The Lives and Works of Masters in Visual Arts Essay

The Lives and Works of Masters in Visual Arts Essay.

* Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)

– an Italian master of the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture, a draftsman, an accomplished engineer, and a pioneer investigator, in the natural sciences. Life and works in painting

* Born in 1452 in Vinci, Republic of Florence (now in Italy), Leonardo spent his youth in Tuscany and in 1469, went to Florence with his father. Shortly there after, he entered the studio of sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio as an apprentice, where he received a diversified training, until 1476. He worked with Verrocchio on the painting of the “ Baptism of Christ “ In 1492, Leonardo went to Milan, where he remained in the service of the court of Ludovico Sforza until 1499, painting portraits, inventing machines of war, staging theatrical pageants and designing town plans and architecture.

It was in Milan, too, that he painted the famous Last Supper, which was ordered by Ludovico il Moro for the refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.In 1499, Leonardo made a short visit to Mantua and proceeded from there to Venice and then to Florence, arriving there in 1500 almost 20 years after he had left, he remained there until 1506 although he visited Rome during 1502 and 1503.

Soon after his arrivral, he excuted a cartoon, now in the National Gallery, London, for painting of The Virgen and Child and St. Anne. Leonardo completed few of his commissions and the list of his surviving works is not long . Among his other important works are : an unfinished Adoration of Magi in the Uffizi in Florence. The Virgin of the Rocks of which there are two versions, one in the Louvre, and one in the national Gallery in London; and a St. John in the Louvre, his last painting. In 1504, he began a large wall painting, The Battle of the Anghiari, in the council chamber of the Florentine Republic in the Palazzo Vecchio.

Analysis and evaluation of Leonardo and some of his paintings Leonardo’s arts of expression needs utmost admiration . This expression was nurtured by his power of invention and also by every technical means : drawing, color, use of light and shadow. His Last Supper (1495-97) and Mona Lisa (1503-06), which are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance, need careful analysis. The Last Supper, which among the mosts famous paintings in the world, portrays and apostles’ reaction of Christ’s startling announcement that one of them would betray him.

Leonardo was a great virtuoso in his anatomical rendition of the human form. The Mona Lisa is a portrait of a woman, the wife of Florentine merchant Francesco di Bartolommeo del Gioconda – hence the alternate title for the painting La Giaconda.

* Michelangelo Buonorroti (1475-1564)
-an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, regarded by many as the epitome of culture of Renaissance, Italy. He was born on March 6, 1475. In Camprese, about 40 miles outside of Florence.

Early life

Brought to Florence from Camprese while still an infant, Michelangelo was sent to nurse with stone cutter’s wife in Settignaro where he later liked to say, he imbibed marble dust with his wet nurse’s milk. The abundant correspondence with his father and brothers reveal’s the artist’s deep, almost morbid attachment to his family, despite the fact of comprehension, or even interest, in Michangelo’s art was entirely absent on their part. All their lives, the father and brothers looked upon Michelangelo only as a source of income or as a counselor in their various projects.

As a boy, Michangelo cared little for tradition Latin and humanistic studies; and his inclination to draw led his father, despite his scorn for art, to enroll him on April 1, 1488 in the workshop of Dominico Chilandio, then the most popular painter in Florence. A year later, however, Michelangelo left tha master to study in Medici Gardens near San Marco, where Lorenzo, the Magnificent, had gathered a collection of ancient statues and had assigned Bertoldo, a follower Donatello, to train young men in sculture. During the Bologna sojourn, Michelangelo was undoubtedly influenced by the vigorous reliefs of Iacope della Quercia on the doors of the Cathedral of San Petronio.

Early Works

In Florence, Michelangelo carved in marble a San Giovannino and a Sleeping Cupid (both lost). The Cupid imitated classic sculpture so skillfully that it was sold to a Roman art dealer who, in turn, sold the counterfeit as an authentic antique to the Cardinal Raffaello Riario. This first sojourn to Rome resulted in great fame for the youthful sculptor, and sharply revealed in the Bacchus and Pieta two of the contrasting main themes which served Michelangelo and his life: pagan exaltation of the nude male figure, and love-pity for the chart.

* Pablo Picasso(1881- 1973)

* One of the greatest and most original artists of the 20th century exerted a very powerful influence on the development of the modern art. * Studied art in Barcelona and then went to Paris on 1890. The paintings belonging to this period are poignant studies of poverty and suffering, examples: La Vie and the Old Guitarist.

* 1905- He given up portraying the world of the poor.

* Become interested in primitive African Sculpture in which human figures are broken up into geometric shapes. * Mid-1930s- he become concerned with social and political themes. In his symbolic etching Minotauromachy, he represented a personal vision of the struggle between the forces of evil and good. * Continued to paint in Paris despite the Nazi condemnation of the modern art during the World War 2. * 1944- he joined the French communist Party.

* His notable works: Demoiselles au bord dela Seine, After Courbet, Bronze Monkey and Her Young.

* Vincent Van Gogh(1853- 1890)
* Born in Groot Zuudert , North Brabant on March 30, 1853 to a Protestant Minister. * 1875- he visited museums and exhibitions while continuing reading the Bible in his free time. * 1876- he accepted a rote as a teacher of languages at a boarding school in Ramsgate, England. * 1877- he accepted a position in a bookstore but was haunted by his religious callings. * His first drawing seems to date from this period. Two of them were sold to a pastor in Brussels, who sent Van Gogh in a mission in Borinage District.

* 1880- he left Brussels, determined to embark on a career in painting and eager to renew his ties on paintings and painters. * 1881- he returned home who now live in Etten, and started to work with enthusiasm. * 1882- he lived with sien and her child in his studio in Schenkweg 138, leading the life of a working man and feeling proud of his lowering of social positions which alienated him from his family and friends. * His notable works: Head of a Peasant, The Weavers, The Garden and the Parish Church, The Potato Eaters.

* The works he executed in Antwerp include two self-portraits as well as the Black Side of Old Houses the Old Man with the Head of Victor Hugo. * The years in Paris yielded him a series of discoveries: impressionism, the impasto technique of Adolphe Montecelli and Japanese prints. * He adopted the pointillism technique and made still lifes, including Still Life with Flowers, Roses Tremieres, Shoes with Laces, Basket with Corusses and Apples . *

The Lives and Works of Masters in Visual Arts Essay

Posted in Art

Verbal Art Essay

Verbal Art Essay.

“All literacy practices can be considered creative.” Discuss.(2000 words)Prior to any discussion on the topic, it is imperative that the definitions for the key terms are given so as to ensure complete clarity.Literacy practices refers to “people’s everyday practices of producing and interacting with texts.” (Papen and Tusting, p312) This can include basic and tedious practices such as filling in forms, to more interesting practices such as writing a newspaper article, or composing a song perhaps.Creativity refers to “making something which is new, which did not exist before the creative act,” or “making something which is original, which is unlike things that have been made before.

” (ibid, p.315) While the term is particularly fluid and open to different interpretations, this definition will suffice here for the purpose of this assignment.Although there are various approaches to the study of creativity – Carter (2004, cited in Maybin, p. 414) coined the term inherency model for creativity relating to the “formal aspects of language as an abstract system of sounds, grammar and meaning” – for the purpose of this paper, Carter’s second identified approach to understanding creativity in language – the sociocultural model – will be utilised.

In this model, creativity in language is seen as determined to a greater or lesser degree, by social, cultural and historical factors.Studying specified texts and drawing out elements of creativity, in for an example a poem, is a specific task with a specific purpose, and is generally something pupils may do in school, but the real creativity, as highlighted by Camitta (Papen and Tusting: Reading A), is the collaborated effort to create a poem, song or rap purely for personal reasons.In her case study over three years at a Philadelphia high school, Camitta studied varieties of literacy among students who believed that “writing is central to transacting social relationships,, to making meaning out of their lives, and that the act of writing signals that the truth is being told about them.” (Camitta, cited in Papen and Tusting, p332) For them writing was an active form of self-expression, much similar to music, dance, and drawing.

The types of texts they produced were vernacular – unofficial and closely related to culture, and as such, collaboration and performance were central processes to producing the texts. The author, in his/her free time, would read out or perform their text – be it rap, song, poem, letter – to an audience, who would then collaborate and suggest changes. This highlights the author’s creativity in the first instance, but also the creativity of the audience. As is evident, this is quite different to the classroom setting, as these are texts that the collaborators can make suggestions about for changes which will actually lead to amendments, as opposed to commenting on set-in-stone texts. Context is an important factor in creating creative literacy practices. Camitta’s study focused on pupils who were constrained to a degree by the need to be in certain places at certain times, and hence had to fit their writing around that, but there are people who are much more constrained, and in that sense, their creativity is much more astounding.

Wilson’s research focused on prisoners’ use of creativity. While the Philadelphia high school students used language as a form of self-expression, and also for play and innate creativity, Wilson states that “the vast majority of innovation in the prison setting is used not for play, humour or dalliance, but in order to “keep your mind” … “and to encourage a sense of mental agility in a world designed to reduce everything and everyone to conformity and orthodoxy.” (Wilson Papen and Tusting, Reading B, p.341)Wilson goes on to highlight an important factor, that creativity and language are situated and contextualised by the environments, spaces, times and cultures in which they are located. In the case of the prisoners, their creativity was evident in the spatial and material forms as well. Spatially the prisoners formed a “third space” for themselves, which was separate from the prison and the “outside,” in which to “live” out their sentence. (Wilson, 1999, p.20)

In terms of material creativity, Wilson gives examples of pressing mugs against heating pipes, using the toilet bowl for communication, hiding notes inside tennis balls, and “swinging lines.” (Wilson, Reading B, in Papen and Tusting, p.344) In terms of creativity in literacy practices, prisoners write letters, poems and raps, in a sense similar to the high school pupils. The difference here is that their literacy practices are a result of the “third space,” i.e. to retain a sense of individual identity and a “desire and need to maintain a sense of self agent and not just as subject to other people’s desires and rules.” (Papen and Tusting, p.322).“The possibilities associated with a setting do not determine what is created within any given context; but they do shape what is possible.” (Papen and Tusting, p.320) With this in mind, the reader’s attention is not turned to a different type of affordances and constraints – that relating to new technologies.Bodomo and Lee (2002, cited in Papen and Tusting, p.323) claim that new forms of language and literacy emerge from the introduction of new communicative tools and media,” which in turn give way to the introduction of techno jargon, literary jargon and new types of digital literacies.

The literacy practices associated with new technologies can be categorised into two concepts of creativity as outlined by Kress (2003, p.36). The first is the concept of ‘transformation’, which is the way “the producer of a text can alter and adapt the forms of signs within a mode in relation to their needs and interests” (Kress, cited in Papen and Tusting, p.323). This can be found in modern literacy practices such as emailing or texting. The use of emoticons is an altering and adapting of signs to create a new meaning in a situation where the texter/emailer is constrained by the symbols available to him via the keyboard/keypad, for example, when a colon and a closed bracket are put together thus: : ) they produce:  – a smiley face.Kress’ second concept is that of ‘transduction’ which “refers to the moving of ‘semiotic material’ across modes, where meaning that was originally configured in one (or several) modes is moved across to a different one” (Kress, cited in Papen and Tusting, p.323).

Papen and Tusting cite the example of the students in Reading A, who “performed” the poems they wrote, changing from the written to the oral mode. Another very clear example is that of online chatting. Friends usually make plans to meet up in the evening at the local McDonalds for example, but now via internet chat rooms and other forms of internet relay chat (e.g. MSN, Skype), friends can virtually meet up with each other while individually remaining in their own homes. Speech becomes writing, and in many cases still has the feeling of verbal communication, for example with the use of certain greeting words, acronyms, code switching, etc. The author’ has her own experiences of transduction as three of her brothers live abroad and her main communication with them, although previously was via face-to-face or telephone conversations, is now via computer-mediated-conversations. It becomes immediately apparent to her if one of their spouses is pretending to be a brother and is chatting to her from their use of language and the individual creativity inherent in it.

Although the examples above highlight literacy practices that are constrained through the medium (for example, the limited number of symbols on a keyboard/keypad), new technology also offers many affordances for the user. In the practice of ‘blogging,’ “blogs can include visual and other material, producing a kind of virtual scrapbook” (Maybin, p.266), thus drawing on the affordances offered by the Internet. Maybin comments on the dialogic nature of blogging (page 269); in the blog ‘The Story of an Aspiring Romance Writer’, the author’s posts are answered by other ‘bloggers’, who discuss the points raised and provide support and feedback for the author. One act of creativity present in this type of feedback and response is “the dialogic construction of the self” (Maybin, p.269), which is “the shaping of self in the course of responding to others” (ibid). Collaboration – discussed previously in the paper – plays an important role in this particular literacy practice.

Creativity also exists in the chosen medium of a literacy practice; for instance, advertising in Katutura is written on whatever material is to hand, whether it is wood, cardboard or on the wall of a house. Papen notes “creativity here has a material aspect” (p.352); this is clearly evident in Colour Figure 10, which is an example of heteroglossic diversity; this sign contains not only a multitude of voices, but also a multitude of genres. The phrase “Just find me here anytime…” is deliberately informal, even friendly in nature. It implies that the owner is an easygoing person, ready to help whenever is most convenient for his customer. This contrasts with the final line, “Thank you so much for your cooperation”, which adopts a typically business-like ‘official’ voice. Papen sees this sign as containing “a bricolage of genres and registers” (p.352) that is the result of “some careful thinking and creative appropriation of a new language” (ibid).

There may be some parts of speech, or literacy practices, which are seen as creative “in the moment”, but perhaps not deemed creative later on, because there is no knowledge of what went before or after or the context. (Maybin, p.415). A poignant example of this is the author’s mother who came to England from India in her teens with very little knowledge of English, verbal or written. A very clear memory remains of shopping lists on the fridge door. In terms of “material creativity,” as discussed previously, the shopping list is not at all Indian in nature, and most people in India probably do not write them, but having come to England, the author’s mother was creative in that she adopted this simple practice for herself. Furthermore, bearing in mind her little knowledge of English, instead of writing in her mother-tongue Gujarati, she would write in English, in her Indian scroll, spelling items the way she heard them: shugr, bred, weetbiks, etc.

The statement at the heart of this paper was: “All literacy practices can be considered creative.” The approach taken to explore this was the sociocultural model which allowed certain aspects to have a bearing on literacy practices, such as collaboration, performance, context, transformation, and transduction, highlighting that cultural and social change have caused creativity within literacy practices, but it would be a gross misjudgement here to fail to acknowledge that writing and literacy are also causal factors in the process of social change.Crystal distinguished between amateur and ‘professional’ users and uses of playful language. Amateur creativity is in the form of everyday language in riddles, jokes, limericks, playful uses of accents and dialects, nonce words in popular songs and sayings, while ‘professional’ creativity refers to language play in the work of headline and advertising copy-writers, professional collectors of ludic language, comedians and writers of humorous texts. (Crystal, in Carter, R. p.72)

Regardless of which of these a literacy practice fits in to, as Papen and Tusting highlight: “There is an argument that all meaning-making processes have a creative element” (p.315). Furthermore, if one thinks about “language as […] a system that is constantly created and re-created, changed and adapted, then creativity even at this level turns into a normal event.” (Papen and Tusting, p.324)Hence, as a final note, one may state, that every literacy practice, whether for personal pleasure, or for needs, in open and also restricted contexts, to more or lesser degrees are indeed creative..

Bibliography

• Carter, R. (2004), Language and Creativity: The Art of Common Talk, London Routledge.• Kress, G. (2003), Literacy in the New Media Age, London and New York Routledge,• Maybin, J. (2006) “Locating Creativity in texts and practices” in Maybin, J & Swann, J. (eds) The Art of English: Everyday Creativity, Palgrave Macmillan, The Open University. • Maybin, J. (2006), “Writing the self” in Maybin, J & Swann, J. (eds) The Art of English: Everyday Creativity, Palgrave Macmillan, The Open University. • Maybin, J. & Swann, J. (eds) (2006), The Art of English: Everyday Creativity, Palgrave Macmillan, The Open University.• Wilson, A. (1999), “Researching in the third space – locating, claiming and valuing the research domain,” in S. Goodman, T. Lillis, J. Maybin and N. Mercer (eds), Language, Literacy and Education: A Reader, London, Trentham.

Verbal Art Essay

Posted in Art

College Participation Essay

College Participation Essay.

One of the best things we can do after high school is to continue our education by going to college. During a high school career fair, students may find themselves asking: “Why is it important to go to college? ” Well, it is important because at college, students try new things, meet new people and expand their knowledge of the world. Higher education also improves their chances of having the lives and the job they always wanted. However, it is not as easy as they think.

Students can get distracted by different things in college, which can prevent them from success and achieving their goals.

In most cases, lack of class participation is one of the factors that could directly affect their education and increase their chances to quit college. Boring instructors and time management could be the obstacles for students to not participate in class activities. “My class is so boring”, “My instructor talks all the time”, “I fall asleep in my class”… are popular sayings from college students.

Why should students go to class when everything from the lectures can be found easily from the book?

When the lectures are so boring and the instructors basically just represent the information from the book, students would think that it is not necessary for them to go class, so they skip. Moreover, there are instructors who just go to class with a mission: talk. They keep going on and on without any class activities for students to participate in. This makes class participation even harder for students who attend class regularly and have questions or topics they want to discuss. As a result, students easily fall asleep during the lectures.

Next, time management could be considered one of the biggest barriers that prevents students from class participation. Part-time jobs, friends and school activities can occupy most of the time if students do not know how to manage their time well. College students may vary where they come from. They could be high school graduate students or people who come back after years to have higher education in order to achieve their goals. But, they all cannot fully function as well as normal if they had to work until 12 the night before and then go to class at 8 in the morning.

Since some have to earn money for tuition, their jobs occupy most of their time rather than finishing their homework and preparing for classes in the next day. On the other hand, in college, students always meet new friends and new people, so hanging out with them will just be a part of a student’s schedule. It can put them in trouble if they cannot balance themselves between spending time on school work and friends. It is even harder for those who are school athletes. It is impossible for them to be able to finish their homework and to prepare for class after hours of sport practices.

With unfinished homework, lack of sleep and no class preparation, students will just attend classes with empty brains. Despite great lectures from the instructors, they all will just fall asleep during class or hardly join class activities. As a result, lack of class participation would prevent students from deeply understanding the lectures, increasing their chances to fall in the path of getting bad grades on exam. Class participation helps student to interact with each other and with teacher. It is an opportunity for students to practice in-class problems in order to deeply understand the lectures.

It also helps them to better prepare for the assignments and exams. Unlike in high school, in college, students may have to finish a book in a short quarter. Dealing with large amounts of information in the short time, students may find it difficult to memorize details from the lectures and the book if they do not understand the lectures in depth. If so, it becomes difficult for them be able to score high in the exam because a test in college usually covers at least three to four chapters. Thus, it would not be strange if they got bad grades in the exams.

On the other hand, in some classes, participation in class could be counted as a participation grade which can affect the student’s grade in general. One more important thing is that the instructors sometimes use the discussion questions for the upcoming test, so it would be a big disadvantage for those who attended class but did not actually participate in class activities. By having too many bad grades, students will just drop out of class or, the worst thing could happen, they quit. Approximately three million students enroll in some form of college every year; however, 33% drop out each year.

From lack of class participation, students will feel alone and school becomes the most boring place they have to go to every day. They do not see the importance of going to college. Students will just quit to find a job that can fit them in. In order to have students participate in class, instructors should have some strategies to make their lecture more interesting to students and create interactive activities such as rolling dice to have students answer question or group discussions… However, students also have to actively prepare for classes and participate in class activities.

Checklists and to-do lists can be a student’s best friends if they have trouble with managing their time. By doing so, students can balance their time on school works and outside activities more effectively and have more spare time for themselves. When students find it more interesting to participate in class, it means they are one step closer to be successful in college. Because the more time students participate in class, the more knowledge they can gain and the more successful they can be.

College Participation Essay

Posted in Art

The Disturbing Truth: Frida Kahlo’s My Dress Hangs There Essay

The Disturbing Truth: Frida Kahlo’s My Dress Hangs There Essay.

Art is not always pleasant, but neither is society. Art and society have a reflective relationship with one another. During social, religious, and political controversy, artists such as Frida Kahlo incorporated imagery into their portraits of society which are often disturbing to the viewer. The role of an artist often includes acting as a social critic, to show us aspects of our cultural landscape that are unpleasant. In this manner, the art acts as a commentary on the negative aspects of Western civilisation.

During the thirties and forties, Kahlo incorporated the hidden realities of economic and social depression into her works. Frida Kahlo was a Mexican artist, most often recognized for her series of self-portraits. These works explore the physical and emotional agony that she endured during her short life. Frida’s works, arranged chronologically, could serve as a pictoral summary of her life, political and social developments, and subsequent resolutions. She endured many tragic events including acquiring Polio, a debilatating accident, an unfaithful marriage, and a slow, painful death.

Her career as an artist was overshadowed by the success of her husband, Diego Rivera, and never given significant attention until the Feminist movement in the sixties, after her death. Stylistically, Frida’s paintings seem to follow the Surrealist movement, however, she was never acknowledged as an official member. Andre Breton, founder of the movement, assisted in the organization of her Exhibition. In the later years of her life, Frida made a living from her work, although most of her accomplishments as an artist were after her death.

Frida was the first Mexican artist to sell a work for more than $1 million and also the first to have work purchased by the Louvre in Paris. Frida’s involvement in Politics began at an early age with her enrollment at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, one of the best schools in Mexico. Frida was one of the first thirty-five women out of two-thousand students to attend. A chance meeting with Diego Rivera introduced Frida to love, art and politics. Their marriage would secure her a role in the Communist party, and further her involvement and awareness of social and political injustices.

Upon visiting the United States in the thirties, Frida was repulsed by Capitalist structure and influence. Her work, My Dress Hangs There (1933) [Fig. 1] explores her perspective on American society as I will elaborate in further discussion. In the analysis of the aforementioned work, I will refer to three different interpretive methods; Semiotics, Psychoanalysis, and Feminist/Gender Studies. These three methods will provide unique perspectives for the study and interpretation of her painting. The first method I have chosen is Semiotics. This perspective generally focuses on symbolic value.

Many artists have mastered the combination of visual imagery with social commentary. The unity of physical elements with spiritual, personal or social issues is what gives art value in the Modern world. In the use of semiotics, we are urged to consider the elements of art that may be signifiers of a deeper meaning (Roland Barthes 47). These signifiers may include the obvious symbolic physical elements incorporated into a work of art, the perspective used by the artist, the subjects and environment of the painting, as well as any other attributes perceived while looking at a work of art.

Rolan Barthes discusses the concept in his article “Rhetoric of the Image”. He compares the imagery of art and language. His intentions are to “…submit the image to a spectral analysis of the messages it may contain” (Pg. 32). Whether a specific symbolic message is intentional by the artist or not is unique for each work. However, it is clear, that in every work of art, there is something to be derived. Analyzing a work of art involves considering all aspects of its content and possible symbolic interpretations. Frida’s painting employs symbols to communicate her opinions.

In My Dress Hangs There she covers the canvas in imagery, making it almost impossible to view each of its intricate details upon first glance. There are three main aspects of this painting, each representing a different aspect of society. The first and lower part of the painting shows the working class, gathered in desperate and impoverished lines. This shows the lack of compassion available in the American economy. The Bourgeois society is represented in the top half of the painting; tall office towers line the city sky which is a dominating reminder to Americans of a chance for prosperity.

The Statue of Liberty sits in the distance; Frida pushes the ideal of Western strength and freedom to the background, which realizes the possibility of American economic failure. The water is a dark grey, reflective of the dreary years of the depression era. A collection of six industrial smoke-pipes reach high from behind the commericialist towers of the city. They seem to acknowledge the defining role of lower class workers and industrial society in the prosperity of America. Emerging from this middle area is a tall brick church.

The dark stoned walls give a European look to the landscape, and seem somewhat reminiscent of the Dark Ages in Medieval society. In the stained glass window rests a cross, symbol of Christian faith, corrupted by a snake-like creature. The combination of the church with a historically recognized sign for evil is quite a strong image. It seems as though Frida is providing a commentary on the intersection between Church and Politics. The relationship between the two institutions in American society remains, to this day, a controversial discussion.

A woman dominates the far left side, clad in a luxurious hat and gown, and flirtatiously posed in a portrait. Her presence clearly indicates a distinct line between classes; she represents the members of American society who possess the security to relax during a time of great financial distress in the country. Directly in the centre of the scene and the immediate focus of a viewer’s attention is Frida’s dress. It hangs on a clothesline between a toilet bowl and a golden trophy which sit atop large classical columns. Her dress is neither part of the lower nor higher class areas of society as represented in her work.

The dress, symbolic of her experience during a brief visit to America, hangs in the air. Although Frida’s criticism of the nation is greatly influenced by her role in the Communist community, she gives a fresh perspective on the downsides of American society and Capitalism. The visual discussion Frida provokes in her work seems to emphasize the idea that they are other potential options for society. Frida may not offer a specific resolution to the depression, but she attempts to open the eyes of her viewers to the injustices and ignorance of American society.

The idea that all art contains interpretive possibilities is expanded upon by the Historical method of Psychoanalysis. One aspect of psychoanalysis, as described by Briony Fer in “Surrealism, Myth and Psychoanalysis” is the unavoidable effects of the unconscious mind. This idea suggests that each of our dreams, creations and actions we are guided by our innermost desires often of which we are unaware. They are hidden beneath the surface of our thoughts. In the Surrealist movement, artists were encouraged to experiment with these inner yearnings.

Paintings often had a dream-like quality. Images were seemingly non-sensical, however they explored the liberated minds of artists. Objects were warped, distorted or misplaced, giving them new value. The Freudian concept of psychoanalysis often focused on sexuality, which eventually became a major concept for artists, and a catalyst for the feminist movement. In Frida Kahlo’s My Dress Hangs There, her liberation of mind and brush allow her to speak freely of her negative emotions towards American culture.

She gives deliberate attention to the flaws of Capitalist society. Her painting seems to provide a discussion on social issues. It is a possibility that Frida felt giving light to the misfortunes of America may further support the idea of Communist rule in Mexico. According to Carl Jung, an artist’s creation is first initiated by an image of the unconscious mind, it is next related to the values of the conscious mind, and eventually conformed to the requirements of contemporary society (Hernandez 1). Frida’s work is often overlooked because of her political criticisms.

Therefore, Carl Jungs final step in the creation of art seems unapplicable to her process. If Kahlo, or any other contemporary artist for that matter, had attempted to conform their ideas to the contemporarily acceptable, they would not be the social critics as I have suggested and know them to be. Frida’s boldness is what has made her a legend to both the Mexican and feminist population. She has been an influential artist in the twentieth century because of her ability to paint without hesitation. Her deepest desires and hatred are clearly evident in her works.

If it is possible to open the unconscious mind and pour its ‘inner yearnings’ onto a canvas, I can confidently say that Frida Kahlo has done it. The third method of interpretation that I have chosen for my discussion is feminism and gender studies. This perspective comparatively looks at male and female members of society. It was a movement begun in the mid-twentieth century, which has spawned thousands of inspired artists. Feminist discussions allow us to look at the past, present and future in a new light. The movement provides a fresh perspective for interpretation.

Frida was acknowledged as a Feminist icon in the sixties and seventies because of her strength despite being ignored by peers. For years Frida was overlooked because of her husbands success in painting. Although she was clearly successful in the Surrealist style of work, she was never recognized officially as a member of the movement. She maintained personal strength throughout extensive physical and emotional pain. Feminists admired her inspired spirit through the course of these events, and looked to her as their own source of inspiration through their troubles. Frida recognized the injustices in American society.

She gave specific attention to these ideas in her work My Dress Hangs There in 1933. This work was not acknowledged until much later, after her death. Throughout depression, pain and great emotional distress Frida would never let herself be the focus of pity. She maintained personal strength throughout relationship problems with her husband, and never submitted her own happiness for his greed. Her husband Diego Rivera was unfaithful to her during their marriage, and as a result, Frida moved into her own apartment, supporting herself through art sales and refusing to be a dependent wife.

Through the tragedy and horrific pain that she endured, Frida maintained an attitude of courage and intellectual pride. For this, Frida has gained respect from not only members of the feminist community, but all over the world. Using distinct historical methods as guidelines for interpretation creates an interesting and challenging strategy for art criticism. As each of these movements has had a lasting impact on the twentieth century, it is inevitable that we reflect on their concepts when looking at the work of the same time period.

The work of Frida Kahlo was greatly impacted by the Surrealist movement. It therefore is completely relevant to use a psychoanalytical approach to interpret her collection of paintings. With a Freudian mindset, it is challenging to interpret the work of an artist based on what one may assume to be their inner desires. This approach often uses a diagnostic-style system to classify the inner yearnings one may have sexually, however the work of Frida Kahlo does not possess much provocativity.

Since Frida Kahlo was greatly involved in politics, using a Marxist approach to interpret her work would seem too applicable. The selected painting My Dress Hangs There is condensed with political satire and criticism. To interpret these American failures with a Marxist strategy could have swayed this paper into an unnecessary political debate. The Semiotic approach requires searching for an artists voice through their art. Frida Kahlo was greatly interested in politics and society, which led to many intriguing analogies and metaphors in her work.

Her paintings are easily recognizable by their language of symbolism. Although the painting I chose was less personal than most of her other works, the artists ability to represent pain and misfortune was very evident. Frida mastered the skill of portraying emotional pain through physical violence, perhaps because the tragedies of her life caused her to become a master of them. Finding meaning in Frida’s work is always more than possible. Her works allow us to appreciate the unpredictability of life, and the fragility of our lives.

The Disturbing Truth: Frida Kahlo’s My Dress Hangs There Essay

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Smartphone Market Essay

Smartphone Market Essay.

With emerging mobile technologies and rapid growth in users of smartphones, there have been a lot of legal issues involved between the mobile phone producers. Standards are being set and patents are being registered by the producers to keep their market upright. These patents are registered mainly to monitor and implement the means to increase the number of consumers. This article will examine how these legal issues affect the end users and also about the legal issues which are being brought to the court.

The article also discusses the implications of the current lack of specificity of the patents and suggests refinement of patents in terms of narrow versus broad inclusiveness.

Analysis

The smartphone market has taken a giant leap in the last decade with major markets emerging every day. The markets do have their own patent and copyright to keep their work intact from the other manufacturers. The legal issues binding to such patents are also complicated. These patents are directly connected to the profits and also market value.

They are considered to be valuable and serve as the counter weight for the manufacturers in terms of the market place and to keep a competitive balance in the market. The author in the article tries to understand the legal battle between Apple and Samsung on various patents they use on their phone. Apple on one hand claims that Android market has been designed to copy iphones design and strategy whereas Samsung replies saying that familiar product design doesn’t mean imitation. This battles has started when Samsung launched the galaxy series.

The legal battle mainly started with patent issues when Samsung went for Android market for their phones. The legal issues went public and familiar when Samsung was asked to pay $1.05 billion in damages as it acted wilfully in violating the patent rights. This also went to a stage where the Samsung’s key phones and tablets may be banned for sales and the world’s biggest technology provider has come to a stand- still with their four year low on market value after the verdict the US jury. Samsung has come to stage overturn the decision with the patent battles come to an end but it always seems like a fake promise to keep the competitive market balance in mind for the smart phones.

While Samsung believes that the design and feature of Apple should not be allowed to claim patent whereas Apple strongly believes that its design and features are its main market value and consider them as its intellectual property. More violations from Samsung’s end in patents have strengthened the case towards apple. These cases between Apple and Samsung have been spread to almost all the countries where they have their end consumers. Samsung being the main component supplier for Apple should have solved these issues amicably out of the court but failed to do so.

The end customers are put in a question always whether to go for Samsung products or Apple products keeping in mind the legal issues these two companies have. The product support also went to a question mark because of the pending legal cases in the court. Most of the applications in both the phones are now in a question mark because of the pending patent rights. Both Apple and Samsung phone users are getting a software update in which many of the features goes for redesigning and certain legal issues goes missing. The functionality of the phone remain the same but the patent suits won goes for upgradation. Because of these copying acts of Samsung, Apple have won 1 billion for damages and that is not all it might have negative impacts on the phones already released.

The android market which is having a market stake of 60 to 70 percent will lose some key functionality and also some specific features. This could also end up Samsung in redesigning and changing the features in the phones which they have already released in the market. The end customers are also in the queue up whether the battle for the smartphones will affect the functionality of the product they have bought in the market. With android markets being at stake it is hugely a question mark for Samsung to depend on such market which is highly competitive. Apple has shown the world that Samsung has copied the design and features of iphone. Apple in turn is trying the curb the android market which proves to be very competitive to the Iphone market. Apple tries to curb the manufacturers who are attached to Android market for which HTC legal cases and Samsung legal cases are a better example.

Apple is tactically using its own method to slow down the android market by attacking the companies making android devices While the prospects of losing so many design and features to Apple it could just be a platform for android to try something new. This could be a push ahead move for android as they will try new things from now on and will not act as a shadow to ios. By introducing Android 4.0 Google is trying to improvise and create a new unique operating system to support the android making companies. Since the android phones no more resemble a iphone in the market, it could be a boost to sell the new model phones in the market. The legal cases could have favoured Apple but the sales and the market value is favouring Samsung. The cases have favoured Apple but if the customer have to go away from old hat and needs a good change they have to go for a new smartphones which are using android operating system.

The industry experts reckon that the android markets would boom after the complex decision from the jury come up as they conclude that the phones will have a new look and features which will attract the customers more than before. The market share of android making phones are also expected to rise with their new design and feature. The end customers are given a new glimpse of phones which is not a shadow or imitation of iphone with improved functionality and features. It gets better with wacky new designs for the customers and is proving to be a good idea for the manufacturers to try new things and new features on the phone. The law suits by apple in one form have helped the end customer to get new design and new features. This can be put in other words that there are now two different smart phones available which has different designs to excite the customer.

References
1. Dan Levine & Purnima gupta (2012) Reuters, 27 August [online] Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/27/us-apple-samsung-legal-idUSBRE87Q02K20120827 (Accessed on 13 December 2012) 2.

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/hardware/apple-iphone-violated-three-patents-damages-unclear-u-s-jury/articleshow/17604481.cms

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Smartphone Market Essay

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Report on Case Study: Walmart Japan Essay

Report on Case Study: Walmart Japan Essay.

Question 1: How would you characterize Wal-Mart’s approach to global management? The trademark of Wal-Mart’s global management approach focuses on 3 main strategies: low price, best value, large selection of goods & high quality service. Being the world’s largest retailer, Wal-Mart will enter the international market by providing a wide variety of products at a lower price than its domestic competitors. In addition, one of the common strategies of Wal-Mart is to partner or acquire a local supermarket retailer who has already had a good knowledge of the market in order to save time & money.

Wal-Mart is also famous for its great use of distributor network. They pay a lot of attention to choosing a good location when expanding their business, a strategy which has been proven successful in its original US market.

Question 2: Do you agree with Wal-Mart’s entry strategy in Japan? What are some of the inherent risks? Do you think that a faster market entry would be more effective? In my opinion, Wal-Mart’s entry strategy in Japan (slow-and-steady) is quite appropriate with Japanese retail environment and economic situation.

However, there are many challenges need to be overcome in this potential market: 1. Socio-cultural Differences: In Japan, consumers often equate bad quality with low price. Changing consumer perceptions is not easy or cheap. In addition, Japanese customers demand a quick entry and exit from the stores which makes cutting costs by eliminating staffs from the retail process unadvisable. 2. Fierce Competition: It is unavoidable that there are many strong domestic rivals in a highly potential retail market like Japan.

3. Distribution System: Traditionally, Japan’s multilayered distribution networks have notoriously made selling merchandise more expensive for retailers. Wal-Mart’s desire to remove middle man and wholesalers from this network is quite challenging. These above obstacles bring about unfavorable risks to Wal-Mart and it requires time to deliberate and make the right decision in grasping the cultural quirks. The bit-by-bit approach has proved its rightness in entering a wholly new market in case of Wal-Mart. Thereupon, a faster market entry wouldn’t be more effective but might be a path to another failure of Wal-Mart. Question 3: In your opinion, what is the single most important thing Wal-Mart can do to ensure success in Japan? Explain. In our opinion, the single most important thing Wal-Mart can do to ensure success in Japan is to streamlining its supply chain, or to skip the middleman in other word, then it should be able to pass lower costs along to the customer.

Therefore, Wal-Mart would have a huge advantage over its local competitors in its ability to price low. Moreover, the Japanese market appears to be ready for value chains. Wal-Mart is confident it can make significant inroads in Japan under its low-price model, but the challenge will lie in its ability to convince Japanese consumers that its everyday low prices don’t translate into poor product quality. Fortunately, Japanese customers are becoming more value conscious, there arises a huge opportunities for discount retailers to capitalize on changing cultural conditions. Entry strategy of Wal-mart in Japan: slow and steady. It had learned from past mistakes and knew that getting to market faster didn’t necessarily equate to being better. For example, in Germany, where retail regulations and swift price competition are both fierce, Wal-Mart reacted before it inventory systems were in place, and the result was substantial operating losses.

Driving the strategy is the installation of Wal-Mart’s Retail Link operation, a JIT inventory replenishment system shared between retailer and supplier, effectively eliminating the wholesaler and speeding up payables and receivables collections. Wal-Mart believed Seiyu was the partner best suited for its entry strategy because by working through a local partner, Wal-Mart believed it could better wade through Japan’s long and costly network of suppliers, which has long frustrated many other foreign investor. Since only the biggest Japanese retailers have the leverage with manufactures, partnering with an existing market leader should prove invaluable when attempting to negotiate direct deals. Moreover, Wal-Mart avoids having to build stores and can take advantage of Seiyu’s well-recognized brand. Question 4: Do you think Wal-Mart is doing enough cross-cultural training with its Seiyu employees?

What are the greatest challenges Wal-Mart faces in relating to its Japanese employees? In our opinion, in such a different market like Japan compare to the US’s, Wal-Mart is doing enough cross cultural training with its Seiyu employees, but will take time to make employees to adapt changes. First, to reinforce the importance of selling correctly, Wal-Mart has put store managers through weeklong training sessions and has flown hundreds of Seiyu workers to company headquarter in Arkansas. This hopefully can be successful in training Wal-Mart Japan’s employees to learn global management and selling style which meet the world standard according to Seiyu’s CEO said. Nevertheless, according to the case, Wal-Mart arranged just a few cultural training classes to teach the employees to be more outspoken, upbeat and goal-oriented while encouraging employees continually praising co-workers.

Apparently, Wal-Mart somehow is not applying a right strategy. Japan is a country where people highly appreciate humbleness. Therefore, appraising co-workers is considered as an inappropriate action which cannot be easily accepted by large number of employees. As a consequence, this might cause difficulties especially for trainee to adapt a new perception within a short term. The greatest challenges Wal-Mart is facing regardless of its Japanese employees should be the culture differences, they have to find out how to deal with the resistance to change of workers. The second problem is maintaining the budget for retraining staff, sending them to foreign environment to learn new management methods to increase sales of Japan Wal-Mart Stores, which may take long time.

Question 5: How can Wal-Mart respond to some of the negative impressions of its employment practices in the United States so that these perspectives do not follow it as it expands internationally? With the problem of sex-discrimination lawsuit in 2001, Wal-Mart has fought to class action decision as recently as early 2007. However, its attempts have been unsuccessful. Besides, in order to counter the negative publicity of the discrimination lawsuit, Wal-Mart also opened a diversity office in November 2003, enhancing their claim that: “Wal-Mart is a wonderful place for women and minorities to work and isolated complaints do not change this fact” Despite the complaint of lowing workers’ standard of living that lead to the negative impact on Wal-Mart’s image, the company has little trouble keeping its shoppers with low prices or attracting workers with the promise of a career in a fast-growing company. Nevertheless, Wal-Mart offers a very promising promoting opportunity to each of its staff. At Wal-Mart, anyone, without a high school degree start as a cart pusher in the parking lot can end up being a store manager, district manager or a regional vice-president. Those reactions ensure a future for Wal-Mart as the biggest private retail employer in the world.

Report on Case Study: Walmart Japan Essay

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Renaissance Artemisa Gentileschi Essay

Renaissance Artemisa Gentileschi Essay.

My idol of the Renaissance period is the famous woman artist named Artemisia Gentileschi. She was born in Rome on July 8, 1593. Her father was a well-know Roman artist named Orazio Gentileschi and my mother was named Prudentia Monotone. She died when Artemisia was twelve. Most women artists in this post-Renaissance era were limited to portrait paintings and poses. She was the first woman to paint major historical and religious scenarios, such as her painting, Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1620.

At an early age she experienced loss.

Two of her brothers died during childhood and her mother died while giving birth. Showing some artistic skill, Artemisia received some early training from her father. After art academies rejected her, her father hired his friend, Agostino Tassi, to teach her. In 1612, she was sexually assaulted by him. The trial was seven long months. Artemisia was tortured with thumb screws in order to make her tell the truth of her claims. He was ultimately convicted, but Artemisa had a tarnished reputation after.

She had been publicly humiliated and was severely criticized then and in her life forward.

Artemisia’s first painting was named, Susanna and the Elder, c 1610. She was seventeen when she painted it. Michelangelo had a major influence on her style. The painting depicts the biblical story of Susanna, a young wife who was sexually harassed by the elder of her community. She shows her as vulnerable and frightened, while the men are conspiring behind her. This painting was completed before the rape, but it might be a depiction of the harassment from Tassi. The trauma of the rape impacted how she painted; she often painted graphic depictions of people dealing with pain.

In 1612, she came to Florence, Italy where her father arranged for her to marry a Florentine artist name Pietro Antonia di Vincenzo Stiattesi. They became official members of the Academie del Disegno (Academy of Design) in 1616, which was a prestigious honor for me, a woman. Her first child, Giovanni Battista was born in September of 1613. Her second son, Cristofano, was born in November of 1615. Her husband is starting to prefer gambling over working. They are in much debt.

In August of 1617, she gave birth to a daughter named Prudentia; sometimes called Palmira. She continued to live with Pietro even though it was loveless. He left me 10 years later. She had a second daughter in October of 1618, but she died in June of 1619. It was a difficult time and unbeknownst to Artemisia, they are even in more serious debt than I had originally thought. In 1621, she returned to her hometown in Rome as ordered by Cosmo II de Midici. She was supposed to return in order recover from an illness and her family problems. She also spent time in Venice from 1627 to 1630. She never returned to Florence.

She went to Genoa for a short time with her father and painted, Jael and Sisera. Some of her patrons while back in Rome were cardinals Francesco and Antoni Barberion, both wealthy and influential prelates. By 1630, she moves to the city of Naples. Charles I of England and the Duke of Modena also purchased her paintings. Naples was the wealthiest city in southern Europe at this time. She also worked in England for a while beginning in 1638 where her father had a position at the court of Charles I. She returned after her father death in 1639.

As noted above, her most famous painting, Judith Beheading Holfernes, illustrated an event from the Old Testament Book of Judith. Holofernes, the Assyrian general, was preparing to destroy the land of Judah. Judith then goes to a maidservant, Abra, to the Holorenes’ camp. She poses as a deserter from the Hebrews. Judith seduces him with her beauty, gives him alcohol, and then severs his head!

After her death, her grave marker was lost during church renovations and the inscription on her headstone, rather than mentioning her artwork, remembered her sexual scandal instead. In time, Artemisia was often forgotten about in the Art world and her paintings were often wrongly attributed to her father or other artists. Centuries later, renewed interest in Artemisia uncovered her story, properly attributed her work and finally restored her reputation as one of the world’s most important female artists and a major artist of the Italian Baroque period.

Gentileschi often chose historic and biblical subjects that featured a female protagonist: Susanna, Bathsheba, Esther, Judith. Her style was heavily influenced by dramatic realism and marked contrasting light and dark of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1573 – 1610). The first book devoted to her, Artemisia Gentileschi – The Image of The Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art. by Mary D. Garrard, was issued in 1989; her first exhibition was held in Florence in 1991. A TV documentary, a play, and more recently, a film have advanced her visibility as an important artist.

As noted above, Artemisai Gentileschi, was inspired to paint by her father and by famous artist Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Today she is regarded as one of the most progressive and expressionist painters of her generation. After moving back to Rome French artist, Pierre Dunostier le Neveu, made a drawing of her hand holding a paintbrush. She along with her father were one of many artists invited by King Charles I of England to decorate the ceilings of the Queen’s house in Greenwhich.

I am inspired by her because she chose to stand up and compete against the men of that time. Woman of that era had such difficulties trying to gain recognition for their work. She is one of the first women who eventually overcame adversity. Her technical skill showed human emotion from a “woman’s” perspective which some say is a breakthrough in art. In the words of Mary D. Garrard, she “has suffered a scholarly neglect that is almost unthinkable for an artist of her caliber.”

[pic]
Susanna and The Elders c 1610
[pic]
Judith Slaying Holfernes

Cited Work

http://www.artbible.info/art/biography/artemisia-gentileschi

http://www.artemisia-gentileschi.com/index.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_Gentileschi

http://www.themasterpiececards.com/famous-paintings-reviewed/bid/31786/Female-Artists-Artemisia-Gentileschi

Renaissance Artemisa Gentileschi Essay

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Scientific Method and Participant Observation Essay

Scientific Method and Participant Observation Essay.

In the article, “Researching Dealers and Smugglers,” Patricia Adler discusses her and her husband’s experience using participant observation to collect data from drug dealers and the problems this qualitative method brought. A qualitative method focuses on collecting rich, non-statistical data. This method involves face-to-face interviews and actual participation with the group being researched. The Adlers use this method because it is almost impossible to gather accurate information on people who smuggle drugs.

This is true because they are such private and deceitful people.

The only way to get the real facts is if the smugglers trust the person. Unfortunately, participant observation brought problems such as the dealers and smugglers being under the influence or going through withdrawal during the interviews and the Adlers mixing their overt and covert roles. The Adlers chose participant observation because they found that using this method allowed them to acquire the most in-depth and rich data than any other method.

If criminals like dealers and smugglers were given a survey, it would not work out because they are not just going to tell the truth and risk getting caught by the police.

They are specific with who they give information to, so the Adlers had to show them that they could be trusted. They could not have done that with without using participant observation. Although there were many aspects about the Adlers that made them and the research method they used convenient, there were also some risks they had to take.

While doing research, the Adlers encountered some problems using this method, one of which was interviewing the dealers and smugglers while they were under the influence of either marijuana or cocaine. In addition, the participants were sometimes withdrawal symptoms, so they were not able to interview properly. Patricia mentions how marijuana and cocaine had different effects on the interviewees. She states, “marijuana was unproductive for a number of reasons… Often people became confused, sleepy, or involved in eating to varying degrees. ’

On the other hand, cocaine assisted the research procedure by making the dealers feel more comfortable. Cocaine also helped the dealers open up easily. During the interviews, some dealers experienced withdrawal symptoms. It caused them to become malicious with each other or towards the Alders without any warning. The way the Alders solved this problem was by taking precautions when interacting with the dealers.

The cocaine use was not a problem for the Adlers, but they most likely dealt with the marijuana issue quite easily since Patricia does not specifically explain how it was solved. In addition, there was another problem the Adlers encountered. The Adlers also found that mixing the overt and covert roles with the members of the group throughout the investigation was another issue. Since the Adlers had different level relationships with every individual, some of the dealers were aware that they were a part of a research project while others were not aware.

This sometimes confused the Adlers. Patricia states, “They [the informants] would made occasional veiled references in front of people, especially when loosened by intoxicants, that made us extremely uncomfortable. ” This issue made the couple uncomfortable because they did not want to blow their cover. Patricia and Peter Adler also feared that the participants would think they are police. Peter and Patricia Adler solved this issue by take the necessary safety measures so anyone they did not want to find out.

The Adlers encountered various problems while utilizing this qualitative method. They had troubles such as mixing their covert and overt roles and dealing with some of the smugglers and dealers being intoxicated. Therefore this investigation became very risky, but Patricia and her husband finalized by collecting all the data needed. The Adlers also resolved their problems in a cautious way utilizing patience, precaution, and rational and clever thinking. The couple definitely learned a lot throughout the experiment and got more than they anticipated going through it.

Scientific Method and Participant Observation Essay

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Enron: Smartest Guy in the Room Essay

Enron: Smartest Guy in the Room Essay.

Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room is a documentary that was produced in 2005 as a reflection of the 2003, bestselling book with the same name. The documentary was written by Bethany Mclean and Peter Elkind. The film, produced by Alex Gibney is an explicit demonstration of how reputable corporations can tumble down because of illicit financial management. The film is about the Enron Company, which experienced enormous financial drains because of the scandals elicited by its top managerial team. Two years after the inception of the company, two traders engage in betting activities on the lucrative oil markets.

This eventually leads to suspicious profits for the company, a phenomenon that raises eyebrows on the financial stand of the company. It is also discovered that Enron’s Chief Executive Officer is redirecting the company’s finances to different accounts. In demonstrating the poor financial management of Kenneth Lay, he encourages the traders to keep on making money for the company, yet he understood clearly that betting is a risky activity that could cause the company a lot of its assets.

Lay finally realizes his mistakes when he sacks the traders because of wasting the company’s reserves through gambling.

Their actions virtually damaged the image of Enron. When the facts about what happened to the company are exposed, Lay argues that he had no knowledge of the illicit financial endeavors. Jeffrey Skilling is brought in as the new CEO and immediately imposes his own principles about handling profits and projects. Skilling adopts a management practice that engages the company in projects without examining whether the projects have the capacity to be successful or not. This is indeed, a trait that has the capacity to taunt the image of the company in respect to the management of its assets and resources.

In essence, this portrays Enron as a profit making company, even if it is not making any profit. The film also highlights on Skilling’s theory of grading employees and firing those who do not perform well, on an annual basis. In order to fulfill his endeavors for the company, Skilling appoints Clifford Baxter and Lou Pai, who heads the Enron Energy Services. Pai is an irresponsible executive who squanders money belonging to shareholders by visiting entertainment joints. Eventually, Pai resigns having cost Enron a loss of $1 billion. After selling his stock, he purchases a ranch in

Colorado and becomes one of the largest landowners in the state. Despite the declining performance of Enron in the global scale, the company initiates a public relations campaign that displays itself as profitable and solid. With the short term successes that the company gets, it tries to captivate stock market analysts. Executives raise their stock prices and introduce the broadband technologies in order to distribute movies on demand, but the projects do not meet their expectations. After a series of financial irregularities, Jim Chanos and Bethany McLean expose the financial misappropriation and irregularities in stoke value.

In response to the allegations, Skilling argues that McLean is unethical in his assertions. It is also found out that Andrew Fastow, one of Enron’s executives has been defrauding Enron of millions of dollars. Indeed, this is a documentary about the fall of a big corporation because of financial misappropriation (Gibney, A. and McLean, 2005). II. Analysis In reference to the documentary, it is worth pointing out that the management of the company did not articulate its financial obligations in the most feasible way. Financial management is an integral aspect in the success of a company.

A company’s management should ensure that proper procedures are followed in capitalizing on its assets in order to avoid loses in the future (Bhat, 2008 p. 65). The management team’s lapse in controlling its finances led to the downfall of the company. The image of the company was put at risk because of the selfish actions of the leadership. The company’s corporate image was not able to maintain its stability, bearing in mind that the media exposed the inappropriate handling of the company’s assets. Embezzlement of the finances led to the loss of confidence in the public eye.

This is a clear indication that financial obligations are pertinent in influencing the performance of a company; since, financial endowment is a primary component of expanding the image of a business enterprise (Shoffner, Shelly & Cooke, 2011 p. 36). It is also worth noting that the management’s actions affected the performance of the employees. In a company, it is extremely pertinent to invest in feasible measures that will enhance human capital.

A well established human capital is instrumental in providing a viable platform for proper financial management (Jones & Spender, 2011 p. 94). When the management started a program of rating and firing employees, this created a non-cohesive environment that did not give employees a chance to thrive. In this respect, employees could not fulfill their obligations in enhancing the capacity of the company. In addition, the stakeholders to the company lost confidence in the management team of the company because it did not deliver as it was expected of them. This affected the input of the stakeholders as well as the internal and external cohesion of the company.

It is also critical to assert that the company faced financial implications resulting from management’s failure to conduct itself in a competent and professional way. The company’s markets share did not achieve its expectations; since, it could not maintain stability in the stock market. The values of its shares could not compete vehemently with other companies because the company had lost its market value. Moreover, the company incurred losses in regard to its assets record through engaging in illicit financial planning.

This led to the company failing to meet its financial objectives; since, it was not in a position to control its costs. The failure of a company to control its costs leads to unaccountability and the risk of loses due to poor accounting systems (Lee, 2006 p. 201). Additionally, the company experienced a lapse in its financial accounting systems in an effort to hide the misappropriation of finances. Compromising the financial accounting systems resulted to slow growth in the development of feasible accounting procedures (Hampton, 2009 p. 6). Another financial consequence to the company was the inability to control debts. The company could not keep track of its debts because its financial records had been compromised by the incompetence of the management team.

The lack of proper financial returns led to inconsistency in the company’s performance; hence, leading to an internal financial crisis. In this respect, it is viable to underscore that the financial inconsistency in a company is a contributing factor in its financial meltdown (Brigham, Gapenski & Ehrhardt, 2011p. 12). III. Commentary The actions of the management team were indeed detrimental in the financial breakthrough of the company. The company’s resources were put in jeopardy because of mishandling the assets in an unethical manner in respect to business standards. The employees of the company did not have a cohesive environment to capitalize on their potential. They could not handle the products and services of the company in a professional way because the management team did not provide the platform for enhancing the cost of goods.

I believe the biblical worldview as Christ would view it for the church is that whatever you do in the dark will be exposed. The Bible states that God hates the very presence of evil and it will have no place in his kingdom. So the catastrophic effect that this company had on society was abomination to what God would want for his people. God wants us to suffer with him and the end result is that we will reign with him, however lying, cheating and stealing will not have a place in heaven. As part of the management team, I would have handled things differently.

Firstly, it is significant to point out that I would not allow incompetent people to control the company’s finances. Only competent people would be allowed to handle the company’s financial obligations and management of the company’s assets. Secondly, it is essential to assert that I would invest immensely in the employees of the company. I would ensure that human capital is enhanced in order to improve the image of the company. It is widely acknowledged that an empowered human resource is vital in the success of a company; hence, I would seek to empower the activities of the employees.

Moreover, as part of the management team, I would ensure that transparency is enhanced in corporate governance. The duties and responsibilities of every stakeholder would be defined in an amicable way, in order to avoid the confusion that emerges. This would play a dominant role in enhancing the profitability of the company, as well as improving the image of the company in a large scale. Indeed, it is critical for any business enterprise to adopt a viable mechanism of enhancing its corporate governance (Baker, 2008 p. 78).

In my opinion, I believe what happened was as a result of managerial incompetency by the management team. Lack of inconsistencies in financial breakthrough by the company led to the meltdown in the company’s assets and costs control. In this respect, I believe that accounting laws and regulators can help in avoiding this scenario again. The accounting laws will play a dominant role in keeping track of a company’s financial assets and prevent it from incurring unnecessary loses. In addition, it is critical to highlight that such law and regulators will help immensely, in holding the management accountable.

The management team of a company will be able to maintain high profile accountability in maintaining the value of the company. The market share of a company is able to attain reputable standards because of using the accounting laws. Additionally, accounting laws and regulators act as instrumental platforms in identifying challenges in a company, and making the necessary decisions in overcoming the challenges. The management team of a company is able to use business intelligence in developing a way forward in solving the challenges that a company faces in respect to financial management.

In order to avoid the detrimental effects of financial mismanagement, companies can adopt viable ways of managing their operations. Transparency is a critical way of enhancing the gains of a company because its operations are open to scrutiny. In addition, it is important for companies to employ competent personnel to handle its operations, ranging from cost control to managing its experiences. It is pertinent for companies to develop policy frameworks that implement feasible financial obligations.

Enron: Smartest Guy in the Room Essay

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Comparative Analysis of Art Essay

Comparative Analysis of Art Essay.

Throughout history art has served as a preservation and representation of the time in which they were made. During the Ancient Greek period art was not only mare naturalistic and humanistic but also became directly affected by the events going around. Both the Marble Statue of an Old Woman and the Marble Statue of Aphrodite are sculptures that were made during the Ancient Greek era, they each tell a story of what was going on during that point in time.

The Marble Statue of Aphrodite is the eldest of the two sculptures, it was sculpted between the 2nd and 3rd century B .

 C. During this period Greece was at its peak, the people of Greece had power and wealth. The art made at this time depicted the peace of the Greeks and power that they had attained. The Greeks believed that this greatness was due to the gods and goddesses, as they were polytheistic; keeping the gods and goddesses happy meant good things for the Greeks.

Many of the buildings that were built were built as offerings to show their beliefs and to display what mattered most to the people of Greece.

The marble Statue of Aphrodite is one of these artworks dedicated to the goddesses. Aphrodite was believed to be the goddess of love, lust and sexuality she was also a symbol of strength; she gave the men of the military hope and optimism when going into battle. As Aphrodite was the goddess of love and lust her statues and sculptures were almost always nude or partially nude. As in this marble sculpture where Aphrodite is pictured fully nude, her face expressionless which is a key attribute to the events going in Greece at the time.

Almost all sculptures during this time were expressionless as a symbol that Greece had no major worries, there was no pain or suffering amongst the people and there was a general sense of peace and stability. She is in a contro- postal pose, her feet shifted and most of her weight distributed into one leg. Her arms are now missing as they have fallen off due to the fact that the sculpture is over 3000 years old and aging has worn out the material. Another reason why the arms have fallen off is because, unlike the major societies before them, Greeks believed in humanistic art.

Societies before the Greeks, such as the Egyptians, used to keep the material between what would be spaces between arms and body and the legs. This form of art was not humanistic not realistic enough for the Greeks so most of their artwork follows the ideals of humanism. Artists would break off the extra material that would remain after the statue was fully sculpted. To further the realistic look of the Aphrodite sculpture the artist, who is unknown at this time, detailed the curves of her body. You can view the lines of her stomach and breasts which are simple and uncomplicated and create an image that looks like a real woman.

Greeks continued with the ideas of humanism and realism even as their society aged and changed. Like many great societies before them Greeks hit a climactic point in their era that had people uneasy and artist evolving away from the artistic norms that had been practiced for years; this new era was known as the Hellenistic Period. The Sculpture of an Old Woman is an example of this radical change in art; still loyal to the idea of humanism this sculpture is not of a goddess or soldier, as many arts were based on before, it was of a normal average, everyday elder woman who could have simply been walking down the street.

Not only did the artist stray away from the norms of subject matter but they also stepped away from the expressionless simplistic art that had been around for centuries. The old woman sculpted was not in the traditional contro-postal pose instead she is hovered almost as if she is being weighed down by something or perhaps just the sad truth of aging when your body is no longer as strong as it once was. Her face, which is not almost completely fallen off from the statue, may have been in some sort of realistic expression, as opposed to the Aphrodite sculpture.

I can imagine her face being in pain or perhaps sadness; I came to that conclusion based on the body language of the art. She is hovered strained from a lifetime of work and deteriorating from signs of age, similarly to Greece at the time. Like many of its time the sculpture can be seen as a metaphor for what the Greeks were going through during the Hellenistic period. No longer was the empire in control and in power instead Greece was now falling due to the Roman Empire.

The people and cities within Greece were now in chaos because the extravagant lifestyle they had grown accustomed to was being torn away more and more as each day passed. Both pieces of art were originally sculpted during the Greek period but the images that now remain were actually sculpted during the Roman era, making both pieces remakes of original pieces. Similarly, both pieces were also made out of marble, as it is a resource that is of great quantity in that area of Europe.

They are also lifelike statues not overbearingly tall nor extremely short each does fall upon approximately 5 feet or so. Although both pieces are not equally dedications to higher beings the Sculpture of the Old Woman has artifacts sculpted within it that can be attributed to the idea that the old woman is making offerings to a higher being in order to help her through difficult times. It is most interesting to see how the current events of ones lifetimes can affect the art that is made.

Most people believe that the only way to tell these stories is through books and other forms of writing. Personally it is more amazing to see how creative an artistic can get to convey a message from a visual aspect rather than clearly writing what the art was based on. Looking at both sculptures side to side I could not help but to feel for the people living during these times, going from a peaceful and prospering power to having everything torn away and having to live through the chaos.

Comparative Analysis of Art Essay

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