that they were wasting their time and energy in entertaining these international business managers and meeting their demands of time and information.

iv) There was lack of communication between Behm and foreign subsidiary country managers who felt that they were not informed of such a role being introduced in the organization hierarchy. As a result, employees in the foreign subsidiaries had no clarity who they were supposed to report to after the organizational changes. This contributed to a creation of general sense of defensiveness in the subsidiary employees from the outset. So the business managers were largely viewed by foreign subsidiaries as more of an interference and less of a coordination help.

v) The three business managers did not have the right skills to act as liaisons. Their inability to establish strong links between the foreign subsidiaries and the domestic products divisions was partly due to the attitude with which some of them had taken up these roles. For example, the international business manager for the Consumer Products Division came across as interfering and authoritative. This was not helpful in yielding the desired results.

3. Examine whether their current structure (world boards) is appropriate to the business environment. Provide suggestions to Behm on the proposed reorganization.

The current structure of world board is strong and is capable of bringing in order to the organization provided some changes are made to it. The world boards were not created to control or manage the foreign subsidiaries but rather to act as a channel to facilitate coordination, communication and cooperation between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries. The members of the world boards must keep this vision in mind during their meetings and interactions.

We propose the following changes to the world board in order to make them more effective:

i) Behm should first start with putting a limit on the maximum number of people on the world boards to 6-7. This will avoid the problem of world boards becoming too big and chaotic to manage. The world boards should include at max 2-3 people from US product division, 2-3 people from subsidiary units and 1 international business manager.

ii) The Optical Products World Board was able to achieve results by successfully resolving their conflicts before the board meetings. All other world boards should follow their model and try to adapt it to as much extent as possible.

iii) The domestic division managers need to understand that the company as a whole can only be unified through corporate culture, shared vision and values, and management style rather than through formal structures and systems. Hence they should avoid trying to control the subsidiaries’ business the way they have been doing so far.

The domestic division managers should be encouraged to develop a networking and inter-dependent relationship with the subsidiaries. Internal attitude change within Corning’s domestic managers is critical to encourage coordination, participation and involvement of the subsidiaries. While being a part of Corning, the subsidiaries need some autonomy for themselves to develop an ability to make impactful contributions to the organization as a whole.

iv) Behm should ensure that the world boards meet regularly and achieve fruitful results. If left to themselves, things may go back to how they were. Hence a more direct involvement on part of Behm is required (at least in the boards that still have major difference of opinions) to facilitate communication and resolve difference of opinions.

v) Corning should slowly and gradually adopt the transnational model to promote worldwide integration and knowledge sharing to exploit both global and local advantages. The top leadership needs to see the organization as a network and should refrain from shaping it as a centralized hub. Interdependence between units should be promoted amongst product, functional and geographic units.

vi) Cross-subsidiary teams should be developed in the long run to compel different subsidiaries to work together for their own good as well as the overall good of the organization.

Corning Glass Work Case Study Essay

Hank Kolb Case Study Essay

Hank Kolb Case Study Essay.

Quality, or lack of, is the result of many decisions made by many people over a long period of time. The Hank Kolb case quality problems all point to one fundamental problem, management. There are four special cause variations in a quality process: man, machine, materials and method. The Hank Kolb case has issues in each of these four fields and this case analysis will examine the issues within the four cause variations and show how they all point to management as the main perpetrator of poor quality.

Recommendations, both short and long term approaches, will be outlined to help management create a quality product and work environment in each of the four fields. The “man” root cause of poor quality is seen in the lack of training and poor attitudes of workers. Training is not a prerequisite to individuals moving into new positions. This creates under-qualified people in skilled labor roles. The attitude of the workers considers quality as a topic that burdens and impedes people from doing their jobs.

Issues with the “machine” aspect are an improper maintenance process and the machine used for something it is not designed to do. With no scheduled preventative maintenance, nonstandard downtime was running at 15% of actual running time and repairs had been made twice a month for the last six months. Keeping the machinery in top-running condition has not been a priority and its’ effects have been felt down the line with over-pressurized cans. The plastic nozzle heads were often found with burrs on the inside rim.

This forced the company to increase the application pressure at the filling head to solve this problem. Quality is being affected within the “materials” variable. Finally, there are numerous problems identified within the “methods” cause variation. There is lack of policy and procedure. Examples of this are completing inspections after the fact and not having any feed-back loops. Not having equipment maintenance records is another example of the lack of methods that have added to the overall lack of quality.

These four special cause variations can be visualized in a fishbone diagram (appendix 1) to show the cause/ effect relations of quality problems. Each special cause variation points to poor management as the fundamental problem in this case. This is exacerbated as the company puts market share and schedule above quality and safety. To create a solution to the quality problem, Hank will need to first deal with managerial support and attitude. Hank should create a company-wide quality policy that is actively backed by senior management.

Then, a training program should be initiated for all skilled labor and supervisory positions. Next, start collecting data on how and why the machinery is breaking down. Soon after, Hank should do a cost benefit analysis to see if upgrading the machinery will boost production of the Greasex product. Hank needs to be aggressive with the nozzle supplier to demand greater quality. Finally, all policies and procedures will need to be created and implemented with quality at the forefront of every concept.

Hank Kolb Case Study Essay

Hospital Waste Management Essay

Hospital Waste Management Essay.

Introduction

Hospital waste management is one of the most critical and yet underrated kind of waste management .The growing number of hospitals and the unhealthy eating habits of the people has contributed to the rising number of patients in hospitals. Wastes that are improperly disposed lead to spreading of infection. This will lead to the unhealthy society as a whole. Modern day societies place high importance on preventing the manufacturing of plastic and its By-products but they overlook the importance of collecting and disposing the existing plastic products that are in circulation.

This is applicable for the hospital waste management as well. Hence it is imperative to focus and understand the procedures used for hospital waste management.

Functions

The hospital waste management process contains the following stages. Stage 1: [Acquiring the contract]
The hospital invites tenders from prospective waste management agencies via newspaper agencies. Hospital follows a strict selection procedure which includes the experience of the agencies eco friendliness and regulatory constraints.

Some of the constraints are * Number of workers deployed in the site of waste management * The precautionary measures taken by each worker deployed * Removal of waste on weekly basis

* Proper reusability of waste

Stage 2: [Resource Allocation]

Resource will be allocated based on the waste generated by the hospital on day to day basis. Now generally the agency calculates the amount of waste based on the bed capacity on the respective hospitals. Ex: St.John’s medical college hospital which is located in Hosur main road, Koramangala is one of the biggest hospitals in Bangalore and it has 2500 beds and generates a lot of hospital waste.

Stage 3: [Collecting the waste]

Hospitals give a separate area in their premises to the agency to segregate the waste generated by them. The ward boys collect the waste on an hourly basis. The collected waste is disposed into two distinctive bags namely red color for Bio-hazardous waste and yellow for non- hazardous waste. The agencies collect the waste from this segregated area.

Stage 4: [Segregation]

The waste collected in Red and Yellow bags will be further segregated based on the composition of that particular waste. Bio-hazardous waste such as needles, amputated limbs and any other material that was contaminated by blood are first sorted and packed in special containers. These containers are sent to a place located in the outskirts of the city for final disposable.

State authorities in India have made several strategic decisions pertaining to HCW management. One decision was how to refine the technology options included in the Biomedical Waste Rules. Although the rules list incineration as an option for certain categories of BMW, concerted efforts by NGOs—including Srishti, Toxic Link, and Jyotsna Chauhan Associates—and the press have convinced some SPCBs to rule out the use of onsite incineration.

In the State of Andhra Pradesh, for example, where most health care facilities are in the heart of cities, the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board prohibited incineration at health care facilities in the entire state after considering the potential adverse impacts of pollutant emissions from substandard incinerators. The Kerala Pollution Control Board recently opted for autoclaving and deep burial of BMWs instead of incineration. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has banned incineration of BMWs—except for body parts and human tissues— in favor of autoclaving and sanitary land filling.

National and state authorities have made some technology choices for HCW management taking into account human health impacts in urban and rural areas. The Biomedical Waste Rules specify that incineration is the disposal scheme required for human anatomical and animal wastes for cities with population greater than 500,000, and deep burial is the disposal scheme required for such wastes for smaller cities and rural areas. In the State of Karnataka, however, because of the poor performance of incinerators at health care facilities, on-site incineration has been prohibited within the limits of six city municipal corporations and in all district headquarters.

Of these locations in Karnataka, where the population exceeds 500,000, destruction of human anatomical and animal wastes is to be accomplished by incineration only at CWTFs to comply with both the Biomedical Waste Rules and state requirements. Bangalore, Hubli- Dharwad, and Mysore comply with this requirement, but in Mangalore, human anatomical and animal wastes are currently disposed of by deep burial. In Andhra Pradesh, state authorities have selected deep burial as the disposal scheme for biodegradable infectious wastes in areas with a population less than 500,000.

This approach is not in compliance with the Biomedical Waste Rules, which require local autoclaving, microwaving, or incineration instead of deep burial, but it is in accordance with the 1999 WHO guidelines for the safe management of wastes from health care activities. Another strategic decision for state authorities in India was whether to opt for on-site treatment of BMWs or common treatment of BMWs. Common treatment of BMWs offers several advantages. 1. CWTF can be located away from hospital premises and urban areas, significantly reducing the potential adverse human health impacts.

2. CWTF reduces treatment and disposal costs by treating large quantities of wastes collected from many facilities (that is, it offers economies of scale), although the savings must be balanced by the additional transportation costs from all the facilities to the CWTF.

3. CWTF can employ specially trained personnel who could not be easily supported by individual health care facilities, resulting in better and more efficient operation.

4. The permitting, monitoring, and enforcement efforts by regulatory agencies of one CWTF are likely to be fairly effective. Nonetheless, there are challenges associated with a common treatment of BMWs. A CWTF approach imposes a direct financial burden on the operators of health care facilities, who previously paid minimal amounts for services associated with waste management. It also requires operational and behavioral changes by the operators of health care facility operators, who must properly segregate wastes into the types of BMW accepted by the CWTF operator. A more important concern is the difficulty of ensuring continued involvement of the private sector in a CWTF when the market is uncertain because of the absence of a culture of compliance and a weak enforcement regime. India’s central government views common waste treatment as the most appropriate approach to the treatment of BMWs generated in urban areas.

Andhra Pradesh was the first state to devise and implement a CWTF scheme. Initially, resistance to the scheme arose from doctors who were unwilling to accept a CWTF approach for the “Twin Cities” area of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and objected to the charges required for BMW treatment and disposal. Workshops were held with doctors and other facility staff to overcome their resistance, and mass awareness campaigns were conducted in Andhra Pradesh about the need for safe BMW treatment and disposal. Two privately owned CWTFs were set up in the state to treat BMWs from Hyderabad and Warangal Districts, using the same types of technologies (incineration and autoclaving).

The successful model for a privately owned and operated CWTF used in Andhra Pradesh was subsequently emulated in other states—including Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu—and plans for similar CWTFs have recently been adopted in the States of Gujarat, Kerala, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. • Karnataka: In Karnataka, two CWTFs—one in north and the other in south Bangalore— have been operating using incineration and microwave technologies to serve about 6,000 beds in the city.

Another CWTF in Mysore, which uses the incineration and autoclave technologies, was commissioned for 67 health care facilities with 7,000 beds. Two additional CWTFs, both based on the incineration technology, were com-missioner recently in Belgaum and Hubli- Dhardwad. Three additional CWTFs are going into place in Karnataka at Gulbarga, Mangalore, and Shimoga. All the CWTFs in Karnataka are located away from the city limits, with transportation of BMWs provided by the CWTF operator.

Stage 5: [Selling the waste to the Wholesaler]
The segregated scrap is then sold to the wholesaler .There are 3 types of wholesalers namely
* Glass based
* Paper based
* Plastic based

* Glass based: Once the glass based wholesaler receives the bottles, he segregates the bottles which can be reused and sends it back to the respective companies and the bottles which cannot be reused are crushed and then melted and made into different glass products . * Paper based: Once the paper based wholesaler receives the segregated papers the cotton boxes are crushed and treated then it is converted to a carton box again .

The papers are separated on the basis of their color and then treated for ink removal and then sent to paper mills. * Plastic based: The sorted plastic is first washed with chemicals to remove all hazards and then it is grinded and it is made into powder so that it loses its original shape. Then this particular powder is sold to the factories, they melt it and make it into different products. Materials and methods

There are a few amenities required by the waste management agencies to function in effective manner. 1. The yard provided by the hospital should have a roof .The yard should be ventilated properly .Otherwise most of the products are wet, they start emitting bad odor .This may cause infection to the workers in the yard.

2. Each and every worker should be provided with a pair of surgical gloves .He also has to wear proper footwear. There are chances of infected material coming to the yard, so this will prevent them from getting infected.

3. The burning of the hazardous waste material should be done outside the city limits where the population is minimal and the ashes should be buried minimum 20 feet below the ground. There should be a minimum of 50 feet chimney to let the smoke outside .The ashes should not be buried anyway next to ground water irrigation.

4. The glass and plastic wholesaler should take extra care to see to that the materials are washed properly with the right chemicals to prevent any kind of infection.

5. The workers in the yard and the wholesaler’s warehouse should follow strict precautionary measures and they should be provided with hand sanitizer.
Marketing plan
The marketing strategy of hospital waste management varies depending on their operational capabilities. Large scale operators like Maridi based in Hyderabad and Synergy based in Delhi use advertising campaigns to attract prospective customers while small players like Sathya Eco-Management based in Bangalore, follow variant of direct marketing by approaching hospitals to collect Hospital waste

Financing and Incentives
The following table describes approximate revenue of Sathya Eco-Management

The revenues in 2008 were boosted by The Beijing Olympics where large quantities of scrap were exported from India to China. This year was unusual as compared to other years where the revenues fluctuated within the range of 12 to 16 lakhs. The financial cycle begins with the invitation of the tenders from the hospitals. Prospective bidders who satisfy the selection criteria pay the required amount in demand draft. The waste management agencies would then sell the procured material to the wholesalers. The wholesaler then sells his product to the different factories. The factories convert the procured material into the product and sell it back to the consumers. The wages are made every week on a daily rate basis.

Regulatory framework

India was the first country in South Asia to establish a legal framework for the management of health care wastes. The development of India’s legal framework began in 1995.At that time; the scope of the HCW problem was rather large. According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)—the technical arm of India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests—an estimated 150 tons/day of biomedical waste generated from health care facilities were being mixed in with communal wastes without adequate attention to proper waste management procedures (CPCB 2000).

In 1995, India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests drafted rules for managing BMWs that proposed

(a) Each health care facility with more than 30 beds or serving more than 1,000 patients per month installs an incinerator on its premises.

(b) Smaller health care facilities set up a common incinerator facility. Shortly thereafter, in March 1996, the Supreme Court directed the Government of India to install incinerators at all hospitals in the New Delhi area that had more than 50 beds. Sixty incinerators were installed in the New Delhi area, and 26 of them are still in service. Only one of these incinerators meets today’s national norms—an incinerator at RML Hospital that was re engineered by CPCB.

Meanwhile, in 1995, Srishti, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), had taken a survey that revealed unsanitary practices and associated risks in dealing with HCWs in India. In 1996, Srishti initiated public interest litigation against the government that led the Supreme Court to revise its initial position for incineration at health care facilities by ordering India’s Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)—the technical arm of the Ministry of Environment and Forests—to consider alternative and safer technologies in HCW management rules and to set up technology standards.

A major drawback of incineration is that it produces toxic air emissions. The principal pollutants in terms of public health are heavy metals (such as cadmium, mercury, and lead), hazardous by-products from combustion (such as dioxins and furans), and particulate matter. Srishti asked the Supreme Court to require alternative and safer technologies in the rules and the setting up of standards for these alternative technologies.

At Srishti’s urging, India’s Supreme Court revised its initial position and ordered CPCB to consider alternative BMW treatment and disposal technologies. Between 1996 and 1998, while CPCB was evaluating alternative technologies, there were intensive consultations among government officials, health care representatives, scientists, members of the industry, and NGOs. The culmination of all these efforts was the preparation and publication by India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Biomedical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules of 1998.Those rules are discussed further below.

The Biomedical Waste Rules of 1998

India’s Biomedical Waste Rules of 1998, which were amended twice in 2000, are based on the principle of segregation of communal waste from BMWs, followed by containment, treatment, and disposal of different categories of BMW .The rules classify BMWs into 10 categories and require specific containment, treatment, and disposal methods for each waste category. An overview of the BMW treatment and disposal technologies specified in the Biomedical Waste Rules. BMW treatment options include autoclaving, microwaving, incineration, and chemical treatment; in addition, hydroclaving has been approved by CPCB as an alternative treatment technology. BMW disposal options include deep burial and secure and municipal land filling for solid wastes, and discharge into drains (after chemical treatment) for liquid wastes.

India’s Biomedical Waste Rules are similar to those in international practice, although they have some internal inconsistencies and deviate in some respects from the procedures the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for managing HCWs. National Guidelines for Implementing the Biomedical Waste Rules Each state or territory in India is responsible for implementing India’s Biomedical Waste Rules, and State Pollution Control Boards in states or Pollution Control Committees in the territories are designated as the prescribed authorities. Although environmental standards and guidelines for the management of BMWs were developed by India’s CPCB in 1996 (CPCB 1996), these were merely technical standards for technology options for health care facilities. In 2000, CPCB published a manual on hospital waste management that provided technical guidance for carrying out India’s Biomedical Waste Rules in the areas of HCW segregation, storage, transport, and treatment (CPCB 2000).

The CPCB manual gave special emphasis to BMW incineration, covering incinerator emissions, maintenance requirements, operational problems and solutions, and pollution control systems. Suggestions regarding common waste treatment facilities (CWTFs) for BMW treatment were also included in the manual. CPCB’s manual was informative, but it was not comprehensive enough to cover all aspects of India’s Biomedical Waste Rules, such as sharps management, handling of infectious liquid wastes, minimization of BMW generation, training of health care facility employees, and recordkeeping and monitoring procedures.

As discussed below, a positive development is that CPCB has recently issued two sets of draft guidelines, one set pertaining to the treatment of BMWs at CWTFs (CPCB) and the other pertaining to the design and construction of BMW incinerators. CPCB’s recent draft guidelines on CWTFs set out requirements for the location, land size, coverage area (in terms of the maximum number of beds served), treatment equipment, and infrastructure setup of the CWTF; collection and transportation of BMWs, and disposal of treated BMWs; and other operational issues. The listed technologies in the draft guidelines include those prescribed in the Biomedical Waste Rules, plus hydroclaving. The draft guidelines’ prescriptions are not always well justified.

For example, the minimum coverage of each CWTF is set at 10,000 health care facility beds, without consideration for local conditions such as the geographical dispersion of the health care facilities; the suggested land area for each CWTF is 1 acre, but no basis for this suggestion is presented. In addition, the draft guidelines propose a 150-km-radius operational area, which would cover health care facilities in rural areas. This proposal becomes more important in the current debates around sharps wastes from immunization in India as the new types of auto disposable plastic syringes are being characterized as safer options than glass syringes. Moreover, CPCB’s draft guidelines appear to be prescriptive on the waste management charge scheme instead of letting the optimum scheme develop on the basis of experience gained in India.

CPCB’s recent draft guidelines for BMW incinerators include requirements for the incinerator design and its air pollution control device, physical structures (incineration and waste storage rooms), operator qualifications, personal protection equipment, and emergency procedures. These guidelines restrict incineration of BMWs only at CWTFs, with the exception of on-site incineration upon special approval by CPCB.

The draft guidelines’ strong bias against on-site incineration at health care facilities is a major deviation from the Biomedical Waste Rules, which are equally applicable to the on-site and CWTF incinerators. It is clear that the new emphasis reflects the recent findings about the poor design and operating conditions of on-site incineration equipment at health care facilities in India vis-à-vis the requirements of the Biomedical Waste Rules.

Conclusion

There is no denying that hospital waste management plays a crucial role in the sustainability and growth of a healthy society. So it is imperative all the stakeholders involved in the hospital waste management industry follow the best possible, environmental friendly, effective and efficient practices. In conclusion, everything boils down to the long term health and sustainability of our earth and it is important to keep in mind that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors but we borrow it from our children.

References
* Sathya Eco-management, Bangalore.
* Raja plastic, Mysore Road, Bangalore.
* Maridi Bio-Waste Management (www.maridibmw.com).
* “Health Care Waste Management in India” by BEKIR ONURSAL .

Hospital Waste Management Essay