Ethical Issues of Deception in Psychological Research Essay

Ethical Issues of Deception in Psychological Research Essay.

In psychological studies, ethical issues associated with deception have always the major concern area. It is largely been viewed as something which in long will cause effect on participants’ willingness to be a part of any psychological research. The controversy associated with this issue has itself led to many researches to ascertain the positivity and negativity associated with the use of deception in psychological research. The findings of those researches have been contradictory. Some researcher has indicated that use of deception has a very negative impact on participant’s perception of researchers and hence reduces the possibility of its further participation in the ongoing project as well as any other research in future (Tuffin, 2005)

While on the other hand there are evidences that deception has positive effect and participants have reported that they actually enjoyed being deceived and showed positive participation in the researches in which they are being deceived and feel more benefited than those without deception.

Hence it becomes more evident that deception has basically no effect on participants and neither reduces nor increases their willingness in taking part in any future researches irrespective of those requiring deception or not (Lefkowitz, 2003).

The above mentioned two contradictory preferences related to deception actually gives a picture which shows that the people have no clear meaning of deception and it varies from person to person i.e., they have different interceptions of what it actually means. This reinforces the need for further research and hence underscores the requirement for an expanded investigation to figure out the possible effects of deception in a prospective participant and the psychological study.

The beginning of this new research could be initiated through a controlled environment when some of the participants and informed about the use of deception while some are not informed. The final objective is to ascertain the actual impact of deception when both researchers as well the participants have better understanding of deception (O’Donohue, 2003).


O’Donohue, W. (2003) Handbook of Professional Ethics for Psychology. Sage Publication Ltd.,            London. UK

Lefkowitz, J (2003) Ethics and values in industrial-organizational Psychology. Lawrence                      Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwas, NJ

Tuffin, K (2005) Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Sage Publication Ltd., London. UK

Ethical Issues of Deception in Psychological Research Essay

Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning Essay

Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning Essay.

I will be comparing classical and operant conditioning by explaining fear of heights. Fear of heights is known as Acrophobia. The phobia part does not occur until a person is in an environment that most people would be relatively fine in, such as attending a theme park or being in a building such as a sky scraper for example. Most of the time when treating someone with acrophobia therapists will use graded exposure therapy.

Any fear starts by learning, so if a person has a fear of heights it is most likely due to an event that happened early on in life that made a dramatic change in the persons every day behavior, such as falling out of a tree at a young age.

If a person has a severe phobia to heights behavior can vary. For example, a person can faint or have extreme anxiety when in an environment around heights. Another example to discuss, research does in fact prove that a certain amount of reluctance around heights is normal for humans and animals.

In the 1960’s research psychologists J. Gibson and R. D. Walker, conducted an experiment known as the visual cliff. The two researchers placed thirty six babies, one at a time on a counter top made of half solid plastic covered with a checkered cloth and the other half clear Plexiglas. Each baby would ponder when crawling and rely on the mother’s facial expression a happy expression would give the okay to keep crawling and an alarming look would signal the babies to stop crawling. This study shows that when we are faced to make an emotional decision people can be like the babies in the study done, we can remain on the counter top until we are faced with uncertainty.

This study shows how cognition can be manipulated by emotion. So, if a person has a fear like heights, Psychologists often use conditioning or classical conditioning to help treat a person, because the fear is a learning process, and a person has to relearn which involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response. Doing this produces stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response. The visual cliff example given, is a great example of a conditioned response.

If a person is influenced or is given a negative response it can contribute to fear and through life if more traumatic experiences follow eventually a person can be manipulated by the fear. The more negative reinforcement is involved the bigger the fear develops. For someone having a fear of heights, if the person knows they have to go somewhere a meeting for example, and they have to take an elevator to the 50th , floor, in that persons mind they are going to be going crazy with negative thoughts and feeling overwhelmed with anxiety.

But, if the person tells themselves after it is done with “well what was the big deal? What was I so afraid of? ”. That negative reinforcement turns into positive reinforcement eventually. This is known as operant conditioning. Sometimes medication for anxiety may have to be prescribed by a psychiatrist if the fear is so excessive. Talking about the fear is a good start, a psychologist can then determine if the fear was learned possibly through observation or if the fear was through a learned experience. If fear of heights is affecting a person’s environment then a change needs to be made in order help treat the fear.

By using positive reinforcement and determining if the person’s behavior from the fear was caused by learning through experience or observed environmentally, it can help determine how to further treat the person. But, if the fear goes untreated the anxiety and stress from it will only grow bigger creating more of an issue for the person and being able to live their everyday lifestyle. Psychotherapy is very helpful in treating anxiety disorders and phobias . In order to treat acrophobia a person needs to find a therapist who can meet their needs.

Therapists ill help focus on the best way to treat the person with this disorder, the most common way is using cognitive behavioral therapy. Restructuring a person’s thoughts into positive thoughts is another helpful tip used, and talking about the fear and identifying what is causing the fear to become so out of control, and lastly meeting on a regular basis and determining if medication is needed and seeing what the person with this fear can do in their everyday lifestyle to make themselves more comfortable until they are eventually feeling like they have control over the fear and the fear is no longer controlling them.

Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning Essay

Watson & Skinner Perspective Essay

Watson & Skinner Perspective Essay.

Psychological perspectives will always change as long as psychology continues to move forward. Not one perspective or approach would be considered wrong or incorrect. It just adds to our understanding of human and animal behavior. Most psychologists would agree that not one perspective is correct, although in the past, early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one (McLeod, 2007). Two Psychologists who are well known for their theories on behaviorism are John B.

Watson and B. F. Skinner. In this paper I will discuss their own perspectives on behaviorism.

Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to “mentalistic” psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds.

The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs. John Boardus Watson(January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University in 1913.

This is sometimes called “The Behaviorist Manifesto”(Watson, 1913). The first paragraph of the article concisely described Watson’s behaviorist position: Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness.

Watsons quote: “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years” (Watson, 2012).

The quotation often appears without context and with the last sentence omitted, making Watson’s position appear more radical than it actually was. In Watson’s book Behaviorism, the sentence is provided in the context of an extended argument against eugenics. That Watson did not hold a radical environmentalist position may be seen in his earlier writing in which his “starting point” for a science of behavior was “… the observable fact that organisms, man and animal alike, do adjust themselves to their environment by means of hereditary and habit equipments. ” (Watson, 2012).

Nevertheless, Watson recognized the importance of nurture in the nature versus nurture discussion which was often neglected by his eugenic contemporaries. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist’s total scheme of investigation. With his “behaviorism”, Watson put the emphasis on external behavior of people and their reactions on given situations, rather than the internal, mental state of those people.

In his opinion, the analysis of behaviors and reactions was the only objective method to get insight in the human actions. This outlook, combined with the complementary ideas of determinism, evolutionary continuism, and empiricism has contributed to what is now called radical behaviorism. It was this new outlook that Watson claimed would lead psychology into a new era. He claimed that before Wundt there was no psychology, and that after Wundt there was only confusion and anarchy. It was Watson’s new behaviorism that would pave the way for further advancements in psychology (Watson, 2012).

Burrhus Frederic “B. F. ” Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American Psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher (Woodward, W. R. 1996). He Innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism, and founded his Own School of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior. His Analysis of human behavior culminated in his work Verbal Behavior, as well as his Philosophical Manifesto Walden Two, both of which have which have recently seen enormous Increase in Interest experimentally and in applied settings.

Contemporary academia considers Skinner a Pioneer of modern behaviorism along with John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov. Skinner Called his particular brand of behaviorism “Radical” behaviorism (Skinner, 1984). Radical Behaviorism is the Philosophy of the science of behavior. It seeks to understand behavior as a Function of Environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. Such a functional analysis Makes it capable of producing technologies of behavior. This applied behaviorism lies on the Opposite side of the Ideological spectrum as the field of cognitive science.

Unlike less austere Behaviorism, it does not accept private events such as thinking, perceptions, and unobservable Emotions in a causal account of an organism’s behavior. Skinner stood at the opposite position From humanistic Psychology for his whole career and denied humans possessing freedom and Dignity as well as Evidenced in his novel Beyond Freedom and Dignity (Skinner1984). Most of His theories were supposed to be Based on self-observation, which caused him to become a Supporter for behaviorism.

Much of This self-observed theory stemmed from Thorndike’s Puzzle Box, a direct antecedent to Skinner’s Box (Skinner, 1984). The psychologist further Expanded on Thorndike’s earlier work by introducing the concept of Reinforcement to Thorndike’s Law of Effect (Skinner, 1984). Skinner was an Advocate of behavioral engineering And he thought that people should be controlled through the Systematic allocation of external Rewards (Skinner, 1984). Skinner believed that behavior is maintained from one condition to Another through similar or same consequences across these Situations.

In short, behaviors are Causal factors that are influenced by the consequences. His Contribution to the understanding of Behavior influenced many other scientists to explain social Behavior and contingencies (Skinner, 1984). Reinforcement is a central concept in Behaviorism, and was seen as a central Mechanism in the Shaping and control of behavior. A common Misconception is that negative Reinforcement is Synonymous with punishment. This Misconception is rather pervasive, and is Commonly found in even scholarly accounts of Skinner and his contributions.

To be clear, while Positive reinforcement is the strengthening of behavior by the application of some event, Negative reinforcement is the strengthening of behavior by the Removal or avoidance of some Aversive event (e. g. , opening and rising an umbrella over your Head on a rainy day is reinforced By the cessation of rain falling on you). Both types of Reinforcement strengthen Behavior, or Increase the probability of a behavior reoccurring; the Difference is in whether the Reinforcing Event is something applied (positive reinforcement) or something removed or avoided (negative Reinforcement).

Punishment and extinction have the Effect of weakening Behavior or decreasing The future probability of a behavior’s occurrence, by the application of an aversive Stimulus/event (positive punishment or punishment by contingent Stimulation), Removal of a Desirable stimulus (negative punishment or punishment by contingent Withdrawal), or the Absence of a rewarding stimulus, which causes the behavior to Stop (Skinner, 1984).

After researching endless research, what is really boils down to is Watson, a classical behaviorist, believed that there was a connection between response and Environment and Skinner’s theory was a bit different from Watson’s in that behavior was a result of consequence. Watson and Skinner were all “fathers” in the field of psychology.

Their ideas Contributed to the way that behavior is seen. Their theories have helped to create many forms of Behavior modification as well as the processes that occur during thought. Although psychology’s Theories grow and change daily; these two psychologists’ theories will maintain their values in Modern psychology.

Watson & Skinner Perspective Essay

Personality Essay Essay

Personality Essay Essay.

Every individual person has a personality. This personality is also unique in every person, and is influenced by such things as the environment and his or her genetics , So the personality could sets the career future , it help to understand yourself . it’s equally important to understand what is really important to you , and how to success at the career . In this essay I will talk about ISFJ personality and how did it match my personality . In the results of the personality test ISFJ personality have a many good and bad traits.

People who have ISFJ personality have an excellent memory , they work hard to get their jobs done , take their responsibilities seriously , kind and considerate , they have a large store of information about people , very excellent sense of space and function and can be depended on to follow things through to completion . However it have tow basic traits help to define career direction : 1- they are extremely interested in-tune with how other people are feeling , and 2- they enjoy creating structure and order , and extremely good at it .

But the bad things ISFJ personality that they are put others needs and feelings above their own , and they uncomfortable with conflict and confrontation . I did the personalty test because its very important to understand what is important to me , so I can success at the career I choose . the results did not surprise me pretty much because I think are the most of traits in me . For example it is true that I have an excellent memory , working hard to get the job done , like to put structure in order , have a peaceful living , likely to put people’s needs on my own and taking responsibilities seriously .

Almost all the traits match my personality traits. In the end , the results shows many interesting careers for example : interior decorator , designer , administration , office mangers , and child care. However , I feel like I’m interesting in interior decorating and cloth design because I can be more creative and shows my creativity in these two careers . But also I’m interested in office mangers because I can work hard and be creative in it and be good at it.

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Personality Essay Essay

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay.

“Psycho” is a classic suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock which features a central female protagonist, a seemingly ordinary young woman named Marion Crane, who crosses paths with a dangerous mentally ill motel owner, Norman Bates. As their strange relationship develops, a dominant theme of good versus evil is introduced to the audience through the use of characterisation, editing, mise-en-scene and various other media techniques. From the outset, Hitchcock introduces an initial theme of good versus evil during the opening credits.

The title scene could be seen as a reflection of the personality of Norman Bates as the credits themselves are presented as fragmented titles which come together as one on the screen but then shake and split up again, which hints towards the disjointed personality of Bates. The fact that the titles are dotted around the screen suggests that his character is severely unbalanced and not in a stable condition, foreshadowing the idea that his mind is in different places at different times and it is hard to tell when his mind-set will alter.

The contrasting colours used in this scene are also important to the later character development as the black, white and grey each reflect the constantly conflicting part of Bates’ temperament. The darker areas on the screen reflect the deepest inner shadow of his mind, while the lighter areas show that he can also be a good person. They show the persistent inner conflict and the constant battle between good and evil. The grey, however, represents the uncertain parts of his split personality but could also be interpreted to refer to the indecision and doubt seen in the character of Marion as the film develops.

This primary theme is developed as we are familiarised with the character of Marion Crane, the dominant leading role. We first see her meeting up with her boyfriend, Sam, in a hotel room during her lunch hour. The camera enters the room by zooming through the window and Hitchcock wants us to feel as if we are intruding on a private moment between the characters inside. This sense of voyeurism is clearly accentuated by the very first shot of the couple which is very personal and intimate – making the viewer feel rather awkward.

This scene acts as a vital link to the film as a whole and is fundamental for the expansion of the theme of good and evil as it gives Marion a clear reason to steal the money in the scene that follows. Marion is presented as a good character at this point as her good intentions are outlined: we see that she just wants to marry Sam and for them to be able to be together respectably. When Sam states that he would not be able to provide for her, Marion is given an obvious ulterior motive and a chance to make the transition from good to evil, therefore setting up the entire film.

We also notice that, the first time we see Marion, she is wearing white underwear: hinting to her kind and innocent personality but, when we see her after she has made the decision to steal the money, she is wearing black underwear. This visual symbolism presents a contrast between the two different stages of characterisation and depicts the character change of Marion as she goes from good to evil. Similar to the original view of Marion, when we first meet Norman Bates he seems like a very ordinary person, but as the scenes progress we begin to notice slight abnormalities in his behaviour.

When Marion arrives at the Bates Motel, the heavy rain which forces her to stop is foreshadowing her impending doom while acting as effective pathetic fallacy as she is feeling isolated and guilty at this point. The fact that Norman hesitates before giving her the key to cabin one hints at his irregularity, along with the fact that he opens the window as soon as he enters the room – as if he is setting up his own escape route – and he never mentions the bathroom, foretelling the event which will take place there.

Also, when Marion is checking into the motel, what should have been a clear view of Bates is blurred in the mirror: showing that he is changeable and that his personality is hazy. In a similar shot, only half of his face is shown and this clearly symbolises the fact that only one half of him can ever be fully good at any one time – the other half will always remain evil. However, sympathy is also evoked for Norman in this scene as we see that his mother takes an instant dislike to Marion – something which you would not normally see between two strangers.

We see how close – and slightly strange – the relationship between Norman and his mother and the unnatural dependence they have on each other, showing that Norman is trapped in his current situation and making him seem like a good person. A similar effect is used throughout the scene in Norman’s parlour by with the use of light and dark as the lighting picks out significant features such as only one side of Norman’s face and the underside of the owl’s wings.

The owl with its wings spread signifies his mother controlling his mind and shows that she is ever present, although we never see her, even when he is behaving normally she will always be inside his mind, therefore making the viewer feel sympathetic towards him as he has no control over his actions. Conversely, framing him next to an owl may suggest that Norman is a predator and the owl is his equal. Like the owl, many other birds are featured in the parlour scene, linking back to the recurring theme.

Framing Marion next to them when she first enters the room makes her seem vulnerable and presents her as equal to the birds which Norman has stuffed. The shower scene is important to the character development of Marion as we see her clear transition from the evil character she turned into after stealing the money back to the good character we saw in the beginning. She has changed her mind about stealing the money and has made the decision to go home. We are able to pinpoint the exact moment of relief as she flushes the toilet: it is as if she is flushing away her problems and guilt.

This effect is also used when the water goes down the plughole in the shower: representing the washing away of her sins. However, I feel that this image could also be taken to represent evil as Marion’s life is being washed away and she is going to down to Hell for the sins she has committed. A contrast between Norman and his Mother is clearly displayed in this scene although we also see that Norman can be evil while being totally himself as we see him spying on Marion before she is murdered.

After the murder, Norman is linked to the crime in many ways. The camera work and editing assists this by panning directly to a view of Norman’s house, telling the story without the need for dialogue. Almost immediately following this we see Norman running from the house and consequently directly linking himself to the murder. We see him automatically assume that his mother has killed Marion without questioning her, making the viewer even more suspicious of him.

Both good and evil sides of Norman are presented to the audience at this point as, although he seems flustered and hurried when he first discovers what his mother has done, he is able to relax into a state of unemotional professionalism which allows the viewer to realise that this has happened before. By pretending so strongly that it was in fact his mother who killed Marion, I think it is obvious he is trying to convince himself that he has done nothing wrong and, ultimately, that he is not mentally ill. The mise-en-scene when he sinks Marion’s car is representative of this.

We see him framed next to a tree with a split trunk, suggestive to his split personality. The contrast between the two sides of Norman’s personality is extended in the scene which features Marion’s sister, Lila, as she searches the house for evidence relating to the murder. When she enters mother’s room, it looks very inhabited: the bed seems as if someone has just gotten up and the wardrobe is full of neatly stored clothes. Despite the clutter, everything is organised and tidy. I believe this highlights the extent of Bates’ mental illness as we see how much effort he has gone to keep up the illusion.

The subjective close-up shot of the hands when Lila scans the dressing table suggests that Norman is still in the clutches of his mother and the darker side of his personality hence reminding us that he is not in control of his situation. Norman’s room provides a total contrast when compared with his mother’s. It is a lot smaller and appears to have remained the same since he was a child and contains an eclectic mix of the possessions of a childish boy and those of a twisted man.

This conveys the idea that perhaps he is refusing to grow up or his mind has never developed past this stage. This idea combined with the toys explains his dependence on his mother and why he is so unwilling to leave her. The stuffed owl which sits at his door brings back the recurring motif of birds while also representing the ever present Mrs Bates. She is always watching him and he allows her to control him completely and make his decisions – just as if he were a child. The battle between good and evil continues as Lila makes her way down to the cellar and mother is finally revealed.

As the scene ends the climax is completed with a close-up shot of “mother” which allows us to clearly see the light and dark reflecting in her eye sockets – representing the fact that it is possible for Norman to be both a fully good and fully evil character. Although we are now aware that mother is dead in reality, she continues to live on inside Norman. The last time we see the character of Norman Bates, he has been arrested and we are able to see that the dominant evil personality of “mother” has won and taken over.

To display this, we hear Norman thinking in his mother’s voice and understand that he believes that he is her – unnervingly outlining the severity of his mental illness. The medium shot of Norman sitting in the chair is effective as it shows his body language while he behaves like an old woman; the image is creepy and, in my opinion, really gets under your skin. At this stage I think that it is important we hear mother before we see Norman as it allows the audience to realise that he is not really Norman any more, showing that he is still and not fighting with his inner self as it appears the battle for good over evil has finally been lost.

As the camera zooms in on Norman, we see his blank stare change to a sinister grin and a super imposed shot of mother’s skull on his face which shows that the good side of him is trapped inside for what looks like forever. For me, the film did have a satisfying ending as we see the detective bring the case to a close so there are no more remaining questions, but the creepy smile we see at the end makes me think otherwise; leaving us at a cliff hanger of sorts. In conclusion, I believe that, with the use of media features such as characterisation and editing, Hitchcock is able to present a highly engaging struggle between good and evil.

Although I did feel sympathy for the character of Norman, I believe that he did have the option to control his actions and get help to fight back against his evil personality but, as he relied on his mother too much, he did not want to push her away. However, while Marion’s decision to steal the money was irresponsible and out of character, I still feel that she did it with good intentions. Overall, I felt that the fact that evil came out on top rather than the more typical outcome made it particularly realistic as, in a real life situation, good would not always prevail.

Good vs. Evil in Psycho Essay

Mind and Rumors Essay

Mind and Rumors Essay.

Rumors are dark, hurtful, mischievous things that are spread to cause destruction. Rumors have been around since the beginning of time, and are stronger now more than ever. Rumors are whispered, as if to indicate that they will not spread. Rumors are shouted, printed, posted, and broadcasted. Rumors are lies and those whom associate with rumors are bad people, or are they? Rumors are not always bad, and they don’t always turn out to be lies. There are many unknown things about rumors, like how and why are they really created?

DiFonzo defines a rumor as “…unverified information statements that circulate about topics that people perceive as important; arise in situations of ambiguity, threat, or potential threat; and are used by people attempting to make sense or to manage risk” (375).

A rumor starts out as an important thought in one persons mind. A thought that is kept to oneself merely stays a thought and never develops into a rumor.

But, a thought that is just important enough to share with someone else morphs into a rumor. Rumors are not always intentional lies. They do however start out as unverified information.

If a rumor is verified it is no longer a rumor, it then becomes factual information. The information that is passed from one person to many people is thought to be of importance. Whether the rumor pertains to something local, nationwide, global, social, political, public, or private it contains information that is substantial and has the possibility to be life changing. A rumor is targeted to a certain group of people. The spread of the rumor depends on the number of people who perceive the information as important. The group can range from a few people to the majority of the world.

A rumor of “Bob cheated on Mary with Susan” would certainly be very important to a small number of people and could devastate their lives. On the other side of the spectrum a rumor that “An asteroid five times the size of Saturn is headed toward earth and total death is imminent” would also be of great importance and would affect many people. Rumors are born, bred, and sought out of human emotion. The amount of rumors increase in times of perceived danger, threat, and stress. “In practice it has been found that the emotional needs most frequently served by rumors are wish, fear, and hostility” (Knapp 361).

A rumor is spread or sought to satisfy an emotional need of hope, comfort, fear, and hostility. Therefore it makes sense that the amount of rumors increases during stressful times. In the aftermath of the recent tornados in Oklahoma, rumors exploded. Social media, radio stations, and television stations broadcast the information from the moment of touchdown. Two different television stations broadcast contradicting information at the same time and facebook erupted with photos, videos, and information. People were calling other people, turning on the television, and getting on facebook to seek information or give it.

They sought answers, comfort, and hope. Why then do some rumors flourish and are known all over the world and others die out after only a short run? One reason has already been brought up, the number of people who consider the information important. A rumor can live longer if it is adaptable to its audience. A rumor that has information added to or taken out may appear more important to certain groups. Another factor in a successful rumor is the length of it. A rumor that is long and complicated will be hard to remember and hard to tell. Another reason is the desire for humans to be accepted.

People will agree with someone else even if they are not sure themselves to avoid hostility and risk losing other peoples good opinion of them. Perhaps people agree because of self-doubt. If one person thinks a rumor is wrong but is hesitant to disagree because the majority believe it to be true then they must be wrong and not the group. People’s personal and social anxiety can escalate a rumor fast and wide. If the majority of people are passive, have self-doubt, or want to avoid conflict then the number of people who perceive the rumor to be true increases.

Sunstein states, “Often people will be suspicious of a rumor, or believe that it is not true, but they will not contradict the judgment of the relevant group, largely in order to avoid social sanctions” (393-394). In conclusion, it is sufficient to say that rumors are more complex than originally thought. They have distinct characteristics and classifications that define them. The most successful rumors are important to the world. If a rumor is assembled just right under the perfect conditions, the result are everlasting.

Mind and Rumors Essay

Health Psychology Essay

Health Psychology Essay.

In this assignment I will be explain two different health psychology issues and explaining them. The two different issues I have decided to talk about are eating disorders and childbirth. I will then compare the two health psychology issues in relation to their common themes and also their different. P3 Explain specific health psychology issues. Using two health psychology issues of interest to you, you should explain the specific issue in detail Eating Disorders (anorexia and bulimia) Anorexia and bulimia are caused through psychological issues.

Eating disorders are known by an unusual attitude towards food that causes someone to change their eating habits and behaviour and also their image. An individual with an eating disorder will focus on their getting their weight, shape, size down to the least they can, and also change the way they look. This causes them to make unhealthy choices about eating which then causes damage to their health and other things. Around one in 250 women will experience anorexia at some point in their lives, and the condition usually starts around the age 16/17.

This is because at this age girls want people to like them and boys to start being attracted to them, so they feel the need to become skinny and different. Also a lot of celebrities battle with the weight and some have become anorexia so teenage girls don’t see anything wrong with it. Sometimes there are biological and other things influencing someone to have an eating disorder. They are often responsible because of the pressure from friends and the media to be thin, as a lot of young girls feel they should look a certain way to be popular and for boys to notice them.

The consequences from an eating disorder can be more serious than the way someone looks. Spotting that a person has an eating disorder can be very difficult to see, especially if it is someone close to yourself. If an eating disorder is not spotted and treat it can have a major impact on someone’s life. It can effect someone’s job or schoolwork, and can also break up relationship with family and friends. The effects of an eating disorder can sometimes be fatal. To treat an eating disorder and recovering from one can take a long time.

To treat a disorder usually involves monitoring a individuals physical health and helping them deal with psychological problem. It is important for friends and family to be there for the individual and help them believe they can get better with time and support from the loved ones. Examples of treatment could be cognitive behaviour therapy also known as CBT, another method is interpersonal psychotherapy, dietary counselling and also medication. Psychological Causes of Obesity Many people today eat when their emotionally such as because the person is bored, sad, anger or even happy.

Obesity can be caused by things like stress or depression and can cause a number of different health implications. For example a person that is obese is more likely to have diabetes later in life and also suffer heart problems. Over 30% of today’s population seek treatment for weight problems and this is all caused through binge eating. Binge eating is when someone eats large amount of food while feeling they can’t control how much they are eating, people who seriously binge and a very obese develop a disorder call binge eating disorder.

The people with this kind of eating disorder find it difficult to lose weight and also find it difficult to control how much they are eating. Many people may need serious help for example counselling or medication or even operation to make the stomach smaller to help there binge eating addiction. Childbirth Childbirth today is most likely in the hospital and a team of midwifes help delivery the baby, in today’s society childbirth is very all to do with the medication given. Epidurals are the most common drug used in childbirth, and are used for over half of all child birthday in hospitals.

An epidural interferes with normal bio-feedback between the pelvic muscles and the mother’s brain during labour. The drug slows down the labour, which can cause some serious things happen during giving birth. Things such as making the mother three times more likely to be given a drip, and it can also double the chances of the mother having to have a caesarean. There are different side effects when using an epidural such as a drop in the mother’s blood pressure leading to lack of oxygen for the baby.

When an epidural is given, the baby can have some difficulties with taking the milk from the mother and maybe some behaviour problems. Home births are now a very rare thing and can only go forward if the midwife says it can, and can only occur if the baby’s head is upside down. There can be risks and benefits to having a home birth, these are: previous difficultly giving birth or heavy bleeding after the birth, previous c section, raised blood pressure and finally anaemia. There are many different cultural and religious views of childbirth.

Caesarean section rates have been increasing due to higher number of caesarean section for the baby’s sake, and keeping the baby from getting upset and distressed through labour. Water births are a nice way for women to give birth, this is because water is an effective pain relief in labour. When women are having a water birth warm water is usually used to help the woman unwind and relax, it eases aches and pain. More woman are choosing to have a water birth, and women who have impaired mobility may find giving birth in water helpful rather than in the hospital.

The culture which the mother of the baby has been brought up in always plays a big part of how women deal with their pregnancy and labour. Some Christians believe that the labour pain can be seen as ‘the way God intended it to be’. This is something strong Christians believe and will go through labour with no pain relief, this may inspire some women who are not Christian to go through without pain relief and give a natural birth. In cultures such as Japan, the woman must not express much distress through labour, she has to be seen very calm and composed.

In the Middle East and Mediterranean area women are expected to scream and cry uncontrollably in the childbirth. The woman of the east doesn’t always use pain relief, the screaming and crying throughout labour is to express her labour pain and message to her support people that she needs loving and sympathy. The Western are often see labour pain as something to be fixed or stopped, in some cases the western turn to medical resources to relief the pain of labour with gas and air, and maybe an epidural. Now woman a trying to use natural therapies to minimise using pain relief.

Health Psychology Essay

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay.

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza, who was only 20, shot his mother then shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass killing at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. This mass murder is on record in American history for the as being the second most deadliest mass shooting by a single person , and the second deadliest mass murder in a elementary school. Although this incident is the most fatal public school shooting in the United States. So, what causes people to kill?

Due to irrational emotions and psychological imbalances in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain which is important for processing emotions, fear and social and motor skills, people commit violent crimes that hurt others (Kate Kelland).

Adam Lanza was diagnosed with, “sensory integration disorder”, also now known as sensory processing. People who have sensory processing disorder or SPD may over-respond to stimuli and find clothing, physical contact, light, sound, or food unbearable. They may also under-respond and feel little or no reaction to pain or extreme hot and cold.

A third form involves sensory motor problems that can cause weakness, clumsiness or delay in developing motor skills (Alaine Griffin, Josh Kovner). The disorder SPD is due to a defect in the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal Cortex of the brain, like many others that cause motor skill problems and irrational emotions and empathy to emotions and pain. The combination of these effects can cause people who experience them to be potentially dangerous and capable of committing violent crimes. The emotions that violent criminals have can be categorized into specific groups that can be considered motivations for them to commit such crimes.

Everyday Psychology has made a Typology of Violent Offenders who do not suffer from brain defects and reasons why they would commit homicide. The first group is the Chronically Aggressive Individuals. These are people who get easily frustrated, and have limited or poor impulse control. These people frequently express anger or hostility (through passive-aggressive behavior) and resent authority. They usually believe violence and/or aggression are lawful responses to various interpersonal problems in life. They find pleasure or reinforcement is derived from the expression of anger.

Often they display the characteristics of a “stimulus seeker” – they participate in bold, fearless, or reckless behavior and are more likely to exhibit substance abuse. Typically, violence occurs in a situational context: an offense, fight, or disagreement but are less likely to engage in acts of unexpected “explosive” violence (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of people do not like to be caught off guard because they like to be in control. The second group is The Over-Controlled Hostility Type. These people seem to be polite, serious, sober, and rarely display or express anger.

They do not cuss or yell, and may even be offended by such behavior. They are likely to be morally righteous and see themselves as “good people”, and often see others as “not such good people”. After the violence, people say that they never expected it, “He always seemed like such a nice guy; he was always so quiet” (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These types of offenders can be very unpredictable and unexpected. The third group is The Hurt and Resentful. They feel that people walk on them and that they are never treated fairly.

When they are passed over, the blame is always placed on someone else. They think things are easier for everyone else; other people get more and have more advantages. They do not accept criticism well and in response to reprimands; they develop grudges, which are sometimes deeply held. This is when the Violence occurs because they hold grudges and are “impotent” to deal with their anger in other ways (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). These individuals exhibit self sympathy and often feel badly for themselves. The fourth group is The Traumatized.

Whose aggression occurs in response to a single, massive assault on their individuality. Usually something happens that is potently offensive, absolutely intolerable, and which strips them of all sense of personal power (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Usually they have a hard time coping and moving on so they display aggressive behavior. The fifth group is The Obsessive. They are immature and egotistical individuals who demand or crave attention and affection, and get upset when deprived of desired gratifications (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). The sixth group is The Paranoid.

They typically engage in behaviors which make their paranoid beliefs come true. Many times delusions may reach the point at which the person is out of contact with reality (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). People who experience this place blame on anyone else because they are in a false sense of reality. The seventh group is The Insane. Usually rare, but does not understand the nature and quality of their actions. Typically they have essential misperceptions of reality, are incapable of rational behavior, and delusional beliefs prevent them from knowing between right and wrong behavior.

Their beliefs and perceptions are different than those of reality. They confuse beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, and what is necessary (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). They have an altered state of mind that causes them to display violent behaviors. The eight and last group is The Just Plain Bad & Angry. This is a combination of the seven previous groups with the exception of the Insane group. Usually they display the characteristics of being: angry, hostile, jealous, resentful, impotent, and disturbed individuals.

They feel socially isolated, socially inadequate, and worthless (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Abnormalities within the Anterior Rostral Prefrontal cortex and Temporal Poles have been studied to see that the lack of grey matter that triggers empathy can cause some people to commit violent crimes. A psychopath is a person with a psychopathic personality, which is apparent as amoral and antisocial behavior (such as Adam Lanza). Usually they display a lack of ability to love or establish meaningful personal relationships, extreme self-interest, and failure to learn from experience.

People who suffer from this, compared to violent offenders that are healthy, have structural differences in their brain that cause them to have less grey matter in certain areas. These areas of the brain are important for processing others people’s emotions, intentions, fear and social skills (Kate Kelland) so, when people are lacking in these areas they become dangerous. There are two divisions that separate people who commit homicide; psychopaths who are lacking normalities of the brain, and sociopaths who are individuals with irrational emotions.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) lists both Psychopathy and Sociopathy under the heading of Antisocial Personalities because they both engage in similar actions and have similar characteristics. People commonly group sociopaths and psychopaths as the same thing. The differences between sociopaths and psychopaths are primarily differentiated by the origin of the disorder. In the mental health field the general opinion is that psychopaths are actually much more of an inborn occurrence while sociopath, which displays clinical presentation, is the consequence of environmental stressors.

There are three general categories of therapy, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and psychotherapy. Different therapy options have their advantages and disadvantages in treating Antisocial Personalities for both people who suffer from sociopathy or psychopathy, and a patient might tolerate one clinical setting or approach over another . There is no cure for sociopathy or psychopathy, but it can be managed well or it can be managed inadequately. For example, Sociopaths don’t respond very well to punishment, but they do respond to incentives.

For psychopaths Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become one of the most popular MRI techniques in brain research by allowing visualization and characterization of white and grey matter in the brain. ” DTI provides a capable way for comprehensive, noninvasive, functional anatomy mapping of the human brain (Assaf Y, Pasternak O)”. People that commit violent crimes have different motivations for different crimes, and most types of homicides can be characterized by the individuals that commit them (Paul G. Mattiuzzi). Antisocial Personality Disorders (ASPD) exhibit behavior that manipulates, exploits, violates the rights of others.

Many people in the world experience Antisocial Personality disorders, and while not all people who suffer from them commit homicide they are very capable of it because they are usually impulsive, irresponsible, and lack remorse or feeling towards others (Anne- Marin B). Psychopaths do not have Antisocial Personality Disorders, they have parts of the brain that are not fully functioning properly, causing for them to not be able to understand other people’s emotions or process empathy the same as a “healthy” person. Sociopaths can have Antisocial Personality Disorders.

There is not one general group that categorizes all sociopaths because they can experience many different emotions that place them in different groups. Either way people who have these disorders display irrational behavior that can come in the forms of violent abuse. There is no cure for an Antisocial Personality Disorder but there are ways to manage and control a person’s behavior so that they do not commit violent crimes. The most accurate way to do so is by knowing how they respond negatively to certain commands and trying to avoid triggering any of them so they don’t become troubled or feel the need to be aggressive.

The Psychological Causes of Homicide Essay

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay.

“Modern psychoanalysis” is a term coined by Hyman Spotnitz. “Influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud, Dr. Spotnitz believed that the principles of psychoanalysis could be extended to cure the severe narcissistic disorders that Freud had deemed untreatable. ” (Sara Sheftel, 1991) Dr. Spotnitz and his colleagues described it as a “body of theoretical and clinical approaches” that could be used to envelop the full spectrum of emotional disorders and broaden the potential for treatment to pathologies thought to be untreatable by conventional methods.

Modern psychoanalysis and other forms of psychotherapy are significantly different when compared to Freud’s concept of psychoanalysis back then. However, the popularity of the “talking cure” has remained present and people today actually realize that therapy works. When Freud first started treating patients this way, most people did not believe that simply talking about their problems would somehow fix physical issues too. Modern psychoanalysis takes Freud’s basic theory of human psyche and use it as its starting point.

Modern psychoanalysis differs from other methods of psychoanalysis by following Freud’s later work and the work of Melanie Klein in stressing the importance of dealing with destructive behaviors as well as sexual motivation in order for the human psyche to evolve. (Pickren, 2010) Like all psychoanalysts, modern psychoanalysts emphasize the unconscious nature of much of human motivation, the impact of the early development of mental functioning on later functioning, and the tendency of people to repeat patterns of handling emotional arousal states.

Also similar to other schools of psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalytic treatment emphasizes helping the patient talk progressively, working on resolving resistance to putting everything into words and on analyzing the transference of repetitive emotional patterns experienced with the analyst. (New England Association Schools and Colleges, 2010) But we cannot deny the influence Freud has had upon thinking in the 20th and 21st centuries. This has spread throughout Western culture and into the international creative arts.

His thoughts can be observed in art, literature, cinema and the stage. Notions of identity, memory, childhood, sexuality, and of meaning have been shaped in relation to – and often in opposition to – Freud’s work. No doubt this influence will continue into the future. Psychoanalysis gained more popularity after Freud’s death, but then decreased in popularity again in the modern world. People today are looking for a type of “fast food, drive-thru” style of treatment. Therapy using psychoanalysis requires using a much longer amount of time than our society today have the patience for.

Less lengthy forms of psychotherapy is preferred today, such as psycho-dynamics, family therapy, and cognitive-behaviorism. Sigmund Freud completely changed how the Western world thinks of the mind and human behavior, by using and developing techniques such as dream interpretation and free association. Freud has been universally acclaimed as well as he was deeply disliked by many who knew him for his personal views and his curt and deceptive personality. But for better or worse we live with a profound influence of Freud’s style of psychoanalysis.

Frued and Modern Psychoanalysis Essay

If You Could Go Back in Time Essay

If You Could Go Back in Time Essay.

I have many reasons to explain my choice. First, I wish to come back my childhood to remember my happy and impartial time. After many competition in school, university and now, society I realize that childhood is the most beautiful time and place. I want to forget all stressfulness, competition and response in life. To do that, we need a place that has no noise, no boss, no business, no salary and so on.

And only childhood give us peaceful, it reminds us your games with friends, our parents’ sacrifice to give us the best things, our funny and impartial dreams about future job such as: sometimes i wanted to be a rock star, famous actress, doctor, teacher… It is worthwhile to have chance to remember the most beautiful time in whole life.

Another reason is that, I want to fix my faults in the past.

It is common knowledge that most of us made some bad things in childhood and this chance help us fix them.

I have never forgot one story in my childhood. When I was a six-year-old girl, my family was quite poor. Once time I saw a beautiful but expensive doll of my friend. I liked it and hope I would have one but my mother had no money to buy it. She said sorry while I cried loudly and said that:” I hate mom. You can imagine that my suddenly sentence made my mother really sad and she felt she couldn’t give me everything I need. I really regret about this until now. If I could turn back time I would fix my biggest fault in my childhood and say that:” I love mom”. Going back time is an unreal dream but we have rights to imagine and wish. If I can stop the time and fly through time, I would go back my childhood to have peaceful time, to fix some faults those make my love ones sad.

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If You Could Go Back in Time Essay