How Does the Author use Pathetic Fallacy Essay

How Does the Author use Pathetic Fallacy Essay.

Doyle uses the word “clutches” to imply to the reader that the moor has humanistic or at least animalistic qualities, such as the ability to consciously hurt or kill. As the moor itself is now a killer, the reader will learn to fear the moor as if it were another evil character as well as fearing the events that take place on it. Adjectives make the moor appear in the reader’s head, so that they themselves can take their own personal look at this chilling place.

Many believe that Doyle’s use of language makes the reader use their imagination to such an extent that it creates a powerful image that would be very similar to that of any other reader. Such descriptive words make the story seem just that little bit more realistic and believable, i. e. “”What is that? ” A long, low moan, indescribably sad, swept over the moor. It filled the whole air, and yet it was impossible to say whence it came.

From a dull murmur it swelled into a deep roar, and then sank back into a melancholy, throbbing murmur once again. Stapleton looked at me with a curious expression in his face. ” Instead of Doyle saying, ” a sound came across the moor” he uses such words as “indescribably sad”, “swept over”, “dull murmur”, “swelled” and “melancholy” to add to the intensity of the story and to make the reader picture each part of the account clearly and precisely. “…

A maze of fantastic tracery in wrought iron, with weather- bitten pillars on either side, blotched with lichens, and summounted by the boars’ heads of the Baskervilles. The lodge was a ruin of black granite and bared ribs of rafters, but facing it was a new building, half constructed” This is a short extract from chapter six, it is a just the beginning of a very long and detailed description of the appearance and the emotions that come across the visitors when seeing Baskerville Hall late at night, when it is dark and dreary.

The Hall is so large and aged it could be said to look rather unwelcoming even on the nicest of days, but on a day like when Watson, Sherlock’s accomplice approached it for the first time Doyle describes the weather as less than hospitable; “… The chilling wind, and the darkling sky. ” At every opportunity possible Doyle reminds the reader about the harsh and bitter conditions, which pollute the moor. Weather often and usually does effect emotion, people associate warm sunny days with fun and laughter and connect cold, dull times like such of the moor with gloom and even fear.

This is the effect that certainly takes place in this story. Doyle puts the impressive, gruesome storyline and the weather into an unbeatable partnership; these two in themselves scary attributes duel up to send a shiver down even the bravest of reader’s spine not to mention my own. There is a big change in the thoughts of Watson from when he is in London to the moment that he sees and enters the bleakness of Darkmoor for himself.

Hearing the tale of the hounds in London, Watson immediately comes to the sane conclusion that this account is no more than fiction and that there will be a perfectly rational explanation for all the queer goings on which have taken place. They don’t think twice about it having anything to do with curses or that of the supernatural because that would not be seen to be the thinking of such educated men as Holmes and Watson. But as soon as Watson experiences the callous conditions of Darkmoor for himself he soon starts to believe that this is a place where nightmares and doings of evil could quite easily occur.

“The rattle of our wheels died away as we drove through drifts of rotting vegetation – sad gifts, as it seems to me, for nature to throw before the carriage of the returning heir of the Baskervilles. ” In this quote Doyle intentionally uses such words as “died” and “rotting” to almost unconsciously implant death into the reader’s mind, setting the scene for a horrific event ahead. Some of the settings are used to link to and provide insight into characters, action and themes, i. e.

how the convict and the moor share many characteristics; these include danger, mystery, evil and how they are both misunderstood. If a reader were to pick up this book and start reading in the middle of a page it would be difficult without reading into too much depth to know if he was talking about the moor or the convict. This helps the reader understand not just the convict but also the moor more clearly and also provides as likable relationship between the two especially seeing as the convict has to make the moor his home and learn to survive along side it.

The convict is not the only personality in this novel to have the characteristics of someone with a sinister mind. There is Stapleton, how in the end is revealed as the murderer, this man is freakily at home in the moor, which is somewhat unusual seeing how inhospitable it really is. This cold, callous man is somewhat devious and extremely mysterious, leaving most of his past well and truly in the past until it is cleverly uncovered by the excellence of Sherlock Holmes.

This all relates to the moor, the moor is described as a very dangerous, daunting and deep place, this builds up suspense and atmosphere for the reader. It also seems that the moor has hidden secrets and depth of within the sinister, looming past. To conclude this is a very successful novel, and has become a classic murder mystery book. Doyle has wrote a long line of top selling books using many of the same methods to keep the reader engaged in the storyline.

How Does the Author use Pathetic Fallacy Essay

Centred Counselling in Action by Dave Mearns Essay

Centred Counselling in Action by Dave Mearns Essay.

Using the person centred approach, it is the counsellor’s ob to help the client connect with their own inner resources enabling them to find their own unique solutions. In this book the authors undertake to explain the theories and principles of person centred counselling by relating them to actual practice. The book is intended as a practical and comprehensive guide for trainee counsellors, those training them and also for established counsellors wishing to familiarise themselves with the person centred approach to counselling.

Coming from the standpoint of someone Just starting out as a trainee counsellor, the writer as first attracted by the short, snappy title of ‘Person Centred Counselling in Action’. The word ‘action’ hints that the work will not be a dry, difficult to read book concentrating only on the theoretical side of things but the reader will actually get to see how the process works in practice. In this regard, the book did not disappoint. -2- The main body of the book explores in some depth, the conditions (known as the core conditions) of empathy, acceptance and congruence, which are essential to the practice of the person- centred counsellor.

The final three chapters draw on one articular case study showing how the core conditions are used in practice. These final chapters look at the experience from both the counsellor’s and the client’s point of view. The writer found the contents of the book to be written in a logical fashion and in the main uses straight forward language. The writer felt that the down to earth style of writing and avoidance of Jargon made the book more accessible than some others of the same genre.

Also very helpful is that as new concepts are introduced, examples of the concept being discussed are highlighted in boxes throughout the text. This helped to reinforce the writer’s understanding of ideas that are unfamiliar to her at this stage of her learning. One of the main themes of the book is an in-depth exploration of the three elements that make up what is referred to in person centred literature, as the ‘core conditions’. In the first chapter the book clearly states what these are as follows: “The creation of a growth producing climate in a therapeutic relationship requires That the counsellor can: 1. e genuine or congruent 2. otter unconditional positive regard and total acceptance -3- 3. feel and communicate a deep empathic understanding” While this statement is useful for clarity it is obvious on reading further that these conditions are not easily attained. They take commitment on the part of the counsellor to develop and maintain these attitudes and are so significant, say the authors, that not only do they have profound implications for the counsellor’s professional practice but also for the counsellor’s life as a whole.

This thought makes the writer pause and reflect on how powerful the core conditions are and the words ‘life changing’ spring unbidden to mind. Although in practice, the core conditions are nextricably linked, for the purposes of this review the writer has chosen to focus on the books exploration of acceptance or ‘unconditional positive regard’. The authors speak of unconditional positive regard as being an attitude held by the counsellor and give the following clear definition: “Unconditional positive regard is the label given to the fundamental attitude of the person-centred counsellor towards her client.

The counsellor who holds this attitude deeply values the humanity of her client and is not deflected in that valuing by any particular client behaviours. The attitude manifests itself in the counsellor’s onsistent acceptance of and enduring warmth towards her client”. It struck the writer that although this attitude of unconditional positive regard can be viewed as highly commendable, it may also in practice, be difficult to attain. The writer agrees with the -4_ authors’ opinion that unconditionality cannot be guaranteed due to each counsellor being fallible, human and having personal limits.

The writer however questions the authors’ statement that ” the person centred counsellor is likely to be ‘less conditional’ than most other people with whom the client will relate”. The writer feels hat this is a sweeping generalisation of clients’ relationships and may not be true. That said, the writer believes that the attitude of unconditional positive regard is one that every counsellor, irrespective of tradition, should actively seek to develop and maintain.

The authors pose the question “Why is unconditional positive regard important? ” In answer to this question a picture is drawn of a client who has been brought up to believe that it is only by meeting conditions imposed on them by significant others that they have any value. By consistently having an attitude of nconditional positive regard and by valuing the client in their own right, irrespective of conditions imposed by others, the counsellor is directly challenging the client’s long held beliefs about their self- worth.

The authors describe the client as being in a negative, self-defeating cycle, not expecting to be valued and relate to others by being self-protective or defensive. They may well be displaying behaviours that drive others away such as being inappropriately aggressive, not showing any feelings or perhaps withdrawing from any demanding social contact. In driving others away, the lient’s belief that he is unworthy or unlovable is reinforced. The authors explain that by having an attitude of unconditional positive regard, the counsellor can gradually break into the client’s self- defeating cycle.

Once the cycle is broken, the client -5- no longer needs to be defensive towards the counsellor. His fear reduces and an environment of trust and safety is created where the client feels able to explore what troubles him. The authors claim that not only will the client have been influenced to question conditions ot worth imposed on him and been helped to become less efensive but that somehow the client will begin to experience the counsellor’s attitude for himself and begin the Journey towards self-acceptance.

The writer, though inexperience, agrees with the writers’ view that the counsellor’s attitude of unconditional positive regard can eventually have dramatic positive effects for the client. The writer also takes on board the authors’ advice to bear this dramatic effect in mind, early in the therapeutic process when the client can display a number of difficult, off-putting behaviours. There was some discussion by the authors about ‘defensive’ clients. They give examples of three clients with very different problems.

Mary an unkempt 45 year old lady with poor personal hygiene who is filled with self- loathing; Roger a hard-nosed 35 year old, cut-throat business man who blames his wife for all their marital problems and James a suspicious, angry 18 year old who used most of his first counselling session to verbally abuse the counsellor. It later became clear that the three clients had four things in common: 1. They all had a deep sadness, 2. Felt intensely unloved, 3. Did not love themselves and 4.

Were all extremely vulnerable. The authors note that although the clients behaviours were ery different their defensiveness was acting as a shield which repelled others and hid what kind of people they really were. The -6- authors advise that unconditional positive regard means that the counsellor should not be put off by these behaviours but should continue to value the worth of the client and eventually earn the right to be given access to what lies behind the shield.

The writer can imagine that it could sometimes be difficult for the counsellor to accept their client. The authors examine this problem in some depth and also give practical steps for the counsellor to take when confronted with this situation. They advise the conscious use of empathy which helps the counsellor to focus more on the client and less on her own negative feelings towards the client. Using empathy can also encourage the client to open up more and cause the counsellor to question her earlier Judgement.

The authors also suggest that it would be beneficial for the counsellor to explore the matter more fully in supervision. The dislike belongs to the counsellor, say the authors and is therefore her responsibility to deal with it and not blame the client for her feelings. In the chapter on unconditional positive regard, the uthors go onto discuss in some depth other matters worthy of consideration and study such as ‘Can the Client Accept My Acceptance? ‘Focus on Warmth’, ‘Focus on Conditionality and ‘Accepting the Client who loves you’. Unfortunately time does not allow the writer to discuss these topics any further. The writer found the whole book very engaging and informative and would recommend the newer edition to anyone wanting to learn more about person-centred counselling. Its ‘hands on’ style is very readable and gives many useful examples of the process in action. In conclusion, it ‘does what it says on the tin’! (word count 1 ,565)

Centred Counselling in Action by Dave Mearns Essay

The Importance of Referencing in Academic Writing Essay

The Importance of Referencing in Academic Writing Essay.

Academic writing is presenting ideas and introducing other voices in their discussion or an argument. Referencing refers to enhancing academic writing and helping readers in many ways. While referencing plays a key role in academic integrity and literacy, students find it very difficult to do referencing. This is because they are not familiar with academic conventions and norms. This essay will discuss the four reasons why referencing is important in academic writing. The first reason is to trace the origin of ideas and identify the original work that is referred to writing paper.

A further reason is to spread knowledge by reading different resources. Also, it opens a new window of knowledge to the writer to identify resources related to academic writing paper and to the readers when they follow the referencing list so they can have many different resources to read too. Another reason for the importance of referencing is to indicate appreciation to the work of the writers or authors by introducing their work.

A final reason is related to avoid plagiarism. The key reason for the importance of referencing in academic writing is related to tracing the originality of ideas.

Why Readers Should Know About Used Sources

Readers would feel comfortable when they identify the original work. It will be clear to readers from which resources the evidence is taken from. The link of the resource can show author name, the type of resources such as books, textbooks or journal articles. It gives a page number and the year of publication. Furthermore, tracing the original work also makes a link between previous studies and the writer ideas without changing the researchers’ ideas. Thus, it can be enabled by direct quotation or paraphrasing the original work.

However, to trace the original work, referencing has to be in an appropriate citation where the reader can locate the original work without complications. Referencing shows an important part in locating and placing ideas as well as arguments in writers’ social, geographical, historical and cultural contexts (Neville, 2007). In paraphrasing, the writer has to cite from whom the main idea been introduced so it becomes clear to readers to know this evidence. However, it is important for writers to know when they can provide the original text in their context.

It will lead to unsuitable textual extracting if writers are not aware of forms considering suitable source to use or their language skills are not good to paraphrase texts from sources conveniently, especially within a specific time limits (Weigle & Keisha, 2012). Another reason for the importance of referencing is to do with spreading knowledge of information. This knowledge can be summarized from a wide range of reading through different resources. It can inform readers and allows them to have a different perspective in the paper.

Reading many journal articles can help to find many resources by the list of references and bibliography at the end of these journal articles. This list of references and bibliography can provide other resources related to the subject. Thus, can show a huge knowledge as each source can lead to new resource and information (Neville, 2007). Reading is not the only resource that can improve the writer’s knowledge. Exploring the internet and watching a different type of videos related to research also can give more knowledge about presented ideas.

How Referencing Helps to Share Knowledge

There are several language abilities like vocabulary knowledge are associated with reading, listening and writing. These abilities provide ways of communication related to English vocabulary the writer can use in academic writing (Cumming, 2013). All types of communication play a strong role of knowledge. Discussing the subject with colleagues, relatives or friends is considered as a way of communication and it provides exchange of information as well as reading or listening. Referencing is an important way to spread the knowledge and show various ideas. Moreover, it strongly support the writer claims.

To prove the knowledge that has been introduced in the discussion or an argument, referencing is the important factor that supports the evidence. Furthermore, referencing gives credibility to the information that has been presented as well as to build personal voice in an argument. Because of the lack of knowledge and feeble experience, university students need to read more and expand their reading to have a strong background of information to help them to spread their knowledge in assignments. An additional reason for the importance of referencing is that it helps a writer to validate his claim, showing appreciation for the author.

Reading from various ranges of resources is an important way to present knowledge. However, including the author or researcher ideas in research paper is another important way to support a discussion or an argument. More importantly, citing the author name in the paper gives credibility to the work and introduces other voices that support the writer ideas. It is about showing respect and courtesy to the authors and honoring the work that has been done hardly (Neville, 2007). Readers appreciate the perfect work that has academic structure. They need to know where these evidences come from and to whom these ideas belong to.

Citing the author name and year of publication in the academic writing gives significance to the author. In a reference list, introducing a link for author information gives credibility to the author and shows appreciation. Thus, it is very important to present a reference list. In some academic writing, it is better to show bibliography as well as the reference list. Bibliography is similar to referencing. Referencing indicates more appreciation to the author which is included in the context. However, bibliography gives an opportunity for readers to show appreciation about the research paper when they give their feedback or comments.

Mentioning Author’s Name Helps Supporting the Idea

Including the author name in a reference list gives weight to the point or idea. “For example, the point that acupuncture is beneficial for chronic back pain supported by NICE guidelines is more credible than this fact supported by an acupuncture organization” (Wright & Ferns, 2010) A final reason for the importance of referencing is associated with avoiding plagiarism. Plagiarism is an act of using authors’ language, ideas or thoughts without authorization and presenting them as one’s own and not crediting them to the original author.

In Britain, universities defined plagiarism as “one of a number of practices deemed by universities to constitute cheating, or in university-speak: ‘a lack of academic integrity’ ” (Neville, 2007). Many things can be identified as plagiarised work. There are many examples that show which work can be considered as plagiarized work, copying someone else’s work and placing it as one work; Submitting the same or similar work in an assignment can gain more academic credit. Authors or institutions usually own this piece of work.

These institutions can be universities which the work can be part of course written, a publisher which makes the work as part of a book or a journal article, a corporate firm that included in their research or activities or an internet site where visual pages are related (Bretag, Crossman & Bordia, 2009). There are many ways to avoid plagiarism. One of these ways is summarizing or paraphrasing a person work and cite them in the context (Neville, 2007). The other way is a direct quotation which involves copying the exact words and introduces them in the context, but they need to be in a quotation form.

Referencing Helps Avoid Plagiarism

However, referencing can secure the work when it is presented according to academic writing structure. Learning the structure of academic writing helps to avoid plagiarism. Many universities introduce workshop classes or academic writing classes so that students can learn the effective way of referencing. This will help them to avoid plagiarism or being accused of plagiarism. Accordingly, students need to learn the different style of referencing and how to apply their work according to structure. They also need to seek a teacher or an advice after they completed their work.

Thus, it will improve a student’s ability of presenting perfect referencing as well as helping their work of not being plagiarised.


In conclusion, this essay has discussed four reasons for the importance of referencing.

  1. Referencing helps readers to allocate the resources and know the difference between the writer and author ideas. It promotes writers to present an excellent academic writing. These reasons are, tracing the original ideas and refer them to the ideas presented in the paper.
  2. The second reason is to spread knowledge in a discussion or an argument. This knowledge applies when the writer shows a wide range of information and introduces them to the work. Readers can notice the knowledge that has been experienced in the work when they find various in text referencing.
  3. The third reason for the importance of referencing is indicating an appreciation for the author which can be shown by citing their names, the year of publication into the work. It gives credibility to the writer as well as shows the significance of the author.
  4. The final reason for the importance of referencing is to avoid plagiarism. There are many ways of avoiding plagiarism.

However, referencing is a very important way to avoid the issue. If students are aware of the importance, they can be a better performer in academic environment.

Reference List

  • Bretag, T. , Crossman, J., & Bordia, S. (2009). Communication skills. (Revised ed., pp. 70-71).
  • Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia pty limited. Cumming, A. (2013). Assessing integrated writing tasks for academic purposes: Promises and perils. Language Assessment Quarterly, 10(1), 1–8. doi: 10. 1080/15434303. 2011. 622016
  • Neville, C. (2007). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism.
  • New York: Open University Press Educational and Professional Book Publishers. Plagiarism. (n. d.). Unabridged. Retrieved September 22, 2013, from website:
  • Weigle, S. C., & Keisha, P. (2012). Source text borrowing in an integrated reading/writing assessment. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(2), 118–133. Doi: 10. 1016/j. jslw. 2012. 03. 004
  • Wright, K., & Ferns, T. (2010). Simple writing skills for students, part two: researching your subject. British Journal of Nursing, 19(17), 1118-1120.

The Importance of Referencing in Academic Writing Essay