Psychotherapy and Biological Basis:

Psychotherapy and Biological Basis:

Psychotherapy primarily involves psychological interventions to address mental health concerns. While it doesn’t have a direct biological basis like medication does, it can lead to biological changes in the brain. Neuroplasticity, the brain’s ability to rewire itself, suggests that psychological interventions can change neural pathways, leading to improved mental health. This is evident in studies showing changes in brain activity and connectivity following psychotherapy. However, psychotherapy’s biological effects are complex and interact with various factors, including individual differences and the nature of the therapy.

Influence of Culture, Religion, and Socioeconomics:

Cultural, religious, and socioeconomic factors significantly influence perspectives on psychotherapy. Some cultures and religions may emphasize communal support and spiritual guidance over individual therapy. Socioeconomic factors like access to mental health services and affordability also impact one’s perception of the value of psychotherapy. Cultural competence and sensitivity are essential for therapists to understand and respect clients’ beliefs and contexts.

Legal and Ethical Considerations for Different Therapies:

Legal and ethical considerations for therapy differ based on the context. In individual therapy, confidentiality and informed consent are key. Group therapy introduces factors such as group dynamics, maintaining confidentiality among group members, and ensuring the therapist’s ability to manage potential conflicts. Family therapy involves multiple participants, requiring the therapist to navigate complex family dynamics while maintaining a safe and respectful environment.

Impact on Therapeutic Approaches:

The differences in legal and ethical considerations shape therapeutic approaches. In individual therapy, the focus is on the individual’s needs and goals, while in group therapy, the therapist manages group interactions and fosters a supportive environment. Family therapy necessitates a systemic approach, addressing family dynamics and communication patterns.

As for the peer-reviewed sources, I can’t directly access external databases or attach PDFs, but I can guide you on how to find relevant articles. You might search reputable academic databases such as PubMed, PsycINFO, or Google Scholar. Look for articles published in the last five years that address the topics you mentioned. Ensure the sources are published in reputable journals and authored by experts in the field.

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How do you relate to the quote in your role as a school counselor leader in improving student achievement?

How do you relate to the quote in your role as a school counselor leader in improving student achievement?

This quote means a lot to me because in the view of the bigger picture, we can be good leaders right off the back as school counselors. But, we won’t be truly great until we have experience. Experience can come through either years and years of being a school counselor or by going through hardships throughout the beginning years of being a school counselor. In my opinion it is both. Through trials in the beginning, middle or towards the end of your school counselor career you will gain experience and by gaining that experience, you’d be able to improve your students academic, social or emotional achievement. As the years go by you are always learning and teaching yourself new ways to communicate and new ways to assist your students more efficiently. Even if you aren’t in school anymore, you are always learning how to gain more knowledge to help your students. Being able to lead by example and ensuring your students success by being consistent with them. Holding your students accountable on deadlines and assignments. Hatch & Hardline (2022) stated that “Metaphorically, imagine the context as preparing soil for grass seed. If a homeowner wants the outcome of a beautiful lawn, throwing grass seed on dry soil will not provide the result they are looking for. However, if the soil is tilled and fertilized, and a watering system is installed, the seed is more likely to flourish and produce the desired outcome of a beautiful lawn. In other words, a suitable context is necessary to develop the mechanism”. It takes time to develop leadership skills to the point where you can ensure the academic, social and emotional achievement fro our students are successful. 

I feel that being a good leader is to go through your hardships of learning your position and learning every in and out of the job so that way you are able to assist your students the best way that you can. Sometimes that happens through experience and sometimes it happens by reading everything pertaining school counseling. There is no perfect way to becoming a great leader, but as long as your strive to help your students and advocate for them no matter what, you are becoming a phenomenal leader that they can look up to. 

What are some suggesting ways to open communication for input from various stakeholders?

Some ways to opening communication for input from various stakeholders are through the schools social media website. The schools social media website is one of the best ways to communicate with the school counselors due to the fact that we are able to talk to the students, parents and other staff members through the website. You can communicate through email or via messages from the website. Bright Future Counseling has some pretty good ways that we can collaborate with our stakeholders and those are “Train and teach: Don’t assume teachers have the same SEL training you do… but they probably wish they did! Organize workshops or lead casual PD where you can share the latest SEL trends, Over communicate: Parents like to be in the loop when it comes to their child’s wellbeing. Set up systems so they can get progress updates (without making you feel overwhelmed)!, Suggest alternatives to discipline: Like teachers, your admin likely didn’t get the same SEL training you did. Share current research such as restorative practices to get them on board, Build rapport – Carve out time in the first few sessions to solely focus on building rapport. This shows your kiddos you care about them. Think ice breakers like genograms, about me games, jenga, etc.”. These are different ways that we are able to talk to every one of our stakeholders and ways that we are able to ensure the improvement in everyones achievement. 


Hatch, T., & Hartline, J. (2021). The Use of Data in School Counseling (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. (US). to an external site.

How School Counselors can Collaborate with Stakeholders. (2021, December 29). Bright Futures Counseling.

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Exposition Of The Methodology

Assignment Content

  1. Competency
    Evaluate the importance of data analysis.

    Student Success Criteria
    View the grading rubric for this deliverable by selecting the “This item is graded with a rubric” link, which is located in the Details & Information pane.

  2. A – 4 – Mastery

Clear and thorough explanation of research methodology, strategy, and purpose for the selected research question. Incorporated substantial research to justify these choices.

0B – 3 – Proficiency

Thoughtful explanation of research methodology, strategy, and purpose for the selected research question. Incorporated moderate research to justify these choices.

0C – 2 – Competence

Basic explanation of research methodology, strategy, and purpose for the selected research question. Incorporated some research to justify these choices.

0F – 1 – No Pass

There is insufficient explanation of the research methodology, strategy, and purpose for the selected research question. Or missing one or more of the above elements.

0I – 0 – Not Submitted

Not submitted
As discussed in module 04, the primary functions of a research methodology section are for the researcher to justify how a study will be conducted and provide sufficient detail to prove the credibility and reliability of the data. Remember that the methodology section should be a recipe of sorts, which would enable others to replicate the steps and resources used in your proposed study. With that analogy in mind, take care to explain each step and not omit any ingredients. In this assignment, you are to detail the methodology for your research proposal, explaining each step for how you intend to collect, analyze, and interpret data to answer your research question.

Your methodology section will be about six to eight pages, not including the title and reference pages.

  • Defend a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method strategy, using external sources to justify the choice.
  • Detail the steps that will need to be followed for that strategy and what will need to be considered.
  • Explain the plan for collecting data:
  • What type(s) of data will be collected, and how much?
  • Where will you get the data?
  • Describe how the data will be analyzed and interpreted.
  • Discuss the ethical issues that may arise during the research study and how these will be managed.
  • NOTE – Be sure the documents are in APA format (including title page, font, and headings) and contain proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure.

  • Understanding Research Methods: An Overview of the Essentials
  • Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques

2Questions separate paper for the answer, It relates to this assignment

1)  which big questions about this competency remain for you?

2)  How do you think this competency may connect to others in this course?  

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Individual Case Analysis Instructions

Individual Case Analysis Instructions
We will read and analyze several case studies throughout the course, where you will be
required to prepare a case write-up. The purpose of a case write-up is to elicit and assess your
ability to understand complex business issues, analyze data, exercise professional and ethical
judgment, and develop conclusions and recommendations. This write-up should be two to three
pages long (1.5 space, 12-font, with one-inch margins; not including cover page, tables,
exhibits, or figures). The write-up should provide answers to the case questions, and they should
be written as if they would be presented to the top management team of the organization being
You should first carefully read the case text in order to frame the context and “make your case” to
be defended in your write-up. Remember that there is no unique solution for any case, but rather
a set of alternative analyses and courses of action. The actual course of action taken by the case
protagonist does not constitute the “right answer” and might actually be a “suboptimal” solution.
What matters for this exercise is how you would have decided if you were the case, protagonist.
Here are some general guidelines:

  • Your analysis should only be supported by facts in the text. Please do not look up the case
    on the internet. You will only use the information in the case text to make your arguments
    unless otherwise noted.
  • Use your experience and knowledge to make sense of existing facts. The mixture of your
    perceptions and objective data will make your arguments stronger.
  • Use concepts drawn from this and other courses to make sense of the data and facts.
  • Consider the pros and cons of your recommended course of action, when applicable.
    Students are expected to apply the statistical tools we discuss in the course. The Excel spreadsheet
    with all the analysis should be uploaded along with the write-up.
    In the main document, students should report tables and charts built from the data in order to
    support the arguments made in the case analysis. Analysis not supported directly or
    indirectly by the data or facts of the case will not be considered.

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Group: Term Group Case Study

  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control:

Part 1: Introduction:

  • Executive Summary

Part 2: Report on and examine the program according to the following:

  • How does the issue (disease or unhealthy habit) affect populations in the United States?
  • What interventions work best to prevent and control the issue?
  • What funding is available to use interventions that work?
  • What types of education are available to help all Americans understand the risk factors and how to reduce them?

Part 3: Evaluate the program

  1. Discuss what YOU think is the best way to evaluate the program
  2. What factors must be considered in choosing an evaluation design for this intervention?

Part 4: Conclusion: how would you recommend implementing the program? Provide evidence for your recommendations.  Consider the following:

  1. Where should the program be implemented and why?
  2. Should there be a targeted population demographic?
  3. What should the actual implementation process be?
  • This assignment should be 7 pages MAX (excluding Title and Reference Page). The assignment should be typed and submitted on a Word Document in APA format: size 12 font Times New Roman, normal margins (1 inch all around), double spaced. A minimum of three (3) references are required in proper APA format (in addition to the course text). References should come from a peer-reviewed journal article, course textbook, and or an Internet source (.org, .edu, gov, etc)

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Child Development Discussion

Child Development Discussion

Child development is a fascinating field that studies the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that occur in children from infancy through adolescence. Researchers in this area aim to understand the various factors influencing a child’s growth and development. Key theories in child development include those proposed by Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Lev Vygotsky.

Physical development involves changes in a child’s body and motor skills, such as learning to walk and run. Cognitive development pertains to the intellectual abilities and mental processes a child acquires, like problem-solving and language development. Emotional development involves understanding and managing emotions, while social development focuses on how children interact with others and form relationships.

Studying child development is crucial as it provides valuable insights for parents, educators, and policymakers. It helps us create supportive environments that foster healthy growth and address any developmental challenges that may arise. Researchers also explore the impact of family dynamics, cultural influences, and early experiences on a child’s development.


Attachment styles in infancy and early childhood.

Attachment theory, developed by John Bowlby, is a prominent framework that explores the emotional bonds formed between infants and their primary caregivers during infancy and early childhood. These attachment styles have a significant impact on a child’s social and emotional development throughout their life.

There are four main attachment styles observed in infants and young children:

  1. Secure Attachment: Children with secure attachments feel safe and confident when their caregiver is present. They use the caregiver as a secure base to explore their environment and seek comfort and support when needed. Caregivers are consistently responsive and sensitive to the child’s needs, fostering a strong and trusting bond.
  2. Anxious-Avoidant Attachment: When distressed, children with anxious-avoidant attachment tend to avoid or ignore their caregiver. They may appear independent and may not seek comfort from their caregiver. Caregivers of children with this attachment style may be less emotionally available, leading the child to suppress their emotional needs.
  3. Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment: Children with anxious-ambivalent attachment often appear clingy and anxious, even when the caregiver is present. They may be inconsistent in exploring the environment and may have difficulty calming down even when their caregiver offers comfort. Caregivers of children with this attachment style might be unpredictable in their responsiveness, leading the child to be uncertain about receiving support.
  4. Disorganized Attachment: Disorganized attachment is a less common attachment style characterized by conflicting behaviors, such as approaching the caregiver while looking fearful or freezing when the caregiver is present. This attachment style often results from inconsistent or abusive caregiving, leading to confusion and insecurity in the child.

These attachment styles are established early in life and can influence the child’s emotional regulation, social interactions, and future relationships. Understanding attachment styles can help caregivers, educators, and therapists provide appropriate support and interventions to promote healthy emotional development in children.

If you need more specific information or have any other academic questions, please feel free to ask. I’m here to assist you in a human tone with professional language.

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Discussion Conversation

Reading Provocations

In addition to the assigned readings ( Argent et al., Richard; Vecchi ), choose at least  one of these two readings for the group discussions:

· Hamilton, A., Jin, Y., & Krieg, S. (2019). Early childhood arts curriculum: A cross-cultural study.  Journal of Curriculum Studies,  51(5), 698-714.

· Isenberg, J. P. & Jalongo, M. R. (2010).  Assessing the creative processes and products of childrenLinks to an external site.  (Ch. 10.), pp.351-377, In:  Creative thinking and arts-based learning: preschool through fourth grade N.J.: Merrill.

Reflection Questions

The following questions or prompts should guide your reflection post:

· As in previous modules, select a few clips to observe. Make sure that you identify each clip when going over your conversations and in the text of the reflective post.

· This time your narrative will have two parts:

· One, a brief narrative of the clip(s) selected where you describe what you see in the clip

· Two, a set of short pedagogical narrations and interpretations, about the expression for the child/children you have observed, adding final reflections in connection to at least one of the discussion readings.

· Remember to add the references.

Part 2: Discussion Conversation

Part 2 consists of responses and comments to others in your class. Make sure to draw upon the ideas presented in the video clip(s) and reading provocations. For all of you, reading Argent et al’s reflections about possibilities of poetic documentation using videorecordings, and also, for those who chose Vecchi’s reading, the following video titled  “Choreographies of Practice:  MutualitiesLinks to an external site.  and Sympoetic Becomings in Early Childhood Teacher Education”  may invite you to challenge, perhaps, some of the long-held assumptions about the role of the early childhood educator in facilitating a space for open thought, creation, and expression.

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Analyze an Inclusive Children’s Book

Discussion 3 Analyze an Inclusive Children’s Book

Instructions: 1) Click on the following weblinks and review the information, paying particular attention to gender development (e.g., differences between gender identity and gender expression) and how children can be supported. To support children, adults need to have accurate knowledge of terminology, typical developmental processes for age groups, current policy, and knowledge regarding how to answer children’s questions.

Analyze an Inclusive Children’s Book

Gender Identity – Caring for kids from the Canadian Paediatric Society to an external site.

The Gender Spectrum to an external site.

Hidalgo, et al. (2013). The gender affirmation model: What we know and what we aim to learn.  Human Development, 56, 285 – 290. to an external site.

2) Choose one of the books from the list below. You can buy a children’s book or read it online. If you google the title of the children’s book, you can see links to videos of individuals reading the books, so you may not have to buy the book. You may wish to review more than one book before deciding on one for your discussion. Answer the following prompts. Please number each of your responses to the prompt, 1 – 3.

1. Describe the main theme of the book that you chose. What aspects of gender development does the book address?

2. In what ways does the book appear to support children’s gender development? Use and cite information from the above sources and Hidalgo et al.’s (2013) gender affirmation model to answer this part of the prompt. Put quotes with the author, year, and page number (Author, year, p. ) for information that is not paraphrased.

3. Describe other specific issues or concerns regarding support or self-acceptance that are not addressed in the book. Remember, these books are written for young children, not adults.

Children’s Books:

Love, J. (2018).  Julian is a mermaid. Somerville, MA: Candlewick Press. ISBN: 978-0763690458 (4 – 8 years) to an external site. 

Minimize Video

 Pearlman, R. (2018). Pink is for boys. Running Press Kids. ISBN: 978-0762462476 (4 – 7 years) Links to an external site. 

 Lukoff, K. (2019). When Aiden became a brother. Lee & Low Books. ISBN: 978-1620148372 (4 – 7 years) Links to an external site. 

 Moradian, A. (2018). Jamie is Jamie. Free Spirit Publishing. ISBN: 978-1631981395 (4 – 8 years) Links to an external site. 

 Finch, M. (2018). Phoenix goes to school. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN: 978-1631981395 (3 – 7 years) Links to an external site. 

 Thorn, T. (2019). It feels good to be yourself. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN: 978-1250302953 (4 – 8 years) Links to an external site. 

Anderson, A. (2018). Neither. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers ISBN:  978-0316547697 (4 – 7 years) Links to an external site. 

 Twiss, J. (2018). A day in the life of Marlon Bundo. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN: 978-1-4521-7380-1 (4 – 8 years) Links to an external site. 

Genhart, M. (2019). Rainbow: A first book of pride. Magination Press. ISBN: 978-1433830877 (3 – 5 years) Links to an external site. 

 Pessin-Whedbee, B. (2016). Who are you? The kid’s guide to gender identity. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN: 978-1785927287 (5 – 8 years) Links to an external site. 

 Hall, M. (2015). Red: A crayon’s story. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN: 978-1338106510 (4 – 8 years) Links to an external site. 

 Frances, L. (2019). My awesome brother. A children’s book about transgender acceptance. Mabel Media. ISBN: 978-0648367659 (4+ years)

 Frances, L. (2019). My awesome sister. A children’s book about transgender acceptance. Mabel Media. ISBN: 978-0648367673 (4+ years)

 Walton, J. (2016). Introducing Teddy. A gentle story about gender and friendship. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN: 978-1681192109 (3 – 6 years) Links to an external site. 

For this discussion post, be sure to respond to the prompt with a post of at least 300 words (15 points). Then, also respond to a classmate with a post of at least 150 words (5 points). (Short posts do not earn full credit). Posts that do not address the prompt do not earn full credit. If you are unsure how long your post is, the word count is displayed in the bottom right hand corner of the Message box.

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Choose an “essentialist” or “social constructionist” point of view.

Week 1


Essentialism is the belief that certain categories (e.g., psychological disorders) have a true nature that people cannot directly observe. Meanwhile, social constructionism states that cultures construct categories, such as psychological disorders.

Choose an “essentialist” or “social constructionist” point of view


Choose an “essentialist” or “social constructionist” point of view and write a reflection paper in which you explain and defend your concept of psychopathology. Assess the current research available to support your findings, providing examples where applicable.

Support your assignment with at least three scholarly resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including seminal articles, may be included.

Length: 2-3 pages, not including title and reference pages

Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to National University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

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Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 8 of Film: From Watching to Seeing, as well as your instructor’s guidance and lecture materials, and Chapter 7 from Film Genre Reader IV. The ENG225 Research GuideLinks to an external site. In the University of Arizona Global Campus Library will be particularly helpful in locating required sources. This assignment is your opportunity to apply the auteur theory to the work of one selected director. To do that, you will watch at least two feature-length films by the same director as the basis for your analysis and argument.

  • Choose a film from the Approved Films List Download Approved Films Listand identify that film’s director (e.g., Spike Lee, Do the Right Thing).
  • Choose another film directed by the same director (e.g., Spike Lee, BlacKkKlansman).
  • Watch your chosen films twice—once to ensure that you have grasped the storytelling and once more to more specifically note on how each film fulfills the criteria of auteur theory.

Note: If you would like to write about a director whose films are not listed, you must email your professor for approval in advance or you may not receive credit on this assignment. 


Think back to the film you chose in your Week 2 written assignment to see if the film’s director meets the criteria of auteur theory and look ahead to the Week 5 final paper guidelines to ensure that you choose films for this assignment that will work with the requirements on the final paper. You may opt to write about the same film in your Week 2 written assignment and Week 5 final paper, and applicable pieces of this assignment can be used to write both. If you do this, you should reflect on and revise this assignment based on your instructor’s feedback before incorporating it into future writing assignments.

Review the Week 3 Sample Paper Download Week 3 Sample Paper, which provides a clear guide for developing a solid analysis as well as insight on composition. For additional support, review the Summary vs. AnalysisLinks to an external site. resource. 


In your introductory paragraph,

  • Explain auteur theory in your own words and why this is a useful approach to the study of film.
  • Describe, using Chapter 8 of the text as a reference, the criteria for what makes a director an auteur.
  • Identify a director who meets the criteria posed by auteur theory.
  • Summarize briefly the ways in which this director meets the criteria using examples from at least two of the director’s films.
  • Develop a thesis statement that focuses on how your chosen director and their films meet the criteria posed by auteur theory and advances the possibilities of storytelling through the medium of film.

In the body of your paper (at least three paragraphs),

  • Apply the lens of auteur theory in breaking down the director’s technical competence, distinguishable personality, and interior meaning using specific examples of their work (e.g., particular scenes or plot components).
  • Analyze the specific ways in which filmmaking techniques, consistent themes, and storytelling distinguish your chosen director as an auteur among their peers.
  • Evaluate your chosen director’s ethos, that is what they have to say about complex social and cultural issues.

In the conclusion of your paper,

  • Connect each element of your analysis to show how your chosen director meets the three criteria of auteur theory and what this director’s body of work has to say about social and cultural issues.

The Directors and Auteur Theory paper

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